Human migration

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Further information: History of human migration
Net migration rates for 2011:[1] positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. The movement is typically over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups.[2]

Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations as there is no intention to settle in the new place and because the movement is generally seasonal. Only a few nomadic peoples have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times. Also, the temporary movement of people for the purpose of travel, tourism, pilgrimages, or the commute is not regarded as migration, in the absence of an intention to settle in the new location.

Migration has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one's region, country, or beyond and involuntary migration (which includes the slave trade, trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing). People who migrate into a territory are called immigrants, while at the departure point they are called emigrants. Small populations migrating to develop a territory considered void of settlement depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective are referred to as settlers or colonists, while populations displaced by immigration and colonization are called refugees.

Migration statistics[edit]

There are many sources for estimates on worldwide migration patterns. The World Bank has published a yearly Migration and Remittances Factbook since 2008.[3] The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has published a yearly World Migration Report since 1999. The United Nations Statistics Division also keeps a database on worldwide migration.[4] Recent advances in research of migration via the Internet promise better understanding of migration patterns and migration motives.[5][6]

Substantial internal migration can take place within a country, either seasonal human migration mainly related to agriculture and tourism to urban places, or shifts of population into cities (urbanization) or out of cities (suburbanization). Studies of worldwide migration patterns, however, tend to limit their scope to international migration.

The World Bank's Migration and Remittances Factbook of 2011 lists the following estimates for the year 2010: Total number of immigrants: 215.8 million or 3.2% of world population.

Often, a distinction is made between voluntary and involuntary migration or between refugees fleeing political conflict or natural disaster vs. economic or labour migration, but these distinctions are difficult to make and partially subjective, as the motivators for migration are often correlated. The World Bank's report estimates that, as of 2010, 16.3 million or 7.6% of migrants qualified as refugees.

Structurally, there is substantial South-South and North-North migration, i.e., most emigrant from high-income OECD countries migrate to other high-income countries, and a substantial part (estimated at 43%) of emigrants from developing countries migrate to other developing countries.

The top ten destination countries are the USA, Russian Federation, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Canada, the UK, Spain, France, Australia and India. The top ten countries of origin are Mexico, India, the Russian Federation, China, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the UK, the Philippines and Turkey.[7][citation needed]

The top ten migration corridors worldwide are 1. Mexico–United States; 2. Russia–Ukraine; 3. Ukraine–Russia; 4. Bangladesh–India; 5. Turkey–Germany; 6. Kazakhstan–Russia; 7. Russia–Kazakhstan; 8. China–Hong Kong; 9. China–United States; 10. Philippines–United States.[citation needed]

Remittance, i.e., funds transferred by migrant workers to their home country, is a substantial part of the economy of some countries. The top ten remittance recipients in 2010 were (estimates in billion US dollar) 1. India (55; 2.7% of GDP), 2. China (51; 0.5% of GNP), Mexico (22.6; 1.8% of GDP), Philippines (21.3; 7.8% of GDP), France (15.9; 0.5% of GDP), Germany (11.6; 0.2% of GDP), Bangladesh (11.1; 7.2% of GDP), Belgium (10.4; 1.9% of GDP), Spain (10.2; 0.7% of GDP), Nigeria (10.0; 1.9% of GDP).[citation needed]

The Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) was launched in 2003 and published a report in 2005.[8] International migration challenges at the global level are addressed through the Global Forum on Migration and Development and the Global Migration Group, both established in 2006.

Theories for migration for work in the 21st century[edit]

Overview[edit]

Migration for work in the 21st century has become a popular way for individuals from impoverished developing countries to obtain sufficient income for survival. This income is sent home to family members in the form of remittances and has become an economic staple in a number of developing countries.[9] There are a number of theories to explain the international flow of capital and people from one country to another.[10]

Neoclassical economic theory[edit]

This theory of migration states that the main reason for labor migration is wage difference between two geographic locations. These wage differences are usually linked to geographic labor demand and supply. It can be said that areas with a shortage of labor but an excess of capital have a high relative wage while areas with a high labor supply and a dearth of capital have a low relative wage. Labor tends to flow from low-wage areas to high-wage areas. Often, with this flow of labor comes changes in the sending as well as the receiving country. Neoclassical economic theory is best used to describe transnational migration, because it is not confined by international immigration laws and similar governmental regulations.[10]

Dual labor market theory[edit]

Dual labor market theory states that migration is mainly caused by pull factors in more developed countries. This theory assumes that the labor markets in these developed countries consist of two segments: tertiary, which requires high-skilled labor, and primary, which is very labor-intensive but requires low-skilled workers. This theory assumes that migration from less developed countries into more developed countries is a result of a pull created by a need for labor in the developed countries in their secondary market. Migrant workers are needed to fill the lowest rung of the labor market because the native laborers do not want to do these jobs as they present a lack of mobility. This creates a need for migrant workers. Furthermore, the initial dearth in available labor pushes wages up, making migration even more enticing.[10]

The new economics of labor migration[edit]

