|Commander of the Quds Force|
1997 or 1998
|Supreme Leader||Ali Khamenei|
|Preceded by||Ahmad Vahidi|
|Commander||Yahya Rahim Safavi
Mohammad Ali Jafari
11 March 1957 |
|Nickname(s)||Haj Qasem , Sardar Soleimani|
|Service/branch||Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution|
|Years of service||1980-present|
South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000)
Shia insurgency in Yemen
2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Syrian Civil War
Qasem Soleimani (Persian: قاسم سلیمانی, born 11 March 1957) is the commander of the Qods Force, a division of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which conducts special operations outside Iran. He is listed by the United States government as a terrorist, and has been described as "both hated and admired" by his adversaries. According to Western sources, although he has maintained a low profile, Soleimani has been very influential in building up the military and terror capacity of Hezbollah, shaping the post-war political landscape in Iraq, and turning around the Syrian civil war—driving opposition forces from strategic points.
Early life and education
Soleimani was born 11 March 1957 in the village Rabor in the province of Kerman, and his father was a peasant. He has a high school education. In his early years, he worked as a contractor for the Kerman Water organization. When not at work, he spent his time lifting weights in local gyms and attending the sermons of a traveling preacher by the name of Hojjat Kamyab - a protege of Ayatollah Khomeini.
Career and activities
Soleimani joined the Revolutionary Guard (IRGC) in 1979 following the fall of the Shah of Iran to the Ayatollah Khomeini. Reportedly, his training was minimal, but he advanced rapidly. Early in his career as a guardsman, he was stationed in northwestern Iran and helped crush a Kurdish uprising.
On 22 September 1980, when Saddam Hussein invaded Iran, Soleimani was a lieutenant in the ranks of the IRGC. During the war, from 1980 to 1988, he was stationed at the south front, commanding the Forty-First Tharallah Division while still in his 20s. He is considered a hero of the war by some war veterans
After the war, during the 1990s, he was an IRGC commander in Kerman. In this border region of Afghanistan where opium trade travels to Turkey and onto Europe, Soleimani's military experience helped him earn a reputation as a successful fighter against drug trafficking.
During the 1999 student revolt in Tehran, Soleiman was one of 24 IRGC officers who wrote a letter warning the reformist President Mohammad Khatami that “Our patience has run out,” and that if Khatami did not suppress the revolt the military would—perhaps deposing Khatami in the process.
Command of Quds Force
The exact date of his appointment as commander of the IRGC Special Forces - the Quds Force ("Jerusalem Brigade") is not clear, but Ali Alfoneh cites it as between 10 September 1997 and 21 March 1998. He was considered one of the possible successors to the post of commander of the IRGC, when General Yahya Rahim Safavi left this post in 2007. In 2008, he led a group of Iranian investigators looking into the death of Imad Mughniyah. Suleimani helped arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and Mahdi Army in March 2008.
Following the Twin Tower attacks of September 11, 2001, Ryan Crocker, a senior State Department official in the United States, flew to Geneva to meet with Iranian diplomats who were under the direction of Soleimani with the purpose of collaborating to destroy the Taliban, which had targeted Shia Afghanis. This collaboration was instrumental in defining the targets of bombing operations in Afghanistan and in capturing key Al Qaeda operatives, but abruptly ended in January, 2002, when George W Bush named Iran as part of the "Axis of evil" in his State of the Union address.
In 2009, a leaked report stated that General Soleimani met Christopher R. Hill and General Raymond T. Odierno (America’s two most senior officials in Baghdad at the time) in the office of Iraq’s president, Jalal Talabani (who has known General Soleimani for decades). Hill and General Odierno denied the occurrence of the meeting.
On 24 January 2011, Soleimani was promoted to major general by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Khamenei is described as having a close relationship with him, helping him financially and has called Soleimani a "living martyr".
Soleimani has been described as "the single most powerful operative in the Middle East today" and the principal military strategist and tactician in Iran's effort to combat Western-Israeli influence and promote the expansion of Shiite influence throughout the Middle East. Geneive Abdo has called him a "brilliant tactician". In Iraq, as the commander of the Quds force, he is believed to have engineered the Iraqi coalition government in its current form, supporting the election of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Al-Maliki.
According to some sources, Soleimani is the principal leader and architect of the Lebanese Shia military and terror organization Hezbollah in Lebanon since his appointment as Quds commander in 1998.
