Punktförmige Zugbeeinflussung

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Indusi prototype on a steam locomotive in May 1930

PZB or Indusi is an intermittent cab signalling system and train protection system used in Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania, Israel and on one line in Canada.

Developed in Germany the historic short name Indusi was derived from German Induktive Zugsicherung ("inductive train protection"). Later generations of the system were named PZB highlighting that the PZB/Indusi system is a family of intermittent train control systems in comparison with the continuous train control systems including the German LZB (short from German Linienzugbeeinflussung, literally "linear train influencing") that was introduced at the time. The term PZB is short from German Punktförmige Zugbeeinflussung, literally "punctiform train influencing", translated as "intermittent train protection" or officially "intermittent automatic train running control"[1]

Originally Indusi provided warnings and enforced braking only if the warning was not acknowledged (similar to traditional automatic train stop). The later PZB systems provide more enforcement relying on a train computer.

Equipment[edit]

PZB inductor ("trackside antenna")
PZB onboard transmitter mounted on a tram

Locomotives and multiple unit cars with operating cabs are equipped with onboard transmitter coils with the superimposed frequencies 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz. Passive tuned inductors (RLC circuits) are situated at appropriate trackside locations; each inductor resonates at one of the three frequencies, depending on its location. When the leading end of the train passes over one of the trackside inductors, the inductor's presence is detected by the onboard equipment through a change in magnetic flux. This activates the appropriate onboard circuit and triggers whatever action is required based on the location (e.g., an audible/visual warning, enforced speed limit, or enforced stop).

The three frequencies have different meanings to the train:

1000 Hz
warning that the distant signal being passed shows "caution", drop of speed required. Driver has to confirm that he has seen the "caution" aspect by pressing a button; failure to do so within a few seconds results in a forced stop
500 Hz
immediate maximum speed (Vmax) as well as further drop of speed are enforced
2000 Hz
stop

The original Indusi protocol was placing a 2000 Hz inductor at every visual main signal that could show a red signal for an immediate stop. If the train driver overruns the red signal then an emergency stop is enforced unconditionally. The 1000 Hz inductor is a conditional restriction that is commonly placed at every distant signal that could show a yellow signal pointing to a following red signal - in the original Indusi protocol the train driver has to acknowledge the bell ring within 4 seconds or the train will be halted automatically. Based on the yellow signal the train driver is required to lower the speed to allow the overlap after the stop signal to be enough to halt the train safely. An Indusi system with a speed limiter (atleast since I60R) would enforce a maximum speed after a given time in that situation with the maximum speed depending on the type of train. The 500 Hz is commonly found near railway stations or shortly before a main signal - it activates a lower speed limit than the 1000 Hz inductor. Since the visual signals may switch off while the train is moving, i.e. no red signal anymore after crossing a yellow signal, the train driver can release the train from the enforced speed restrictions using a button allowing to accelerate to the free section ahead.

Operation[edit]

The details of operation have changed over time and the later PZB systems allow more granular speed restrictions. The basic part of the operation scheme (German "Betriebsprogramm") of the PZB90 protocol does still use the three inductor types as seen in the following picture. The diagram shows the speed (German "Geschwindigkeit" in km/h) in accordance with the braking distance (German "Bremsweg" in meter) before and after a main signal (placed at the 2000 Hz point). PZB 90 Betriebsprogramm.PNG

1000-Hz speed limiter[edit]

The 1000 Hz is active along with a yellow signal on a distant signal before a main signal, or on a main signal combined with a distant option for the following main signal, or it is active before a railroad crossing.

The train driver has to acknowledge the cab signaling within 4 seconds (2,5 seconds on trains with an MVB electronic bus) by hitting a button - this is called vigilance control (German "Wachsamkeitskontrolle"). Failing to do so will result in an emergency stop.

After acknowledging the warning signal the train has to stay below the braking curve (German "Bremskurve") - fast trains may travel up to 165 km/h and they must reduce the speed to below 85 km/h after 23 seconds. Note that the operation of high speed trains beyond 165 km/h is not based on visual wayside signals or PZB inductors (using LZB or ETCS cab-signalling instead in Germany).