This theory states that migration flows and patterns cannot be explained solely at the level of individual workers and their economic incentives, but that wider social entities must be considered as well. One such social entity is the household. Migration can be viewed as a result of risk aversion on the part of a household that has insufficient income. The household, in this case, is in need of extra capital that can be achieved through remittances sent back by family members who participate in migrant labor abroad. These remittances can also have a broader effect on the economy of the sending country as a whole as they bring in capital.[10] Recent research has examined a decline in U.S. interstate migration from 1991 to 2011, theorizing that the reduced interstate migration is due to a decline in the geographic specificity of occupations and an increase in workers’ ability to learn about other locations before moving there, through both information technology and inexpensive travel.[11] Other researchers find that the location-specific nature of housing is more important than moving costs in determining labor reallocation.[12]

Relative deprivation theory[edit]

Relative deprivation theory states that awareness of the income difference between neighbors or other households in the migrant-sending community is an important factor in migration. The incentive to migrate is a lot higher in areas that have a high level of economic inequality. In the short run, remittances may increase inequality, but in the long run, they may actually decrease it. There are two stages of migration for a worker: first, they invest in human capital formation, and then they try to capitalize on their investments. In this way, successful migrants may use their new capital to provide for better schooling for their children and better homes for their families. Successful high-skilled emigrants may serve as an example for neighbors and potential migrants who hope to achieve that level of success.[10]

World systems theory[edit]

World systems theory looks at migration from a global perspective. It explains that interaction between different societies can be an important factor in social change within societies. Trade with one country, which causes economic decline in another, may create incentive to migrate to a country with a more vibrant economy. It can be argued that even after decolonization, the economic dependence of former colonies still remains on mother countries. This view of international trade is controversial, however, and some argue that free trade can actually reduce migration between developing and developed countries. It can be argued that the developed countries import labor-intensive goods, which causes an increase in employment of unskilled workers in the less developed countries, decreasing the outflow of migrant workers. The export of capital-intensive goods from rich countries to poor countries also equalizes income and employment conditions, thus also slowing migration. In either direction, this theory can be used to explain migration between countries that are geographically far apart.[10]

Historical theories[edit]

Ravenstein[edit]

Certain laws of social science have been proposed to describe human migration. The following was a standard list after Ravenstein's (1834-1913) proposal in the 1880s. The laws are as follows:

  1. every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.
  2. the majority of migrants move a short distance.
  3. migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
  4. urban residents are often less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
  5. families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
  6. most migrants are adults.
  7. large towns grow by migration rather than natural increase.
  8. migration stage by stage.
  9. urban rural difference.
  10. migration and technology.
  11. economic condition.

Lee[edit]

Lee's laws divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors: push and pull factors. Push factors are things that are unfavourable about the area that one lives in, and pull factors are things that attract one to another area.[13]

Push Factors

  • Not enough jobs
  • Few opportunities
  • Inadequate conditions
  • Desertification
  • Famine or drought
  • Political fear or persecution
  • Slavery or forced labour
  • Poor medical care
  • Loss of wealth
  • Natural disasters
  • Death threats
  • Desire for more political or religious freedom
  • Pollution
  • Poor housing
  • Landlord/tenant issues
  • Bullying
  • Discrimination
  • Poor chances of marrying
  • Condemned housing (radon gas, etc.)
  • War

Pull Factors

  • Job opportunities
  • Better living conditions
  • The feeling of having more political and/or religious freedom
  • Enjoyment
  • Education
  • Better medical care
  • Attractive climates
  • Security
  • Family links
  • Industry
  • Better chances of marrying

See also article by Gürkan Çelik, in Turkish Review: Turkey Pulls, The Netherlands Pushes? An increasing number of Turks, the Netherlands’ largest ethnic minority, are beginning to return to Turkey, taking with them the education and skills they have acquired abroad, as the Netherlands faces challenges from economic difficulties, social tension and increasingly powerful far-right parties. At the same time Turkey’s political, social and economic conditions have been improving, making returning home all the more appealing for Turks at large. (pp. 94–99)

Climate cycles[edit]

The modern field of climate history suggests that the successive waves of Eurasian nomadic movement throughout history have had their origins in climatic cycles, which have expanded or contracted pastureland in Central Asia, especially Mongolia and the Altai. People were displaced from their home ground by other tribes trying to find land that could be grazed by essential flocks, each group pushing the next further to the south and west, into the highlands of Anatolia, the Pannonian Plain, into Mesopotamia or southwards, into the rich pastures of China. Bogumil Terminski uses the term "migratory domino effect" to describe this process in the context of Sea People invasion.[14]

Other models[edit]

