Puthandu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Puthandu
Observed by Tamils
Type Festival, Tamil Nadu, India, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Malaysia, Singapore
Significance Tamil New Year,
Celebrations Feasting, gift-giving, visiting homes
Date First day of Chithirai in the Tamil calendar
2015 date 14 April

Puthandu (Tamil: புத்தாண்டு), or better known as Tamil New Year, is the celebration of the first day of the Tamil new year in mid-April by Tamils in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry in India, in Sri Lanka and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore, Réunion and Mauritius. On this day, Tamil people greet each other by saying "Puthandu Vazthukal" ( புத்தாண்டு வாழ்த்துக்கள் ) or "Iniya Tamizh Puthandu Nalvaazhthukkal" (இனிய தமிழ் புத்தாண்டு நல்வாழ்த்துக்கள்). The festive occasion is in keeping with the Hindu solar calendar.

Origin and significance[edit]

The Tamil New Year follows the Nirayanam vernal equinox and generally falls on 14 April of the Gregorian year. 14 April marks the first day of the traditional Tamil calendar and is a public holiday in both Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. The Tropical vernal equinox falls around 22 March, and adding 23 degrees of trepidation or oscillation to it, we get the Hindu sidereal transition or Nirayana Mesha Sankranti (the Sun's transition into Nirayana Aries).

Hence, the Tamil calendar begins on the same date observed by most traditional calendars in India as in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Manipur, Mithila, Odisha, Punjab, Tripura etc. not to mention Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The 60-year cycle is ancient and is observed by most traditional calendars of India and China, and is related to 5 revolutions of Jupiter, or to 60-year orbit of Nakshatras (stars) as described in the Surya Siddhanta.

The 60 year cycle comes by 5 revolutions of Jupiter and 2 revolutions of Saturn. The relative position of Jupiter and Saturn in one particular year will be repeated after 60 years. The 60 year cycle was essentially conceived for predicting the climate of a particular year, as the relative position of the two major planets, Jupiter and Saturn, is recognized for its impact on climate.[1]

The traditional Tamil year starts on 14 April 2014, Kaliyuga 5116. Vikrama and Shalivahana Saka eras are also used. There are several references in early Tamil literature to the April new year. Nakkirar, the author of the Nedunalvaadai writes in the 3rd century that the Sun travels from Mesha/Chithirai through 11 successive Raasis or signs of the zodiac.[2] Kūdalūr Kizhaar in the 3rd century refers to Mesha Raasi/Chithirai as the commencement of the year in the Puranaanooru.[3][4] The Tolkaapiyam is the oldest surviving Tamil grammar that divides the year into six seasons where Chitterai marks the start of the Ilavenil season or summer. The 8th century Silappadikaaram mentions the 12 Raasis or zodiac signs starting with Mesha/Chitterai.[5] The Manimekalai alludes to the Hindu solar calendar as we know it today. Adiyarkunalaar, an early medieval commentator or Urai-asiriyar mentions the 12 months of the Tamil calendar with particular reference to Chithirai. There were subsequent inscriptional references in Pagan, Burma dated to the 11th century CE and in Sukhothai, Thailand dated to the 14th century CE to South Indian, often Vaishnavite, courtiers who were tasked with defining the traditional calendar that began in mid-April.[6]

Celebration[edit]

Tamil people celebrate Tamil new year on 14 April in the month of Chithirai, the first month of the Tamil solar calendar. On the eve of Puthandu, a tray arranged with the trio fruits (mango,banana and jack fruit), betel leaves and arecanut, gold/silver jewellery, coins/money, flowers and a mirror is placed. This is to be viewed as the first thing upon waking in the morning. In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithirai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is held, called Chithirai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is called Chithirai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Tamil homes and entrances to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams. In most parts of India, one can see neem trees blooming with their flowers and the first batch of mangoes hanging prominently. This day is celebrated by some communities with neem flowers and raw mangoes to symbolize growth and prosperity.

On the day of Tamil New Year, a big Car Festival is held at Tiruvidaimarudur near Kumbakonam. Festivals are also held at Tiruchirapalli, Kanchipuram and many other places.

