Qaghans of the Turkic khaganates

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Kahagan (Qaghan) was a title used by the Turkic people of the Medieval Ages. Turkic khaganate (aka Göktürks) was a vast empire in Central Asia and Mongolia between 552 and 744. It was a confederation of Turkic tribes. Their history is turbulent. In the 6th century, they challenged the power of China. At the end of the century following a civil war, the khaganate was divided into eastern and western wings. In the second half of the 7th century, both wings were defeated by the Tang China. However in 682 they regained their independence.

Qaghans of the Turkic Khaganate[edit]

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Bumin Qaghan / Illig Qaghan
伊利可汗
"Tumen"
"土門" / "土门"
Princess Changle
長樂公主 / 长乐公主
From Western Wei
552
Issik Qaghan
乙息記可汗 / 乙息记可汗
Keluo / K'o-lo
科羅 / 科罗
552—553 Son of Bumin Qaghan
Muqan Qaghan
木桿可汗 / 木杆可汗
Yandou / Yen-to
燕都, "俟斤"
553—572 Son of Bumin Qaghan
Taspar Qaghan
佗缽可汗 / 佗钵可汗
572—581 Son of Bumin Qaghan[1]
Unknown title Anluo / An-lo
庵邏 / 庵逻
581 Son of Tatpar Qaghan
Ishbara Qaghan
沙缽略可汗 / 沙钵略可汗
Shetu / She-t'u
攝圖 / 摄图
Il Kul Shad Bagha Ishbara Qaghan
伊利俱盧設莫何始波羅可汗 / 伊利俱卢设莫何始波罗可汗
Princess Qianjin of Northern Zhou
千金公主
After the fall of Northern Zhou, she was given surname Yang and became Princess Dayi of Sui
大義公主 / 大义公主
581—587 Son of Issik Qaghan[2]
Bagha Qaghan / Yabgu Qaghan
莫何可汗 / 葉護可汗
Chuluohou / Ch'u-lo-hou
處羅侯 / 处罗侯
587—588 Son of Issik Qaghan
Tulan Qaghan
都藍可汗 / 都蓝可汗
Yongyulü / Yung-yü-lü
雍虞閭 / 雍虞闾
588—599 Son of Ishbara Qaghan

Qaghans of the western side of the Turkic Khaganate[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Yabghu Qaghan
葉護可汗 / 叶护可汗
Istemi
Shidianmi / Shih-tien-mi
室點密 / 室点密
552—575 Younger brother of Bumin Qaghan
Tardush Qaghan
達頭可汗 / 达头可汗
Dianjue / Tien-chüeh
玷厥
575—602 Son of Istemi

Qaghans of Apa line[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Apa Qaghan
阿波可汗
Daluobian / Ta-lo-pien
大邏便 / 大逻便
581 - 587 Son of Muqan Qaghan
Niri Qaghan
泥利可汗
587 - 601 Son of Yangsu Tigin
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan

Qaghans of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Yami Qaghan
啟民可汗 / 启民可汗
Rangan / Jan-kan
染干
Tölis Qaghan
突利可汗 / 突利可汗
Princess Anyi
安義公主 / 安义公主 (597 - 599)
From Sui
Princess Yicheng
義成公主 / 义成公主 (599 - )
From Sui
599—609 Son of Ishbara Qaghan
Shibi Qaghan
始畢可汗 / 始毕可汗
Duojishi / To-chi-shih
咄吉世
Princess Yicheng
義成公主 / 义成公主
609—619 Son of Yami Qaghan[3]
Chula Qaghan
處羅可汗 / 处罗可汗
"Ilteber Shad"
"俟利弗設" / "俟利弗设"
Princess Yicheng
義成公主 / 义成公主
619—620 Son of Yami Qaghan
Illig Qaghan
頡利可汗 / 颉利可汗
Duobi / To-pi
咄苾
"Baghatur Shad"
"莫賀咄設" / "莫贺咄设"
Princess Yicheng
義成公主 / 义成公主
620—630 Son of Yami Qaghan

Qaghans under the Jimi system of Tang China[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Qilibi Khan
俟力苾可汗
Simo / Ssu-mo
思摩
639 - 644 Son of Tughruq Shad
Chebi Khan
車鼻可汗 / 车鼻可汗
Hubo / Hu-po
斛勃
646 - 649
Nizük Beg
Nishoufu / Ni-shou-fu
泥熟匐
679 - 680
Funian / Fu-nien
伏念
680 - 681 Relative of Illig Qaghan

Qaghans of the Western Turkic Khaganate[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Heshana Khan[citation needed]
曷娑那可汗, 曷薩那可汗 / 曷萨那可汗

