Puyuma language

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Puyuma
卑南語
Native to Taiwan
Ethnicity Puyuma people
Native speakers
8,500  (2002)[1]
Austronesian
  • Puyuma
    卑南語
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pyu
Glottolog puyu1239[2]
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(red) Puyuma

The Puyuma language or Pinuyumayan (Chinese: 卑南語; pinyin: Pēinán Yǔ) is the language of the Puyuma people, a tribe of indigenous people on Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines). It is a divergent Formosan language of the Austronesian family. Most speakers are older adults.

Puyuma is one of the more divergent of the Austronesian languages, and falls outside reconstructions of Proto-Austronesian.

Dialects[edit]

The internal classification of Puyuma dialects below is from Ting 1978. Nanwang is usually showed to be the relatively phonologically conservative dialect but grammatically innovative, as it preserves proto-Puyuma voiced plosives and syncrets[clarification needed] case.

  • Proto-Puyuma
    • Nanwang
    • (Main branch)
      • Pinaski–Ulivelivek
      • Rikavung
      • Kasavakan–Katipul

Puyuma-speaking villages are (Zeitoun & Cauquelin 2006:655):

Puyuma cluster ('born of the bamboo')
Katipul cluster ('born of a stone')
  • Alipai (Chinese: Pinlang 賓朗)
  • Pinaski (Chinese: Hsia Pinlang 下賓朗); 2 km north of Puyuma/Nanwang, and maintains close relations with it
  • Pankiu (Chinese: Pankiu)
  • Kasavakan (Chinese: Chienhe 建和)
  • Katratripul (Chinese: Chihpen 知本)
  • Likavung (Chinese: Lichia 利嘉)
  • Tamalakaw (Chinese: Taian 泰安)
  • Ulivelivek (Chinese: Chulu 初鹿)

Phonology[edit]

Puyuma has 18 consonants and 4 vowels:

Puyuma Consonants[3]
Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Voiceless p t ʈ k ʔ
Voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Fricative s
Trill r
Approximant l ɭ j w
Puyuma Vowels[3]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ə
Open a

Grammar[edit]

Morphology[edit]

Puyuma verbs have four types of focus (Cauquelin 2004:25–26):

  1. Actor focus: Ø (no mark), -em-, -en- (after labials), me-, meʔ-, ma-
  2. Object focus: -aw
  3. Referent focus: -ay
  4. Instrumental focus: -anai

There are three verbal aspects (Cauquelin 2004:25–26):

  1. Perfect
  2. Imperfect
  3. Future

There are two modes (Cauquelin 2004:25–26):

  1. Imperative
  2. Hortative future

Affixes include (Cauquelin 2004:25–26):

  • Perfect: Ø (no mark)
  • Imperfect: Reduplication; -a-
  • Future: Reduplication, sometimes only -a-
  • Hortative future: -a-
  • Imperative mode: Ø (no mark)

Syntax[edit]

Puyuma has a verb-initial word order.

Articles include (Cauquelin 1991:27):

  • i – singular personal
  • a – singular non-personal
  • na – plural (personal and non-personal)

Pronouns[edit]

The Puyuma personal pronouns below are from Teng (2008:61–64).

Puyuma Personal Pronouns (Free)
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative[4] Oblique:
Direct
Oblique:
Indirect
Oblique:
Non-Subject
Neutral
1s. nanku kanku, kananku draku, drananku kanku kuiku
2s. nanu kanu, kananu dranu, drananu kanu yuyu
3s. nantu kantu, kanantu dratu, dranantu kantaw taytaw
1p. (incl.) nanta kanta, kananta drata, drananta kanta taita
1p. (excl.) naniam kaniam, kananiam draniam, drananiam kaniam mimi
2p. nanemu kanemu, kananemu dranemu, drananemu kanemu muimu
3p. nantu kantu, kanantu dratu, dranantu kantaw
Puyuma Personal Pronouns (Bound)
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative
(Subject)
Nominative
(Possessor of subject)
Genitive
1s. =ku ku= ku=
2s. =yu nu= nu=
3s. tu= tu=
1p. (incl.) =ta ta= ta=
1p. (excl.) =mi niam= mi=
2p. =mu mu= mu=
3p. tu= tu=

Affixes[edit]

The Puyuma affixes below are from Teng (2008:282-285).

Prefixes
  • ika-: the shape of; forming; shaping
  • ka-: stative marker
  • kara-: collective, to do something together
  • kare-: the number of times
  • ki-: to get something
  • kir-: to go against (voluntarily)
  • kitu-: to become
  • kur-: be exposed to; be together (passively)
  • m-, ma-: actor voice affix/intransitive affix
  • maka-: along; to face against
  • mara-: comparative/superlative marker
  • mar(e)-: reciprocal; plurality of relations
  • mi-: to have; to use
  • mu-: anticausative marker
  • mutu-: to become, to transform into
  • pa-/p-: causative marker
  • pu-: put
  • puka-: ordinal numeral marker
  • piya-: to face a certain direction
  • si-: to pretend to
  • tara-: to use (an instrument), to speak (a language)
  • tinu-: to simulate
  • tua-: to make, to form
  • u-: to go
  • ya-: to belong to; nominalizer
Suffixes
  • -a: perfective marker; numeral classifier
  • -an: nominalizer; collective/plural marker
  • -anay: conveyance voice affix/transitive affix
  • -aw: patient voice affix/transitive affix
  • -ay: locative voice affix/transitive affix
  • -i, -u: imperative transitive marker
Infixes
  • -in-: perfective marker
  • -em-: actor voice affix/intransitive affix
Circumfixes
  • -in-anan: the members of
  • ka- -an: a period of time
  • muri- -an: the way one is doing something; the way something was done
  • sa- -an: people doing things together
  • sa- -enan: people belonging to the same community
  • si- -an: nominalizer
  • Ca- -an, CVCV- -an: collectivity, plurality

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Puyuma
    卑南語
    at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Puyuma". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Teng (2008:11, 18)
  4. ^ Possessor of subject

References[edit]

  • Cauquelin, Josiane. 1991. Dictionnaire Puyuma–Français. Paris: Ecole française d'Extrême Orient.
  • Cauquelin, Josiane. 2004. The aborigines of Taiwan: the Puyuma – from headhunting to the modern world. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780203498590
  • Teng, Stacy Fang-Ching (2008), A reference grammar of Puyuma, an Austronesian language of Taiwan, Pacific linguistics 595, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, ISBN 9780858835870 
  • Ting, Pang-hsin (Sep 1978). "Reconstruction of Proto-Puyuma Phonology". Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology (Academia Sinica) 49: 321–391. OCLC 4938029239. Retrieved 5 December 2014.