List of countries in the Eurovision Song Contest

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Map showing debuts in the contest by decade: 1: Participated as part of Yugoslavia between 1961 and 1991
2: Participated as part of Yugoslavia and later Serbia & Montenegro until 2005
Graph showing the number of participating countries in the Eurovision Song Contest from 1956 to 2014

Fifty-one countries have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since it started in 1956. Of these, twenty-five have won the contest. The contest, organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), is held annually between members of the Union. Broadcasters from different countries submit songs to the event, and cast votes to determine the most popular in the competition.

Participation in the contest is open to all active member broadcasters of the EBU. To be an active member, broadcasters must be in the European Broadcasting Area, or be in a Council of Europe member country.[1] Eligibility to participate is not determined by geographic inclusion within the continent of Europe, despite the "Euro" in "Eurovision" — nor does it have a direct connection with the European Union. Several countries geographically outside the boundaries of Europe have competed: Israel, Cyprus and Armenia, in Western Asia, since 1973, 1981 and 2006 respectively; and Morocco, in North Africa, in the 1980 competition alone. In addition, several transcontinental countries with only part of their territory in Europe have competed: Turkey, since 1975; Russia, since 1994; Georgia, since 2007; and Azerbaijan, which made its first appearance in the 2008 edition. Two of the countries that have previously sought to enter the competition, Lebanon and Tunisia, in Western Asia and North Africa respectively, are also outside of Europe. The Gulf state of Qatar, in Western Asia, announced in 2009 its interest in joining the contest in time for the 2011 edition.[2] However, this did not materialise, and there are no known plans for a future Qatari entry the Eurovision Song Contest.

The number of countries participating each year has grown steadily, from seven in 1956 to over twenty in the late 1980s and 43 in 2011. As the number of contestants has risen, preliminary competitions and relegation have been introduced, to ensure that as many countries as possible get the chance to compete. In 1993, a preliminary show, Kvalifikacija za Millstreet ("Qualification for Millstreet"), was held to select three Eastern European countries to compete for the first time at the main Contest.[3] After the 1993 Contest, a relegation rule was introduced; the six lowest-placed countries in the contest would not compete the following year.[4] In 1996, a new system was introduced. Audio tapes of all twenty-nine entrants were submitted to national juries. The twenty-two highest-placed songs after the juries voted reached the contest. Norway, as host country, was given a bye to the final.[5] From 1997 to 2001 a system was used whereby the countries with the lowest average scores over the previous five years were relegated. Countries could not be relegated for more than one year.[6]

Between 2001 and 2003, the relegation system used in 1994 and 1995 was used. In 2004, a semi-final was introduced. The ten highest-placed countries in the previous year's Contest qualified for the final, along with the "Big Four": the largest financial contributors to the EBU. All other countries entered the semi-final. Ten countries qualified from the semi, leaving a final of twenty-four.[7] In 2008, two semi-finals were held with all countries, except the host country and the Big Four, participating in one of the semi-finals.[8]

Some countries, such as Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, have entered on all but a handful of occasions; Morocco, on the other hand, has only entered once. Two countries, Tunisia and Lebanon, have attempted to enter the contest but withdrew before making a debut. Liechtenstein, a country without an eligible television service, tried unsuccessfully to enter in 1976.[9]

Participants[edit]

Dan Ar Braz represented France in 1996, performing in the Breton language
Jari Sillanpää represented Finland in the first Eurovision semi-final in 2004, failing to qualify.
Magdi Rúzsa, born in the Serbian province of Vojvodina, represented Hungary in 2007.[10]
Lys Assia, the first Eurovision winner, was a special guest in 2008.

The following table lists the countries that have participated in the contest at least once. Shading indicates countries that have withdrawn from the contest. Morocco participated in the contest once, in 1980. Luxembourg, one of the original seven participants, has not been seen at the contest since 1993. Italy withdrew from the contest in 1997 and returned in 2011. Slovakia previously competed three times between 1994 and 1998, failing to break into the top ten, but returned in 2009.[11] Monaco returned to the contest in 2004, after over two decades out of the contest. However, the country failed to advance from the semi-final with each of its first three entries post-return, and withdrew after the 2006 Contest.[12] Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro were both dissolved, in 1991 and 2006 respectively. Serbia and Montenegro in the attempt to mask as Yugoslavia, participated in the 1992 Contest under its name but representing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which consisted of only the two republics. Both Montenegro and Serbia have competed as separate countries since 2007.[13] Austria, having returned from a one-year absence, withdrew from the 2008 Contest; Edgar Bohm of ORF said "We've already seen in 2007 that it's not the quality of the song, but the country of origin that determines the result."[14] Austria returned in 2011 and has participated in 2012, 2013 and 2014, winning the latter edition.

