Push dagger

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Push Dagger

A push dagger (alternately known as: push knife, gimlet knife, fist knife, Stoßdolch (Ger.), push dirk, T-handled knife or punch dagger) is a short-bladed dagger with a "T" handle designed to be grasped in the hand so that the blade protrudes from the front of one's fist, typically between the 2nd and 3rd finger.[1][2] Over the centuries, the push dagger has gone up and down in popularity as a close-combat weapon for civilians and selected military forces.[3][2]

The sale of push daggers is illegal in some countries, such as the United Kingdom.[4]

History[edit]

The push dagger is thought to have originated from the Indian subcontinent, and is related in principle to the 16th-century Indian katar (कटार), or punching sword.[1][2] However, the katar is gripped by two close-set vertical bars, while a push dagger uses a T-handle and a blade that protrudes between the fingers when properly gripped.[1]

American push dagger[edit]

In 1800s America the knife was adopted by men and women in all walks of life as a defensive weapon and an item of daily wear.[3][5] Politicians wore them into state and federal buildings, even the United States Capitol.[3][5] As a concealable weapon, the push dagger was a favorite choice of civilian owners requiring a discreet knife capable of being used for personal protection.[3] Before the development of reliable small pistols such as the derringer, the push dagger was especially popular among riverboat gamblers and residents of the larger towns and cities of the Old Southwest, particularly gamblers and émigrés from the city of New Orleans, Louisiana.[6][7][2][8]

The New Orleans-style push dagger was known as the gimlet knife.[6] The gimlet knife had a short two-inch (50 mm) blade with a "gimlet" or T-handle.[6] It was a common weapon in the city during the 1800s, and was usually slipped into a boot or concealed inside a coat sleeve, or else hung on a waistcoat button by a strap attached to the knife's leather sheath.[9][6] The gimlet knife was used in so many riots, fights, and murders in New Orleans that the city passed an ordinance in 1879 prohibiting anyone within city limits from selling, offering or exhibiting such a weapon for sale.[10][11][6][7]

The push dagger also was a favorite weapon in 19th-century San Francisco, California.[12] The San Francisco style of push dagger tended to have a slightly longer blade than that of the gimlet knife and was most often equipped with a T-handle made of walrus ivory.[12]

Stoßdolch[edit]

During the latter half of the 19th century, the push dagger also enjoyed a brief period of popularity in Britain and Central Europe, particularly in Germany, where it was called the Stoßdolch or Faustmesser, meaning "push-dagger" and "fist-knife", respectively. The weapon is thought to have been introduced there in the mid-1800s by foreign sailors visiting North German ports. German cutlery makers began to manufacture domestic versions of the design, often set in nickel-silver mountings. The Stoßdolch was sold primarily as a self-defence weapon for travellers, salesmen, and others who required a compact, concealable weapon. Push daggers continued to be sold in Britain and Europe through the end of the 19th century, when the combination of more effective police forces and the availability of inexpensive small handguns caused a substantial decline in sales and usage of push daggers and other types of specialised fighting knives.[citation needed]

World War I[edit]

The reality of static trench warfare in World War I created a need for short, handy close-combat weapons that could be used in the confines of a trench. With pistols in short supply, a variety of knives and other stabbing weapons were created or issued to troops serving in the trenches. Originally most of these weapons were fabricated in the field from readily available materials such as metal stakes, but soon factory-made examples of knuckle knives and push daggers appeared at the front, and were used by both sides in the conflict. In Britain the Robbins-Dudley Co. of Dudley, Worcestershire, a metalworking concern, was one of the first commercial producers of specialised wartime knuckle-knives and push daggers for private sale to individual soldiers and officers.[13] The typical Robbins-Dudley push dagger – referred to as a 'punch knife' by its maker – utilised an aluminium 'knuckle'-type handle cast onto a 3.625-in. (93 mm) heat-treated steel dagger blade or alternatively, a 5-in. (127 mm ) metal spike, which was subsequently blackened to prevent reflections in moonlight.[13][14]

World War II[edit]

