Kasur District

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ضِلع قصُور
District
Kasur District
Bulleh Shah's Shrine.JPG
Location of Kasur District (highlighted in orange) within Punjab.
Location of Kasur District (highlighted in orange) within Punjab.
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Headquarters Kasur
Government
 • District Coordination Officer Ihsan Waheed
Area
 • Total 3,995 km2 (1,542 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 2,912,000
Time zone PST (UTC+5)

Kasur District or Qasur District (Urdu: ضِلع قصُور‎), is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan It came into existence on 1 July 1976. Earlier it was part of Lahore District.

The district capital is Kasur city, the birth city of the Sufi poet Bulleh Shah, well known in that region as well as in the whole of Pakistan. The total area of the district is 3,995 square kilometres.[1]

History[edit]

Kasur region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Kasur region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Kasur District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. During the British Raj, the irrigation canals were built that irrigated large areas of the Kasur District.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Kasur District.

Administration[edit]

The district is administratively subdivided into 4 tehsils[2] and 141 Union Councils:[3]

Name of Tehsil Number of Unions
Chunian 27
Kasur 55
Kot Radha Kishan 28
Pattoki 31
Total 141

Language and Demography[edit]

Further information: Punjabi dialects
Dialects of Punjabi

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 95%. Punjabi dialects spoken in the district are

  • Majhi or Standard (Majority)
  • Malwi (Migrated people from Indian)

Other Languages include:

  • Urdu being national language is spoken and understood.
  • English is also understood and spoken by the sizable educated people.

According to the 1998 census, the total population of the district is 2,376,000. Of this 97% are Muslims, 2% are Christians while the rest are Ahmadis, Hindus and scheduled castes.The 22.78% of the population lived in the urban areas.[4]

Physical features[edit]

The district is bounded by the Ravi River in the north-west and river Sutlej in the south-east. Whereas the old course of Beas River bifurcates the district into two equal parts locally known as Hither and Uthar or Mithan Majh. Both of the areas have a height differential of approximately 5.5 meters. The natural surface elevation of the district is 198 meters above the sea level, having a general slope from north-east to south- west. Whereas the east and west ends of the district comprise the flood plains of the rivers Satluj and Ravi, characterized by breaching of looping river Channels braided around meander bars.

Topography[edit]

Topographically speaking, Kasur District lies between the river Satluj which flows along its boundaries with India and river Ravi which flows its boundary with Sheikhupura District. The districts may be divided into two parts, a low lying or riverine area along the two bordering rivers and upland, away from the rivers. The riverine area is generally inundates during monsoon season. The water level in this area is higher than in the upland. The soil is sandy. The upland is flat plains sloping from north-west to south-west. The general height of the area is from 150 to 200 meters above the sea level.

Flora[edit]

Flora of the district has been greatly modified by human agency of the old open forests of small trees and shrubs; there remains only a few Rakhs or portions of forest which are kept as gazing ground for cattle etc. Amongst trees the most important are Kikar (Acacia arbica), Shisham or Tahli (Dalbergia sissoo), Beri (Zizyphus jajaba), Toot (Morus marlaccae), Sharin (Albizzia lebbek, Dharek (Malia azerdaracb), Phulahi (Acacia modesta), and Nim (Melia indica), Piple (Ficus indica) are planted for shade.The growth in Rakhs is composed mainly of three kinds of trees Jand (Prosopis spicigera), Karril (Capparis aphylla), and van or Jal (Salvadora obeoides). Occasionally pelu (acacia Loucophhloea) and Farash (Tamarix articulate) are also found. Pilchi (Tamarix gallio) is found on moist sandy soil along the rivers and is used for wicker-work, basket making etc.

Fauna[edit]

Wolf and jackal are the only wild animals of any importance. The former being met with occasionally in the low land wastes of Chunian Tehsil but jackal are found every where. Changa Manga reserve a thick forest is the only area in which a few Nelgai, pig, peafowl and here are found.

Places of interest[edit]

  • Shrine of Baba Bulleh Shah, Kasur City
  • Ganda Singh Wala Border, Pakistan-India Border.
  • Balloki Headworks
  • Changa Manga Forest, near Chunian Town
  • Shrine of Hazrat Abdullah Shah Bukhari(Baba Sha Jhanda), near Pattoki city
  • Gurdwara HardoSahari and Samadh Pir Sahari Chhina Jatt. Village Hardo Sahari.

Villages[edit]

  • Qadiwind is historically significant to the Sikh religion. During the partition of Punjab in 1947 the Sikhs there emigrated to East Punjab in India. Punjabi writer Baba Sohan Singh Sital was a resident of this village. His house and garden are now occupied by Muslim refugees from Mewat who came as part of partition. The majority population consists of Meo or Mewatis who migrated to Pakistan from Rajasthan in 1947.[5]

Tribes and Clans[edit]

Arain, Rajput, Jatt, Sheikh, Balouch, Cheema, Syed, Gujjar, Mughal, Butt, Kamboh, Niazi, Darr, Daudpota Abbasi, Koreja, Kashmiri, Chachar, Awan, Dahar, Chouhan, Qureshi, Mahar, Channa, and Khokhar.

Famous Punjabi poet/saint Baba Bulleh Shah's peer or murshid Shah Inayat Qadiri also belonged to Arain tribe of Kasur and buried in Lahore.

See also[edit]

  • Kasur, the capital of Kasur District

References[edit]

Coordinates: 31°00′N 74°10′E / 31.000°N 74.167°E / 31.000; 74.167