The Putangirua Pinnacles (also known colloquially simply as The Pinnacles) are a geological formation and one of New Zealand's best examples of badlands erosion. They consist of a large number of earth pillars or hoodoos located at the head of a valley in the Aorangi Ranges. 7 to 9 million years ago when sea levels were much higher, the Aorangi ranges were an island and as this landmass was eroded over time, large alluvial fans formed on its southern shores. Within a few million years however, sea levels rose again and this island was submerged also. Since the Ice ages, sea levels have receded and the old alluvial fans have been exposed to the erosive forces of wind and water, which have weathered away the conglomerate. In some places this conglomerate is protected from erosion above by a cap of cemented silt or rock, resulting in the formation of spectacular Pinnacles, many of which have prominent fluting caused by rainwater running down their sides during major storms. It is not known exactly how long the pinnacles have been forming but they are thought to be less than 125,000 years old with major erosion probably beginning 7000 years ago and accelerating in the last 1000 years with the deforestation of the area.
- NZ Department of Conservation Putangirua Pinnacles information page
- Lloyd Homer and Phil Moore,"Reading the Rocks: Aguide to the Geological Features of the Wairarapa Coast", Landscape Publications limited, 1989
- Ian Brodie, "The Lord of the Rings Location Guidebook:Extended Edition", Harper Collins Publishers, 2005
- Putangirua Pinnacles from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, originally published in 1966. Online as part of Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 26-Sep-2006.
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