Pupillary response

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Pupillary response

Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve. This response results in either constriction (miosis),[1] narrowing the pupil, or dilation (mydriasis), widening the pupil. This occurs via relaxation or contraction of the iris dilator muscle respectively. The response can have a variety of causes, from an involuntary reflex reaction to exposure or inexposure to light — in low light conditions a dilated pupil lets more light into the eye — or it may indicate interest in the subject of attention, or sexual stimulation.[2] The pupils contract immediately before someone falls asleep.[3] A pupillary response can be intentionally conditioned as a Pavlovian response to some stimuli.[4]

The latency of pupillary response (the time in which it takes to occur) increases with age.[5] Use of central nervous system stimulant drugs and some hallucinogenic drugs can cause dilation of the pupil.[6]

In ophthalmology, intensive studies of pupillary response are conducted via videopupillometry.[7]

Anisocoria is the condition of one pupil being more dilated than the other.

Scheme showing sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the pupil and sites of lesion in a Horner's syndrome.
Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia.
Pupillary responses
Constriction Dilation
Muscular mechanism Relaxation of iris dilator muscle Activation of iris dilator muscle
Cause in pupillary light reflex Increased light Decreased light
Other physiological causes Fight-or-flight response
Corresponding non-physiological state Miosis Mydriasis

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ellis CJ (November 1981). "The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects". Br J Ophthalmol 65 (11): 754–9. doi:10.1136/bjo.65.11.754. PMC 1039657. PMID 7326222. 
  2. ^ Hess, Eckhard H.; Polt, James M. (5 August 1960), "Pupil Size as Related to Interest Value of Visual Stimuli", Science 132 (3423): 349–50, doi:10.1126/science.132.3423.349, PMID 14401489 
  3. ^ Lowenstein, Otto; Feinberg, Richard; Loewenfeld, Irene E. (April 1963), "Pupillary Movements During Acute and Chronic Fatigue: A New Test for the Objective Evaluation of Tiredness", Investigative Ophthalmology (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company) 2 (2): 138–157 
  4. ^ Baker, Lynn Erland (1938). The Pupillary Response Conditioned to Subliminal Auditory Stimuli. Ohio State University. 
  5. ^ Podolak, Edward; Feinberg, Richard (September 1965), Latency of pupillary reflex to light stimulation and its relationship to aging, Federal Aviation Agency, Office of Aviation Medicine, Georgetown Clinical Research Institute, p. 12, OCLC 84657376  [dead link]
  6. ^ Jaanus SD (1992), "Ocular side effects of selected systemic drugs", Optom Clin 2 (4): 73–96, PMID 1363080 
  7. ^ Ishikawa, S.; Naito, M.; Inaba, K. (1970), "A new videopupillography", Ophthalmologica 160 (4): 248–259, doi:10.1159/000305996, PMID 5439164