||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2013)|
|• Total||87.45 km2 (33.76 sq mi)|
|• Land||85.03 km2 (32.83 sq mi)|
|• Water||2.41 km2 (0.93 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January, 2007)|
|• Density||271/km2 (700/sq mi)|
|Source: CBS, Statline.|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Putten ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a municipality and a town in Gelderland province in the middle of the Netherlands. In 2007 it had a population of 23,024. It is located in the coastal area of the old Zuiderzee (Southern Sea). To the east of Putten lies the Veluwe, the biggest national park of the Netherlands. To the north, east and west, Putten is surrounded by farmlands.
Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Putten, 2013.
Until World War II
The oldest official paper in which Putten is mentioned dates back to 855. Small settlements, however, were already built during the Roman era. After the founding of the present main church in the 10th century, the community becomes the centre of several smaller settlements. Also parts of Nijkerk and Voorthuizen became part of the Putten area, until in 1530 Nijkerk, and later also Voorthuizen, became independent communities.
Until 1356, when a dyke was built, the coastline changed frequently, overflowing agricultural land in the west of Putten. The water was still a threat however, and the dyke broke through several times. The last major flood was in 1916, when large parts of Putten were flooded. After the Afsluitdijk was built in the north of the Netherlands, the Zuiderzee became a lake (1927-1933) and no longer posed a threat.
Agriculture has always been a major source of income in Putten. Also the manufacturing of paper was important in the 17th-19th century. From the end of the 19th century tourism emerged, helped by the connection by rail since 1863. This made it easier for people from other towns to retreat in the boarding houses that Putten had built. Among those people from elsewhere were also the ones who suffered from tuberculosis and similar diseases. They benefited from the sunlight and clean air and retreated in the several sanatoria.
Putten has suffered considerably from military violence. During the 15th, 16th and 17th century Putten has been burned down on at least five occasions.
World War II Nazi warcrime
One of the biggest Nazi raids to be held in the Netherlands during World War II took place in Putten. On 1 October and 2 October 1944, 661 men and boys, the majority of the male population, were deported from the town and 602 of them were sent to work in concentration camps such as Neuengamme and Birkenau. Only 49 returned after the war. Following the war, two of the responsible officers were tried and convicted for the crime. The raids were a retaliatory measure for an attack by the local resistance, that killed one Wehrmacht officer near Nijkerk. The first and second of October are still commemorated every year.
|Total number of men deported||661|
|Released in Amersfoort||59|
|Deported to Neuengamme||602|
|Jumped out of the train on the way to Neuengamme||13|
|Arrived in Neuengamme||589|
|Returned to Putten after liberation||49|
|Died in German concentration camps||540|
|Killed during the raid||7|
|Died shortly after the return||5|
|Total number of deaths||552|
Today agriculture is still important in Putten, but the main sector now is services. There are considerable amounts of shops, and tourism is important. Tourist are attracted by the varied landscape and the beach at the Ringlake. Every Wednesday there is a produce and food market that is the biggest in the North-West Veluwe area.
Putten lies next to the A28 highway that connects Utrecht with the north. The town has a train station on the line between Utrecht and Zwolle. There are also bus connections.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Putten, Gelderland.|
||Zeewolde (FL) / Nuldernauw||Ermelo|