According to several sources, including Riad Hijab, a former Syrian premier who defected in August 2012, he is also one of the staunchest supporters of the Syrian regime of Bashar Al-Assad in the Syrian civil war. In the later half of 2012, Soleimani assumed personal control of the Iranian intervention in the Syrian civil war, when Iranians became deeply concerned about the Assad regime's lack of ability to fight the opposition, and the fallout to the Islamic Republic if the Syrian regime fell. In Damascus he is reported to be coordinating the war from a base in Damascus at which a Lebanese Hezbollah commander and an Iraqi Shiite militia coordinator have been mobilized, in addition to Syrian and Iranian officers. Brigadier General Hossein Hamadani, the Basij’s former deputy commander helps to run irregular militias that the Soleimani hope to continue the fight if Assad falls. Under Soleimani the command has "coördinated attacks, trained militias, and set up an elaborate system to monitor rebel communications". According to a Middle Eastern security official Dexter Filkins talked to, thousands of Quds Force and Iraqi Shiite militiamen in Syria are "spread out across the entire country.” The retaking of Qusayr from Syrian rebels was, according to John Maguire, a former C.I.A. officer in Iraq, "orchestrated" by Soleimani and "a great victory for him.”
In March 2007, Soleimani was included on a list of Iranian individuals targeted with sanctions in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747. On 18 May 2011, he was sanctioned again by the United States along with Syrian president Bashar Assad and other senior Syrian officials due to his alleged involvement in providing material support to the Syrian regime.
On 24 June 2011, the Official Journal of the European Union said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members now subject to sanctions had been "providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria". The Iranians added to the EU sanctions list were two Revolutionary Guard commanders, Soleimani, Mohammad Ali Jafari, and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb. Soleimani was also sanctioned by the Swiss government in September 2011 due to the same grounds cited by the European Union.
He is listed by the United States as a terrorist, which forbids U.S. citizens from doing business with him. The list, published in the EU's Official Journal on 24 June 2011, also includes a Syrian property firm, an investment fund and two other enterprises accused of funding Assad's government. The list also includes Mohammad Ali Jafari and Hossein Taeb.
According to an unnamed "Middle Eastern security official", Soleimani is a married family man with three sons and two daughters. In middle age, he suffers from bad prostate and recurring back pain. He has been described by another official who had dealt with him as "not particularly" religious but motivated by nationalism, "and the love of the fight.”
- "Designation of Iranian Entities and Individuals for Proliferation Activities and Support for Terrorism". United States Department of State. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- "Iranian who brokered Iraqi peace is on U.S. terrorist watch list". McClatchy Newspapers. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Filkins, Dexter| "The Shadow Commander"| The New Yorker, Sept 30, 2013.
- Filkins, Dexter| "The Shadow Commander"| The New Yorker, Sept 30, 2013. quote=“Suleimani is the single most powerful operative in the Middle East today,” John Maguire, a former C.I.A. officer in Iraq, told me, “and no one’s ever heard of him.”
- Alfoneh, Ali (January 2011). "Brigadier General Qassem Suleimani: A Biography". Middle Eastern Outlooks 1. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Alfoneh, Ali (March 2011). "Iran’s Secret Network: Major General Qassem Suleimani’s Inner Circle". Middle Eastern Outlooks 2. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "News & Views". The Iranian. July 1999. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Iraq and its neighbours: A regional cockpit The Economist
- "The Islamic Republic's 13 generals". Iran Briefing. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Abdo, Geneive. "What an attack on Syria will mean for US-Iran relations". 10 September 2013. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Abbas, Mushreq (12 March 2013). "Iran's Man in Iraq and Syria". Al Monitor. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747". United Nations. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Alfoneh, Ali (July 2011). "Iran’s Most Dangerous General". Middle Eastern Outlooks 4. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 611/2011 of 23 June 2011
- "Syria: Deadly protests erupt against Bashar al-Assad". BBC News. 24 June 2011.
- "Ordinance instituting measures against Syria". Federal Department of Economy. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "EU expands sanctions against Syria". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- David Ignatius, At the Tip of Iran's Spear, Washington Post, 8 June 2008
- Martin Chulov, Qassem Suleimani: the Iranian general 'secretly running' Iraq, The Guardian, 28 July 2011
- Dexter Filkins, The Shadow Commander, The New Yorker, 30 September 2013
- Ali Mamouri, The Enigma of Qasem Soleimani And His Role in Iraq, Al-Monitor, 13 October 2013