The train can not be released from the speed restrictions within 700 m after the 1000 Hz activation. After that point the train driver may hit a release button (German "Freitaste"). In later generations the enforced speed limit was extended to 1250 m and the 700 m point is only relevant for the 500 Hz inductor.

The monitored speed (German "überwachte Geschwindigkeit") depends on the train type which is in direct relation to the mass and braking capability - the quotient of these is given in braking percent (in German "Bremshunderstel"). If the train speed drops below a switch speed (German "Umschaltgeschwindigkeit") the restricted mode is activated - this includes a constant maximum speed of 45 km/h up to the 500 Hz inductor which lowers the speed even further during the restricted speed control (German "restriktive Geschwindigkeitsüberwachung").

PZB-90-
train type
Brems-
hundertstel
maximum speed Vü1 restricted speed Vü2 switch speed Vum
O (higher) over 110 from 165 km/h to 85 km/h
within 23 s
constant 45 km/h constant 10 km/h
M (medium) 66 to 110 from 125 km/h to 70 km/h
within 29 s
constant 45 km/h constant 10 km/h
U (lower) below 66 from 105 km/h to 55 km/h
within 38 s
constant 45 km/h constant 10 km/h

500-Hz speed limiter[edit]

The 500 Hz inductor can be found shortly before a main signal which actives a speed control for next 250 m. This will extend the braking curve Vü1 from the 1000 Hz up to the main signal. The restricted mode after a 1000 Hz is followed by a braking curve Vü2 to reduce the speed up to the main signal. While the switch speed was at 10 km/h after the 1000 Hz speed limiter (reflecting a full stop of the train) it does now follow braking curve being again no more than 10 km/h at the position of the main signal. The actual braking curves depend again on the train type (which is based on the braking percent "Bremshunderstel" that the train driver has calculated).

PZB-90-
train type
maximum speed Vü1 restricted speed Vü2 switch speed Vum
O (higher) from 65 km/h to 45 km/h
within 153 m
from 45 km/h to 25 km/h
within 153 m
from 30 km/h to 10 km/h
within 153 m
M (medium) from 50 km/h to 35 km/h
within 153 m
constant 25 km/h constant 10 km/h
U (lower) from 40 km/h to 25 km/h
within 153 m
constant 25 km/h constant 10 km/h

2000-Hz emergency stop[edit]

PZB buttons - command ("Befehl"), release ("Frei"), vigilance ("Wachsam")

If a train overruns a red signal it will hit a 2000-Hz inductor that immediately activates an emergency stop. Based on the overlap after the stop signal the train can be safely halted. Because of the different mass and braking capability of each train this can only be asserted based on a given maximum speed that must be maintained at the point of the red signal.

A train driver may pass a red signal if it has been mandated by the station director, or it is being allowed by a replacement signal (German "Ersatzsignal") or a caution signal (German "Vorsichtsignal"). The train driver needs to push and hold the command button (German "Befehlstaste") while moving over the 2000 Hz inductor - while the button is pressed a constant audible warning (bell and speech) is raised and the use of the command button is registered on the train recorder. While using the command button the maximum speed of the train is limited to 40 km/h.

History[edit]

Experiments with magnetic induction for a train protection system can be traced back as early as 1908. All of the early prototypes did require track-side electricity supply which was not available however in the widespread mechanical interlocking stations. Parallel investigations did look at optical recognition equipment (German "Optische Zugsicherung" / OPSI) which was dumped however on the base of instability due to dirt and dust on the lenses.

Since 1931 the development concentrated on an inductive train protection system (INDUSI) that did not require electricity. In a parallel development Switzerland started to introduce the Integra-Signum system based on magnets since 1933 which is based on similar ideas. The Swiss system did not use a resonance frequency but a static magnetization which can only be detected as a signal when the train is moving fast enough. While the frequency induction is superior the German system did need to install frequency generators on the locomotive which has been a demanding endeavour at the time of steam engines being the predominant locomotive types. The Indusi system was deployed in Germany since 1934 and the system spread to Austria and countries of the historic Austro-Hungarian Empire which share a common root with Germany in terms of rail transport history during the German Customs Union.