Country Debut year Entries Wins Broadcaster(s)[15]
 Albania
2004
11
0
RTSH
 Andorra
2004
6
0
RTVA
 Armenia
2006
8
0
AMPTV
 Austria
1957
47
2
ORF
 Azerbaijan
2008
7
1
İTV
 Belarus
2004
11
0
BTRC
 Belgium
1956
56
1
VRT (Dutch)
RTBF (French)[a]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
1993
18
0
BHRT
 Bulgaria
2005
9
0
BNT
 Croatia
1993
21
0
HRT
 Cyprus
1981
31
0
CyBC
 Czech Republic
2007
3
0
ČT
 Denmark
1957
43
3
DR
 Estonia
1994
20
1
ETV
 Finland
1961
48
1
YLE (Finnish)
 France
1956
57
5
TF1 (1956–1981)
France Télévisions (1983–)
 Georgia
2007
7
0
GPB
 Germany
1956
58
2
HR (1956–1971) (ARD)
SFB (1972) (ARD)
HR (1973–1977) (ARD)
SWF (1978) (ARD)
BR (1979–1990) (ARD)
BR/SFB/DFF (1991) (ARD)
MDR (1992–1995) (ARD)
NDR (1996–) (ARD)
 Greece
1974
35
1
ERT (1974–2013)
NERIT (2014–)
 Hungary
1994
12
0
MTV
 Iceland
1986
27
0
RÚV
 Ireland
1965
48
7
RTÉ
 Israel
1973
37
3
IBA
 Italy
1956
40
2
RAI
 Latvia
2000
15
1
LTV
 Lithuania
1994
15
0
LRT
 Luxembourg
1956
37
5
CLT
 Macedonia
1998
14
0
MKRTV
 Malta
1971
27
0
PBS
 Moldova
2005
10
0
TRM
 Monaco
1959
24
1
TMC
 Montenegro
2007
6
0
RTCG
 Morocco
1980
1
0
SNRT
 Netherlands
1956
55
4
NOS (1956–2009)
TROS (2010–2013)
AVROTROS (2014-)
 Norway
1960
53
3
NRK
 Poland
1994
17
0
TVP
 Portugal
1964
47
0
RTP
 Romania
1994
16
0
TVR
 Russia
1994
18
1
RTR, C1R
 San Marino
2008
5
0
SMRTV
 Serbia
2007
7
1
RTS
 Serbia and Montenegro
2004
2
0
UJRT
 Slovakia
1994
7
0
STV (1994–2010)
RTVS (2011–)
 Slovenia
1993
20
0
RTV SLO
 Spain
1961
54
2
TVE
 Sweden
1958
54
5
SVR (1958)
SR (1959–1979)
SVT (1980–)
 Switzerland
1956
55
2
SRG SSR
 Turkey
1975
34
1
TRT
 Ukraine
2003
12
1
NTU
 United Kingdom
1957
57
5
BBC
 Yugoslavia[b]
1961
27
1
JRT
Table key
     Withdrawn – Countries who have participated in the past but have withdrawn.

