Pyrus pyrifolia

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"Chinese pear" redirects here. For the Chinese White Pear, see Pyrus × bretschneideri.
Pyrus pyrifolia
Nashi pear.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Pyrus
Species: P. pyrifolia
Binomial name
Pyrus pyrifolia
(Burm.) Nak.
Asian pears, raw
Nashi pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 176 kJ (42 kcal)
10.65 g
Sugars 7.05 g
Dietary fiber 3.6 g
0.23 g
0.5 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.009 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.219 mg
(1%)
0.07 mg
Vitamin B6
(2%)
0.022 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
8 μg
Choline
(1%)
5.1 mg
Vitamin C
(5%)
3.8 mg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.12 mg
Vitamin K
(4%)
4.5 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(0%)
4 mg
Magnesium
(2%)
8 mg
Manganese
(3%)
0.06 mg
Phosphorus
(2%)
11 mg
Potassium
(3%)
121 mg
Sodium
(0%)
0 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pyrus pyrifolia is a pear tree species native to China, Japan, and Korea. The tree's edible fruit is known by many names, including: Asian pear,[1] Chinese pear,[1][2] Korean pear, Japanese pear,[1] Japanese Apple Pear, Taiwan pear, and sand pear.[1] Along with cultivars of P. × bretschneideri and P. ussuriensis, the fruit is also called the nashi pear.[3][4] Despite being colloquially known as an apple pear due to its appearance and texture, the fruit is not a hybrid of the two.[5][6]

Cultivars derived from Pyrus pyrifolia are grown throughout East Asia, and in other countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (e.g., California). Traditionally in East Asia the tree's flowers are a popular symbol of early spring, and it is a common sight in gardens and the countryside.

The fruits are not generally baked in pies or made into jams because they have a high water content and a crisp, grainy texture, very different from the buttery European varieties. They are commonly served raw and peeled.[7] The fruit tends to be quite large and fragrant, and when carefully wrapped (it has a tendency to bruise because of its juiciness), it can last for several weeks or more in a cold, dry place.

Culture[edit]

Flowers appear early in spring, before the leaves are fully expanded

Due to their relatively high price and the large size of the fruit of cultivars, the pears tend to be served to guests or given as gifts, or eaten together in a family setting.

In cooking, ground pears are used in vinegar- or soy sauce-based sauces as a sweetener, instead of sugar. They are also used when marinating meat, especially beef.

In Australia, these pears have been commercially produced for more than 25 years.[8]

In Japan, fruit is harvested in Chiba, Ibaraki, Tottori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Nagano, Niigata, Saitama and other prefectures, except Okinawa. Nashi (ja:梨) may be used as a late Autumn kigo, or “season word”, when writing haiku. Nashi no hana (ja:梨の花, pear flower) is also used as a kigo of spring.[9] At least one city (Kamagaya-Shi, Chiba Prefecture) has the flowers of this tree as an official city flower.

In Korea, the fruit is known as bae (배), and it is grown and consumed in great quantity. In the South Korean city of Naju, there is a museum called The Naju Pear Museum and Pear Orchard for Tourists (나주 배 박물관 및 배밭 관광체험).[10]

In Nepal and the Himalayan states of India, they are called nashpati and are cultivated as a cash crop in the Middle Hills between about 1,500 and 2,500 meters’ elevation where the climate is suitable. The fruit are carried to nearby markets by human porters or, increasingly, by truck, but not for long distances because they bruise easily.

In Taiwan, pears harvested in Japan have become luxurious presents since 1997 and their consumption has jumped.[citation needed]

In Cyprus, the pears were introduced in 2010 after initially being investigated as a new fruit crop for the island in the early 1990s. They are currently grown in Kyperounta.[11]

Cultivars[edit]

Cultivars are classified in two groups. Most of the cultivars belong to the Akanashi ('red pears') group, and have brownish-yellow rinds. The Aonashi ('green pears') have yellow-green rinds.

Important cultivars include:

  • 'Chojuro' (ja:長十郎, Japan, 1893?)[12][13]
  • 'Kosui' (ja:幸水, Japan, 1959; the most important cultivar in Japan),[14][15]
  • 'Hosui' (ja:豊水, Japan, 1972)[16][17]
  • 'Imamuraaki' (ja:今村秋, Japan, native)[18]
  • 'Nijisseiki' (ja:二十世紀, Japan, 1898; name means "20th century", also spelled 'Nijusseiki')[19][20]
  • 'Niitaka' (ja:新高, Japan, 1927)[21][22]
  • 'Okusankichi' (ja:晩三吉, Japan, native)[23][24]
  • 'Raja' (new)[25]
  • 'Shinko' (ja:新興, Japan, 1941)[26][27]
  • 'Hwangkeum' (ko:황금, zh:黄金, Korea, 1984, 'Niitaka' x 'Nijisseiki')

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan,. 
  2. ^ "Pyrus pyrifolia (Chinese pear)". USDA PLANTS profile. Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  3. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties. Agfact H4.1.14
  4. ^ In Japanese the fruit is called nashi. A variety is called shingo in Korean.
  5. ^ Corrections: For the record. (2007 Sep 1) New York Times archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  6. ^ Peter Del Tredici (2010) The Sand Pear—Pyrus pyrifolia. Arnoldia 67(4)
  7. ^ Solomon, Charmaine (1998), "Nashi", Encyclopedia of Asian Food, Periplus Editions, New Holland Publishers, retrieved 2008-07-11 [dead link]
  8. ^ Australian Nashi Growers Association - Growers: history/background accessed 6 July 2011
  9. ^ The Yuki Teikei Haiku Season Word List from the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society (Northern California)
  10. ^ Kbs Global
  11. ^ Home-grown Japanese pear officially launched - Cyprus Mail
  12. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  13. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, chojuro. Agfact H4.1.14
  14. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  15. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, kosui. Agfact H4.1.14
  16. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  17. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, housui. Agfact H4.1.14
  18. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  19. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  20. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, nijiseiki. Agfact H4.1.14
  21. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  22. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, nitaka. Agfact H4.1.14
  23. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  24. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, okusanki. Agfact H4.1.14
  25. ^ Edwards, Barbara; Olivella, Mary (2011). From Tree to Table: Growing Backyard Fruit Trees in the Pacific Maritime Climate. Seattle: Skiptone. p. 127. 
  26. ^ ニホンナシ育成品種の系統図 :果樹研
  27. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi asian pear varieties, shinko. Agfact H4.1.14

External links[edit]