Versions[edit]

The original Indusi system was deployed in Germany since 1934 - it was not called by that name however (using the full title "induktive Zugsicherung") and the shorthand "I 34" is a retrospective designation as well. The initial tests were only using a train stop function (the 2000 Hz signal in later revisions) - by the end of 1934 there were already 165 locomotives equipped with the Indusi detectors and 4500 km of track were secured with inductors. At the end of the war the system was not functional anymore and in 1944 the equipment of 870 locomotives and the Indusi signals on 6700 km of track were officially switched off.

During 1947 the Indusi resonators of the locomotives were re-enabled on a network of 1180 km of track. The Deutsche Bundesbahn started an effort to standardize the function of a modern Indusi system leading to the Indusi I 54 specification in 1954. This included a new frequency generator that did not require three motors but only a single transistor frequency generator with a downstream audio crossover to emit the three frequencies in parallel.

I 60[edit]

Minor improvements in the 1960s led to the Indusi I 60 system. When a 1000 Hz inductor was encountered, the driver had to acknowledge the caution signal within four seconds. Additionally, a countdown was started to check whether the train had slowed to a specified speed within a specified time frame. Depending on the type of train the locomotive was hauling, the system could be manually switched between three modes of operation: freight train, low speed and high speed passenger train. In each mode, the system calculated a different speed curve based on the maximum allowable speed and braking characteristics of the train.

The original I 60 system proved insufficient in a number of situation so that it saw multiple revisions that finally led to the revised standard I 60R.

I 60R[edit]

With the introduction of Linienzugbeeinflussung (LZB) by Deutsche Bundesbahn the locomotives were equipped with a microprocessor-based LZB/I 80 train protection system since 1980 which was able to pick up the Indusi signals. The experience with this system led to the development of the Indusi I 60R system that required microprocessors in all locomotives. Instead of checking certain speeds at certain points in time, the new system continuously checked a curve of speed against time. If the train was faster than the curve allowed, a stop could be enforced at any time.

PZ80[edit]

The PZ80 is a result of the German division and the enforcement of the inner German border since 1967. The East-German Deutsche Reichsbahn wanted to gain independence of the I 60 supply by the West-German Siemens manufacturer and later the Romanian I 60 Icret that was based on I 60. The East-German manufacturer Geräte- und Reglerwerk Teltow was advised to develop a native intermittent train control. The PZ80 supports all Indusi 60 modes enhanced with a number of new modes including speed control in steps of 10 km/h, continuous braking curves and a restrictive mode. After the German reunification in 1990 the upcoming PZB90 system was able to pick up on the experiences of the PZ80 system.

PZB90[edit]

PZB90 is a new version, deployed in the mid-1990s. It features a new restrictive mode as the result of two accidents. In both cases a train had stopped at a station as intended. Then the train accelerated again, despite the signal still showing red. When the train reached the exit signal, its speed was sufficient to crash into another train despite the automatic braking enforced by the 2000 Hz inductor.

The new restrictive mode limits speeds after a train stopped before reaching a red signal. Currently, trains are limited to 45 km/h when stopping after an active 1000 Hz inductor or to 25 km/h when stopping after an active 500 Hz inductor.

Software 1.6[edit]

The software update of PZB90 to version 1.6 had important changes to the braking curves: for most train types the target speed was lowered while allowing a longer time interval. This is a change on the old Indusi specification that had fixed intervals. The new software version can use uneven times - for example train type O must have 85 km/h after 23 seconds which had been previously specified as 95 km/h after 20 seconds. The new braking curves have been found by extensive simulation to get at a better tradeoff between security and efficiency so that train operation is optimized.

Another changes is bound to the alert functions - when a restrictive mode is extended by another 1000 Hz it does not activate the cab signal if a previous warning signal had been acknowledged. When starting from a halted position many restrictive modes could be released ("PZB frei" button) as they had been purely based on time - since version 1.6 the actual section length is controlled where the PZB restrictive mode can not be released. This led to some changes in railway stations with moving 1000 Hz inductors.

