Python (genus)

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Python
Python molurus тигровый питон.jpg
Burmese python, Python bivittatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Pythonidae
Genus: Python
Daudin, 1803
Synonyms

Python, from the Greek word (πύθων/πύθωνας), is a genus of nonvenomous pythons[2] found in Africa and Asia. Currently, 12 species are recognised.[2] A member of this genus, P. reticulatus, is among the longest snake species and extant reptiles in the world.

Geographic range[edit]

Python anchietae

Found in Africa in the tropics south of the Sahara, but not in the extreme south-western tip of southern Africa (Western Cape), or in Madagascar. In Asia, it is found from Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, including the Nicobar Islands, through Myanmar, east to Indochina, southern China, Hong Kong and Hainan, as well as in the Malayan region of Indonesia and the Philippines.[1]

Some suggest that P. molurus and P. sebae have the potential to be problematic invasive species in South Florida.[3] The United States Department of Agriculture reports that only Python molurus bivittatus is an invasive species in the United States.[4] More recent data suggests that these pythons would not withstand winter climates north of Florida, contradicting previous research suggesting a more significant geographic potential range.[5][6]

Species[edit]

Species[2][7] IUCN Status[8] Taxon author[2] Subsp.*[2] Common name Geographic range[1]
P. anchietae

Angolan Dwarf Python (Python anchietae).jpg

LC (Bocage, 1887) 0 Angolan python Africa in southern Angola and northern Namibia.
P. bivittatus

Python molurus bivittatus (1).jpg

VU (Kuhl, 1820) 1 Burmese python S Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S China (S Yunnan east to Fujian, incl. Hainan and Hong Kong; Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Indonesia (Java, Bali)
P. brongersmai

Python brongersmai by hj west.jpg

LC (Stull, 1938) 0 Brongersma's short-tailed python/ Blood python Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka Island, Lingga islands, Riau islands, and Pinang
P. breitensteini

Python curtus.jpg

LC (Steindachner, 1881) 0 Bornean python/ Bornean short-tailed python Borneo, including Sarawak
P. curtus NE (Schlegel, 1872) 0 Sumatran short-tailed python Southeast Asia in southern Thailand, Malaysia (Peninsular and Sarawak) (including Pinang) and Indonesia (Sumatra, Riau Archipelago, Lingga Islands, Bangka Islands, Mentawai Islands and Kalimantan).
P. kyaiktiyo [9]

P.kyaiktiyo II.png

VU (Zug, Gotte & Jacobs, 2011) 0 Myanmar short-tailed python West of the Tenghyo Range, Myanmar [10]
P. molurusT

Python molurus molurus 2.jpg

LR/nt (Linnaeus, 1758) 0 Indian python/ Black tailed Python Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar.
P. natalensis

Python natalensis G. J. Alexander.JPG

NE (Smith, 1840 ) 0 Southern African rock python Southern Africa such as Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa.
P. regius

Gravid Ball Python.jpg

LC (Shaw, 1802) 0 Ball python/ Royal python Africa from Senegal, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Niger and Nigeria through Cameroon, Chad and the Central African Republic to Sudan and Uganda.
P. reticulatus

Python reticulatus сетчатый питон-2.jpg

NE (Schneider, 1801) 0 Reticulated python Southeast Asia from the Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, east through Indonesia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago (Sumatra, Mentawai Islands, Natuna Islands, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Timor, Maluku, Tanimbar Islands) and the Philippines (Basilan, Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Tawi-Tawi).
P. sebae

Adult Female Python sebae.jpg

NE (Gmelin, 1788) 0 Northern African rock python Africa south of the Sahara from Senegal east to Ethiopia and Somalia, including Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Ghana, Togo, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.
P. timoriensis

Adult Lesser Sundas Python (Python timoriensis).jpg

NE (Peters, 1876) 0 Timor python Indonesia on the Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores, Lombien and Timor Islands).
P. europaeus EX (Syzndlar & Rage, 2003) 0 - Remains found in present day France.[11]

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.[1]

Uses[edit]

Ball pythons commonly exhibit mutations, such as this "Spider" morph, and are very popular among snake keepers.

Python skin is used to make clothing such as vests, belts, boots, shoes or fashion accessories such as handbags. It may also be used to cover the sound board of some string musical instruments, such as the banhu, sanxian or the sanshin.

As Pets[edit]

Many species of pythons, such as P. regius, P. brongersmai, and P. reticulatus are popular to keep as pets due to their ease of care and many color mutations, which have been sold for thousands of dollars. Despite controversy that has arisen from media reports, pet pythons are relatively safe to own when proper safety procedure is practiced[12] and deaths associated with pet pythons are very isolated when compared to other domestic animals such as dogs and horses.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c d e "Python". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  3. ^ Python Snakes, An Invasive Species In Florida, Could Spread To One Third Of US at ScienceDaily. Accessed 18 October 2008.
  4. ^ Invasive Species: Animals. Invasivespeciesinfo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  5. ^ Avery, M. L., Engeman, R. M., Keacher, K. L., Humphrey, J. S., Bruce, W. E., Mathies, T. C., & Mauldin, R. E. (2010). Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons. Biological invasions, 12(11), 3649-3652.http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/main.shtml
  6. ^ Python Snakes, An Invasive Species In Florida, Could Spread To One Third Of US
  7. ^ http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/browse/classification/kingdom/Animalia/phylum/Chordata/class/Reptilia/order/Squamata/family/Pythonidae/genus/Python/match/1
  8. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org
  9. ^ http://novataxa.blogspot.com/2012/01/2011-python-kyaiktiyo-myanmar.html
  10. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/199854/0
  11. ^ "Annotated checklist of the recent and extinct pythons". 
  12. ^ http://www.anapsid.org/handling.html
  13. ^ http://www.anapsid.org/pdv-boid.html

External links[edit]