The push dagger re-emerged during World War II, where it was first issued as combat weapon for British commandos, SAS, SOE, and other specialized raiding or guerrilla forces requiring a compact and concealable weapon for sentry elimination or close-quarters fighting.[15]

Contemporary designs[edit]

During the 1980s several new versions of the push dagger concept were produced by a variety of speciality cutlery manufacturers, and were sold primarily as 'tactical' or self-defence weapons, particularly in the USA. The laws of many nations and several U.S. states and cities prohibit or criminalize to some degree the purchase, possession, or sale of push daggers or knuckle knives.[16][17][18][19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Harding, David (ed.), The new weapons of the world encyclopedia, New York: Diagram Visual Information Ltd., ISBN 0-312-36832-1, ISBN 978-0-312-36832-6 (2007), p. 29
  2. ^ a b c d Martin, Dennis, Maximum Thrust: The History and Usage of the Push Dagger, retrieved 2 September 2011
  3. ^ a b c d Peterson, Harold L., Daggers and Fighting Knives of the Western World, New York: Dover Publications Inc., ISBN 0-486-41743-3, p. 68
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ a b The Wilson-Anthony Fight, Department of Arkansas-Heritage, retrieved 1 August 2011: In 1836 a knife fight broke out between the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives, John Wilson, and Rep. Joseph Anthony in the middle of a contentious legislative session; Anthony was killed, while Wilson was expelled from office and later indicted for murder.
  6. ^ a b c d e Secret Arms, The Saturday Review, London: Spottiswoode & Co., Vol. 77 No. 2,002' (10 March 1894), pp. 250–251
  7. ^ a b Use of the Army in Certain Southern States: Sworn Testimony of Leon Voitier dated September 15, 1868, Executive Documents of the House of Representatives, Second Session of the 41st Congress 1876–1877, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Edition Vol. 9 No. 30, p. 315
  8. ^ Alvarez, A., Poker: Bets, Bluffs, And Bad Beats, San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, ISBN 0-8118-4627-X, 9780811846271 (2004), p. 35
  9. ^ Williamson, Bill, The Bowie Knife's Origins, retrieved 2 September 2011
  10. ^ Jewell, Edwin L., The Laws and Ordinances of the City of New Orleans: Title 16, Police Regulations, publ. Edwin L. Jewell (1882), p. 326: The punishment was thirty days' imprisonment and/or a fine of US$25.
  11. ^ The Amelia Blanche Murder, New Orleans Times Picayune, October 23, 1874
  12. ^ a b Flayderman, Harold, The Bowie knife: Unsheathing an American Legend, London: Andrew Mobray Publishers Ltd., ISBN 978-1-931464-12-3 (2004), p. 185
  13. ^ a b Flook, Ron, British and Commonwealth Military Knives, Howell Press Inc., ISBN 1-57427-092-3, ISBN 978-1-57427-092-1 (1999), pp.24–28
  14. ^ Stephens, Frederick J., Fighting Knives: An Illustrated Guide to Fighting Knives and Military Survival Weapons of the World, Edinburgh, UK: Arms and Armour Press, ISBN 0-85368-711-0, ISBN 978-0-85368-711-5 (1985)
  15. ^ Melton, H. Keith, Ultimate Spy, New York: DK Publishing, ISBN 0789404435, 9780789404435, pp. 174,185
  16. ^ Prohibited Knives: Current Legislation For 2011, The Official British Knife Collectors Guild, retrieved 12 October 2011
  17. ^ Die Rechtslage – WaffG und Messer, retrieved 12 October 2011
  18. ^ Canada Criminal Code (R.S. 1985, c. C-46), Subsection 84(1) – (Prohibited Weapon, defined); S.O.R./98-462 Regulations, Section 4, Regulations Prescribing Certain Firearms and other Weapons, Components and Parts of Weapons, Accessories, Cartridge Magazines, Ammunition and Projectiles as Prohibited or Restricted; S.O.R./98-462 Regulations, Section 9, Part 3, Schedule to the Regulations
  19. ^ Wong, David, Knife Laws of the Fifty States: A Guide for the Law-Abiding Traveler, AuthorHouse, ISBN 1-4259-5092-2, ISBN 978-1-4259-5092-7 (2006)