Software 2.0[edit]

The software update of PBZ90 to version 2.0 changed some corner cases of the train control - previously it had been possible to lift any restrictive mode by changing the speed to reverse and then forward. From that version on it is only the controlled section that enforced a speed restriction. Another change is a malfunction when the train had been halted directly over an inductor that could only be released by using the fault reset which however would also drop all speed restrictions from external signaling.

Usage by country[edit]

Germany[edit]

German EBO railway regulations requires PZB on all but very minor lines. Since 1998 all traction vehicles must be equipped with Indusi in Germany - before that it was possible for trains without a protection system to use PZB-enabled lines up to a speed of 100 km/h.[2] The change of allowance guidelines of the EBO did require about 800 vehicles from the former Deutsche Reichsbahn to be either retrofitted or scrapped.

Romania[edit]

An Indusi I-60 system identical to the German one is equipped on all standard-gauge railways in Romania. The Romanian rail regulator, AFER, requires all locomotives, EMUs and DMUs operating on public infrastructure to be equipped with Indusi systems.

Canada[edit]

In Ottawa, Canada, OC Transpo's O-Train uses Indusi controls on its German-built Talents.

Denmark[edit]

Indusi is also installed in 13 Danish IC3 flexliner trains used on the Copenhagen - Hamburg line.

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Indusi I-60 is installed on the Mecca Metro for train protection in manual(fall-back)mode.

Accidents[edit]

The Indusi system has been relatively safe; however there have been two accidents that led to the creation of the PZB90 restrictive mode. One is the Rüsselsheim train disaster of 2 February 1990 - an S-Bahn rapid transit train left the station at such a speed that the automatic train stop was not able to bring the train to a halt before the next switch where another train was just crossing over. Being fully packed during rush hour the accident resulted in 17 deaths and 145 severely wounded.

There had been at least one major accident with the PZB90 in place - on 26 June 2000 an S-Bahn train left Hannover-Langenhagen station for a single-track section with an oncoming train. The PZB halted the train but the driver released the train ("Freitaste") without double-checking with the train director. The investigative report notes that there had been 22 similar recorded occurrences until that time when a driver related the PZB halt to a different cause than having overrun a main signal - the report concludes that the operations manual should be changed in that double-checking with train director should not only be required on a main signal overrun but explicitly on all PZB-related stops.[3]

The 2011 Saxony-Anhalt train collision is related to PZB in that the track was not equipped with any automatic train stop system. In the modernisation program of the mid 1990s it deemed sufficient to deploy PZB90 only on tracks rated for speeds of 100 km/h (62 mph) and beyond. This would allow some local railways to keep up with their normal operations when they had no need for their rolling stock to run on any main line. After the accident Deutsche Bahn promised to check all single-track lines so that they are either equipped with PZB or FFB (Funkfahrbetrieb - radio-controlled operation). The German legislature has enacted a requirement that most of the remaining minor railway tracks need to be upgraded with an automatic train stop up to 1. December 2014.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ernst, Dr.-Ing. Richard (1989). Wörterbuch der Industriellen Technik (5th ed.). Wiesbaden: Oscar Brandstetter, p. 802. ISBN 3-87097-145-2.
  2. ^ EBO §40. In exceptional cases, one may drive a traction vehicle without or with disturbed Indusi, but only up to a speed of 100 km/h.
  3. ^ "Untersuchungsbericht - Zusammenstoß der S-Bahn 5711 mit der S-Bahn 5712 im Bahnhof Flughafen Hannover-Langenhagen am 29.06.2000 um 10:10 Uhr". 2000-09-13. Geschäftszeichen: 4012 Uub 15/00. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  4. ^ "Sechste Verordnung zur Änderung eisenbahnrechtlicher Vorschriften" [Sixth Railway Regulations Change Act]. Bundesgesetzblatt (Teil I, Jahrgang 2012, Nr. 37). 2012-08-20. p. 1703. "(the requirement is on all tracks allowing more than 80 km/h, on all tracks with multiple lines and more than 50 km/h, and on all tracks with multiple lines with any passenger line)" 

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