Sri Lankan Tamils observe the traditional new year in April with the first financial transaction known as the 'Kai-vishesham' where elders gift money to the unmarried young, particularly children as a token of good luck. The event is also observed with the 'arpudu' or the first ploughing of the ground to prepare for the new agricultural cycle. The 'punya-kaalam' or auspicious time when the sun reportedly shifts from Meena raasi to Mesha raasi is considered ideal to commence new activities on a favorable note. Sri Lankan Tamils begin the year with a herbal bath with 'maruthu-neer' with ingredients for good health. The game of 'por-thenkai' or coconut wars between youth is played in villages through the Tamil north and east of the island while cart races are also held.[7] The festive Puthandu season in April is a time for family visits and the renewal of filial bonds.[8] It coincides with the Sinhalese new year season.[9]

In Malaysia and Singapore, Tamils join Sikhs, Malayalees and Bengalis to celebrate the traditional new year in mid-April with leaders across the political spectrum wishing the ethnic Indian community for the new year. Special religious events are held in Hindu temples, in Tamil community centers and Gurudwaras. Cultural programs and media events also take place. Its a day of celebration for the Indian community.[10][11][12][13][14]

Controversy[edit]

The previous Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)-led Government of Tamil Nadu had declared in 2008 that the Tamil new year should be celebrated on the first day of Tamil month of Thai (14 January) coinciding with the harvest festival of Pongal. The Tamil Nadu New Year (Declaration Bill 2008) was introduced in the House by the Tamil Nadu Government on 29 January 2008.[15] This bill of the DMK Administration was subsequently rescinded by a separate act of legislation in the Tamil Nadu Assembly on 23 August 2011.[16][17][18][19]

The earlier legislative enactment of the DMK government was not without controversy .[20] The resolution was met with resistance.[21][22][23] It was challenged in court.[24][25] The then opposition All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK) in Tamil Nadu subsequently condemned the decision of the DMK Government in that state and urged their supporters to continue celebrating the traditional date in mid-April.[26] Tamils in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Canada continued to observe the new year in mid-April.[27][28][29][30][31] Many in Tamil Nadu continued the celebration of the new year in mid-April.[32][33] The Governor and Chief Minister of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, which has an ethnic Tamil majority, felicitated the public for the Tamil new year in April 2010.[34] The previous state government in Tamil Nadu in an effort to accommodate popular sentiment conceded the celebration of the April new year with a new term called “Chithirai Thirunal” (the festival of Chithirai). The day remained a public holiday in Tamil Nadu albeit purportedly to commemorate Dr. B.R Ambedkar, who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution. All television channels in Tamil Nadu continued to telecast festive “Chithirai Thirunal Special Programs” on 14 April 2010. The leader of the AIADMK, Jayalalitha felicitated the people on the traditional Tamil New Year. The MDMK leader Vaiko, followed suit.[35] Press reports indicated that the people in Tamil Nadu celebrated the Tamil New Year with enthusiasm and thronged the temples in thousands. There are others who highlight the absence of historical and literary evidence for the change in new year.[36] The 2008 legislation of the previous DMK-led administration has since been annulled by an act of the Tamil Nadu Assembly in August, 2011.[37] The controversy has now subsided and the official celebrations during the traditional new year in April revived.[38][39][40][41]

Thiruvalluvar Era[edit]

The 2006–2011 Government in Tamil Nadu also introduced the Thiruvalluvar era that begins with the purported birth of the Tamil literary figure Thiruvalluvar in the year 31 BCE. The literary evidence however may not indicate an early date for Thiruvalluvar. The syntax and grammar may indicate a subsequent date. Renowned Tamil Scholar Vaiyapuri Pillai was of the view that Thiruvalluvar lived around 600 CE, based on the internal evidence of his work and the significant influence of Sanskrit, Prakrit and Pali works in the Thirukkural.[42] While not all may agree with Vaiyapuri Pillai's textual criticism and dating, several question the Thiruvalluvar era on the issue of its date.[43] However, the Government of J. Jayalalitha in 2011 reverted the celebration of Puthandu to the original date of fourteenth of April.[18]

See also[edit]

