|Region||south shore of Lake Titicaca|
Remnants of Puquina can be found in the Quechua and Spanish languages spoken in the south of Perú, mainly in Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna as well as in Bolivia. There also appear to be remnants in Callahuaya (Kolyawaya), which may be a mix of Quechua and Puquina. (Kaufman (1990) finds this proposal plausible.)
Some theories claim that Puquina was the cryptic language of the Inca nobility of Peru, while the "runa simi" or Quechua was the language of the people.
Sometimes the term Puquina is used for Uru, which is a different language.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Puquina". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Willem Adelaar; Simon van de Kerke. "The Puquina and Leko languages". Symposium: Advances in Native South American Historical Linguistics, July 17-18, 2006, at the 52nd International Congress of Americanists, Seville, Spain. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Adelaar, Willem and van de Kerke, Simon (2009). Puquina. In: Mily Crevels and Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, vol. I, 125-146. La Paz: Plural editores. (in Spanish)
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