達曼 / 达曼
泥厥處羅可汗 / 泥厥处罗可汗
Princess Xinyi
信義公主 / 信义公主
From Sui
604—611 Son of Niri Qaghan
Sheguy
射匱可汗 / 射匮可汗
610—617 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Tuluq Yabghu Qaghan
統葉護可汗 / 统叶护可汗
617—630 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Baghatur Qaghan
莫賀咄可汗 / 莫贺咄可汗
630 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Si Yabghu Qaghan
肆葉護可汗 / 肆叶护可汗
Turuk Tigin
咥力特勒
630—632 Son of Tuluq Yabghu Qaghan
Tughluq Qaghan
咄陸可汗 / 咄陆可汗
Nizük
泥孰

吞阿婁拔奚利咄陸可汗 / 吞阿娄拔奚利咄陆可汗
632—634 Son of Baghatur Qaghan
Ishbara Terish Qaghan
沙缽羅咥利失可汗 / 沙钵罗咥利失可汗
Tonga / Tongra
同俄
634—639 Son of Baghatur Qaghan
Illig Beg Tughluq Qaghan[citation needed]
乙毗咄陸可汗 / 乙毗咄陆可汗
Yukuk Shad
欲谷設 / 欲谷设
638—653 Grandson of Tughluq Yabghu
Illig Qutlugh Illig Beg Qaghan[citation needed]
乙屈利失乙毘可汗 / 乙屈利失乙毗可汗
639—640 Son of Ishbara Terish Qaghan
Illig Beg Ishbara Yabghu Qaghan[citation needed]
乙毗沙缽羅葉護可汗 / 乙毗沙钵罗叶护可汗
Tigin
薄布特勒
639—641 Son of Genna Shad
Illig Beg Shekuei Qaghan[citation needed]
乙毗射匱可汗 / 乙毗射匮可汗
642—653 Son of Illig Kul Bilge Qaghan
Grandson of Apa Qaghan
Ishbara Qaghan
沙缽羅可汗 / 沙钵罗可汗
Helu
賀魯 / 贺鲁
650—658 Son of Böri Shad
Grandson of Tughluq Yabghu

Xingxiwang Qaghans[edit]

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Ashina Mishe

阿史那弥射
莫贺咄叶护
奚利邲咄陆可汗
657-662
Ashina Duzhī
Onoq Qaghan
阿史那都支
十姓可汗
671-679
Ashina Yuanqing 阿史那元庆 685-692 Son of Ashina Mishe
Ashina Tuizi 阿史那俀子 693-694 Son of Ashina Yuanqing
Anshina Xian 阿史那献 708-717 Son of Ashina Yuanqing
Ashia Zhèn 阿史那震 735-736 Son of Ashina Xian

Jiwangjue Qaghans[edit]

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Ashina Buzhen 阿史那步真 657-667
Ashina Huseluo
Jiezhong Shizhu Qaghan
阿史那斛瑟罗
竭忠事主可汗
685-703 Son of Ashina Buzhen
Ashina Huaidao 阿史那怀道 704-708 Son of Ashina Huseluo
Ashina Xin 阿史那昕 740-742 Son of Ashina Huaidao

Qaghans of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate[edit]

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Ilterish Qaghan
頡跌利可汗 / 颉跌利可汗
Qutlugh
那骨咄祿 / 骨咄禄
682—694 Relative of Illig Qaghan
Qapaghan Qaghan
遷善可汗 / 迁善可汗

默啜
694—716 Younger brother of Ilterish Qaghan
Inel Qaghan
拓西可汗

匐俱
716 Son of Qapaghan Qaghan
Bilge Qaghan
毗伽可汗
Bögü
默棘連 / 默棘连
Po Beg 716—734 Son of Ilterish Qaghan
Yiran Qaghan
伊然可汗
- 734 Son of Bilge Khagan
Tengri Qaghan
登利可汗
- 734—741 Son of Bilge Khagan
Kutluk Yabgu Qhagan
骨咄
741—742 Son of Ilterish Qaghan
Ilterish Qaghan
頡跌伊施可汗 / 颉跌伊施可汗
742—744 The chief of the Basmyl tribe
Ozmysh Qaghan
烏蘇米施可汗 / 乌苏米施可汗
742—744 Son of Pan Kul Tigin

白眉可汗

鶻隴匐 / 鹘陇匐
744—745 Son of Pan Kul Tigin
  • Ashina Gulongfu 744 - 745
  • Eletmish Kagan 747-759 [4]
  • Bügü Kagan 759-779 [4]·

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Deny; Jean Deny, Louis Bazin, Hans Robert Roemer, György Hazai , Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp (2000). History of the Turkic Peoples in the Pre-Islamic Period. Schwarz. p. 108. 
  2. ^ Lovell, Julia (2007). The great wall: China Against the World, 1000 BC - AD 2000. Grove Press. p. 354. ISBN 0-8021-4297-4. 
  3. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2006). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty: His Life, Times, and Legacy. State University of New York Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-7914-6587-X. 
  4. ^ a b Yu. Zuev (I︠U︡. A. Zuev) (2002) (Russian), Early Türks: Essays on history and ideology (Rannie ti︠u︡rki: ocherki istorii i ideologii), Almaty, Daik-Press, p. 233, ISBN 9985-4-4152-9.