  1. Sinhalese New Year Officially Sinhala and Tamil New Year, Sri Lanka
  2. SongkranThai New Year is celebrated on the same day as well. (Chola Dynasty ruled Thai during Rajendra Chola I's reign 1012 C.E. – 1044 C.E)
  3. Pohela BoishakhBengali New Year (India's West Bengal and Tripura state and Bangladesh)
  4. Assamese New Year or Rongali Bihu (India's Assam state)
  5. Malayali New Year, or Vishu (India's Kerala state)
  6. Nepali New Year, or Bikram Samwat / Vaishak Ek (Nepal)
  7. Vishuva Sankranti-Oriya New Year (India's Odisha state)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Indian Epigraphy, D.C. Sircar, TamilNet, Tamil New Year, 13.04.2008
  2. ^ Lines 160 to 162 of the Nedunalvaadai
  3. ^ Poem 229 of Puranaanooru
  4. ^ Professor Vaiyapuri Pillai, 'History of Tamil Language and Literature' Chennai, 1956, pages 35, 151
  5. ^ Canto 26 of Silappadikaaram. Canto 5 also describes the foremost festival in the Chola country – the Indra Vizha celebrated in Chithirai
  6. ^ G.H. Luce, Old Burma – Early Pagan, Locust Valley, New York, Page 68, and A.B. Griswold, 'Towards a History of Sukhodaya Art, Bangkok 1967, pages 12–32
  7. ^ "Features | Online edition of Daily News – Lakehouse Newspapers". Dailynews.lk. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Sivanandini Duraiswamy, Remembering Hindu Traditions, M.D. Gunasena and Co Ltd, 1997, pages 41-48. http://www.noolaham.net/project/30/2916/2916.pdf
  9. ^ "tamilweek.com/news-features » April 14 is the Tamil New Year, not Sinhalese!". Tamilweek.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  10. ^ http://www.nst.com.my/nation/general/najib-sends-new-year-greetings-1.254972
  11. ^ http://www.nst.com.my/latest/new-year-wishes-to-malaysian-indian-community-1.254654?cache=03%3Fkey%3DMalaysia%2F7.276913%2F7.318771
  12. ^ http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2013/4/15/nation/12971969&sec=nation
  13. ^ http://www.heb.gov.sg/hindu-resources/39-hindu-festivals
  14. ^ http://www.singaporeunited.sg/cep/index.php/web/News-Room/PM-Lee-celebrates-Tamil-New-Year
  15. ^ "Bill on new Tamil New Year Day is passed unanimously". Tn.gov.in. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "Jaya changes DMK’s calendar, Tamil new year in April now". The Indian Express. India. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  17. ^ 24 August 2011 DC chennai (24 August 2011). "Jaya reverses Karunanidhi’s order; Tamil New Year on Chithirai 1". Deccan Chronicle. India. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Special Correspondent (23 August 2011). "States / Tamil Nadu : Tamil New Year in Chithirai". The Hindu (India). Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "News Today – An English evening daily published from Chennai". Newstodaynet.com. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  20. ^ [1][dead link]
  21. ^ "India E-news". India E-news. 13 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "SINHALAYA'S FULL COVERAGE – Lankan Tamils reject Karunanidhi’s diktat on Tamil New Year – CyberTalks". Sinhalaya.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  23. ^ M.R. Venkatesh (13 April 2008). "The Telegraph – Calcutta (Kolkata) | Nation | TN bans new year rites, priests fume". The Telegraph (Kolkota, India). Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  24. ^ "Law altering Tamil new year day challenged". Sindh Today. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Court asks Tamil Nadu why change age-old New Year date". Bombay News.Net. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Jaya, Vaiko greet people, criticise change of New Year". News.webindia123.com. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  27. ^ "14.04.08 Liberate Calendar". TamilNet. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  28. ^ "13.04.08 Tamil New Year". TamilNet. 13 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  29. ^ "12.04.08 Prime Minister of Canada greets Tamil New Year". TamilNet. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  30. ^ [2][dead link]
  31. ^ "Sri Lankan Sinhalese And Tamil Community Celebrate Traditional New Year Tomorrow". GroundReport. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  32. ^ "Tamils ignore government fiat, celebrate New Year – Thaindian News". Thaindian.com. 13 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  33. ^ "Tamil new year celebrated in UT [newkerala.com, The Netherlands, 89374]". Newkerala.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  34. ^ "Pondy Governor, CM greet people on eve of Tamil New Year [newkerala.com, The Netherlands, 89118]". Newkerala.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  35. ^ Sathyalaya Ramakrishnan reporting from Chennai (14 April 2010). "TN Governor and leaders greets people on Tamil NewYear". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  36. ^ "A Tamil cultural debate". Sri Lanka Guardian. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  37. ^ "23.08.11 Tamil Nadu Assembly restores April New Year". TamilNet. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  38. ^ http://news.outlookindia.com/items.aspx?artid=759496
  39. ^ "Law on Tamil New Year was enacted for publicity, says Jayalalithaa". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 14 April 2012. 
  40. ^ http://www.deccanchronicle.com/130415/news-current-affairs/article/tamil-year-vijaya-ushered-religious-fervour
  41. ^ http://www.newkerala.com/news/story/6870/jaya-to-present-tamil-awards-on-apr-15.html
  42. ^ Vaiyapuri Pillai, History of the Tamil Language and Literature, 1956, pages 79–88
  43. ^ "Vijayvaani.com". Vijayvaani.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011.