  • Migration occurs because individuals search for food, sex and security outside their usual habitation.[15] Idyorough is of the view that towns and cities are a creation of the human struggle to obtain food, sex and security. To produce food, security and reproduction, human beings must, out of necessity, move out of their usual habitation and enter into indispensable social relationships that are cooperative or antagonistic. Human beings also develop the tools and equipment to enable them to interact with nature to produce the desired food and security. The improved relationship (cooperative relationships) among human beings and improved technology further conditioned by the push and pull factors all interact together to cause or bring about migration and higher concentration of individuals into towns and cities. The higher the technology of production of food and security and the higher the cooperative relationship among human beings in the production of food and security and in the reproduction of the human species, the higher would be the push and pull factors in the migration and concentration of human beings in towns and cities. Countryside, towns and cities do not just exist but they do so to meet the human basic needs of food, security and the reproduction of the human species. Therefore, migration occurs because individuals search for food, sex and security outside their usual habitation. Social services in the towns and cities are provided to meet these basic needs for human survival and pleasure.
  • Zipf's Inverse distance law (1956)
  • Gravity model of migration and the friction of distance
  • Buffer Theory
  • Stouffer's theory of intervening opportunities (1940)
  • Zelinsky's Mobility Transition Model (1971)
  • Bauder's regulation of labor markets (2006) "suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies...[It] turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets, rather than labor markets shaping migration flows."[16]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ South Sudan#Independence .282011.29
  2. ^ "Migrations country wise". Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  3. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/Factbook2011-Ebook.pdf
  4. ^ http://esa.un.org/unmigration/wallchart2013.htm
  5. ^ Oiarzabal, P. J., & Reips, U.-D. (2012). Migration and diaspora in the age of information and communication technologies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(9), 1333-1338. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2012.698202 http://www.uni-konstanz.de/iscience/reips/pubs/papers/Oiarzabal_Reips_INTRO_JEMS_Special%20issue.pdf
  6. ^ Reips, U.-D., & Buffardi, L. (2012). Studying migrants with the help of the Internet: Methods from psychology. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(9), 1405-1424. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2012.698208 http://www.uni-konstanz.de/iscience/reips/pubs/papers/2012ReipsBuffardi_JEMS.pdf
  7. ^ India, Russia and the UK figure in both lists, as they have substantial immigration and substantial emigration, but also because the ranking is by absolute numbers and thus favours large countries.
  8. ^ The 90-page report, along with supporting evidence, is available on the GCIM website gcim.org
  9. ^ Jason de Parle, “A Good Provider is One Who Leaves” New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Jennissen, R. 2007. “Causality Chains in the International Migration Systems Approach.” Population Research and Policy Review 26(4). 411 – 36.
  11. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Understanding the Long-Run Decline in Interstate Migration, April 2012
  12. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, The Role of Housing in Labor Reallocation, November 2010
  13. ^ Everett S. Lee (1966). "A Theory of Migration". University of Pennsylvania. JSTOR 2060063. 
  14. ^ Terminski, Bogumil. Environmentally-Induced Displacement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges. CEDEM, Université de Liège, 2012
  15. ^ Idyorough, 2008
  16. ^ Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets. Oxford University Press, 1st edition, February 2006, English, 288 pages, ISBN 978-0-19-518088-6

Bibliography[edit]

Literature[edit]

Books

  • Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Behdad, Ali. A Forgetful Nation: On Immigration and Cultural Identity in the United States, Duke UP, 2005.
  • Chaichian, Mohammad. Empires and Walls: Globalization, Migration, and Colonial Control, Leiden: Brill, 2014.
  • Jared Diamond, Guns, germs and steel. A short history of everybody for the last 13'000 years, 1997.
  • De La Torre, Miguel A., Trails of Terror: Testimonies on the Current Immigration Debate, Orbis Books, 2009.
  • Fell, Peter and Hayes, Debra. What are they doing here? A critical guide to asylum and immigration, Birmingham (UK): Venture Press, 2007.
  • Hoerder, Dirk. Cultures in Contact. World Migrations in the Second Millennium, Duke University Press, 2002
  • Kleiner-Liebau, Désirée. Migration and the Construction of National Identity in Spain, Madrid / Frankfurt, Iberoamericana / Vervuert, Ediciones de Iberoamericana, 2009. ISBN 978-84-8489-476-6.
  • Knörr, Jacqueline. Women and Migration. Anthropological Perspectives, Frankfurt & New York: Campus Verlag & St. Martin's Press, 2000.
  • Knörr, Jacqueline. Childhood and Migration. From Experience to Agency, Bielefeld: Transcript, 2005.
  • Manning, Patrick. Migration in World History, New York and London: Routledge, 2005.
  • Migration for Employment, Paris: OECD Publications, 2004.
  • OECD International Migration Outlook 2007, Paris: OECD Publications, 2007.
  • Pécoud, Antoine and Paul de Guchteneire (Eds): Migration without Borders, Essays on the Free Movement of People (Berghahn Books, 2007)
  • Abdelmalek Sayad. The Suffering of the Immigrant, Preface by Pierre Bourdieu, Polity Press, 2004.
  • Stalker, Peter. No-Nonsense Guide to International Migration, New Internationalist, second edition, 2008.
  • The Philosophy of Evolution (A.K. Purohit, ed.), Yash Publishing House, Bikaner, 2010. ISBN 81-86882-35-9.

Journals

Online Books

Documentary films[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]