Participating countries in the decades[edit]

The table lists the participating countries in each decade since the first ESC was held in 1956.
Seven countries participated in the first contest, in 1956. Since then, the number of entries has increased steadily. In 1970, a Nordic-led boycott of the contest reduced the number of countries entering to twelve.[16] By the late 1980s, over twenty countries had become standard. In 1993, the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe gave many new countries the opportunity to compete. Three countries—Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, all of them former Yugoslav republics, won through from a pre-qualifier to compete. After the 1993 event, a relegation system was introduced, allowing even more Eastern European countries to compete: seven more made their debut in 1994. In 2003, three countries applied to make their debut: Albania, Belarus and Ukraine. In addition, Serbia and Montenegro, who had not competed since 1992, applied to return. The EBU, having originally accepted the four countries' applications, later rejected all but Ukraine; allowing four extra countries to compete would have meant relegating too many countries.[17][18] The semi-final was introduced in 2004 in an attempt to prevent situations like this. The Union set a limit of forty countries,[19] but by 2005 thirty-nine were competing. In 2007, the EBU lifted the limit, allowing forty-two countries to compete. Two semi-finals were held for the first time in 2008.[8]

Table key[edit]

     Winner – The country won the ESC that year.
     Second place – The country was ranked second that year.
     Third place – The country was ranked third that year.
     Remaining places – The country placed from fourth to second last this year.
     Last – The country was ranked last that year.
     Non-qualified – The country did not qualify to the final (2004-).
     Non-qualified for the contest – The country did not survive the pre-qualifying round (1996)
     Undecided – The country has confirmed participation for the next ESC, however, the competition has not yet taken place.
     Debutant – The country made its debut during the decade.
     Did not participate – The country did not participate in the ESC that year.
A cross (X) means that the country participated in the contest that year.

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

Unsuccessful attempts to participate[edit]

There have been several unsuccessful attempts to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. For broadcasters to participate, they must be member of the European Broadcasting Union and register their intention to compete before the deadline specified in the rules of that year's event. Each participating broadcaster pays a fee towards the organisation of the Contest. Should a country withdraw from the Contest after the deadline, they will still need to pay these fees, and may also incur a fine or temporary ban.[20]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Kazakhstan
Flag
Member station K-1 (pending)
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
http://www.kaztrk.kz/
[ Kazakhstan's page at Eurovision.tv]

Kazakhstan has not participated in the Eurovision Song Contest yet. Kazakhstan is negotiating to join the European Broadcasting Union. The state television company (K-1) has been hoping for Pending or Approved EBU membership since 2008. If this happens, they may be eligible to compete in the Eurovision Song Contest.[21] Nevertheless, they have broadcast the Eurovision Song Contests from 2010 onwards.

Kosovo[edit]

Kosovo
Flag
Member station RTK (pending)
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
http://www.rtklive.com/en/
[ Kosovo's page at Eurovision.tv]

Kosovo has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest. The Kosovan national broadcaster has applied for membership to the EBU but has not been accepted as a full member.[c] However, RTK has been licensed to broadcast all three shows for many years. Although, Kosovo hasn't participated in the song contest yet, they did participate in the 2011 Eurovision Young Dancers.

History and interest[edit]

After Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2008, its broadcaster Radio Televizioni i Kosovës (RTK) was applying for EBU membership, and wished to enter Kosovo into Eurovision Song Contest 2009.[22][23] Kosovo would have made their Eurovision Song Contest debut in 2009 if it could have joined the EBU. Kosovo is partially recognized and not a member of the United Nations, and UN membership is required to obtain full EBU membership. There is already a cooperation agreement signed between the EBU and RTK and the EBU supports the membership of RTK. As of 2013, RTK has observer status within the EBU and did participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers.[24][25]

According to the Kosovan newspaper Koha Ditore, a possible entry would be selected via a national final called Akordet e Kosovës, a former pop show that had been taken off the air some years ago.[26][27][28]

Lebanon[edit]

Lebanon
Flag
Member station Télé Liban
National selection events Our Eurovision
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
Télé Liban's Eurovision page at the Wayback Machine (archived March 6, 2005)
Lebanon's page at Eurovision.tv

Lebanon has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest. The country's broadcasting organization, Télé Liban, was set to make the country's debut at the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 with the song "Quand tout s'enfuit" performed by Aline Lahoud, but withdrew due to Lebanon's laws banning the broadcast of Israeli content.

Liechtenstein[edit]

Liechtenstein
Flag
Member station 1FLTV (pending)
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
http://www.1fl.li/
[ Liechtenstein's page at Eurovision.tv]

Liechtenstein has never participated at the Eurovision Song Contest, but the contest has had a long history within the country, with at least one attempt to participate being made by the principality.

Background and first attempts[edit]

Liechtensteiners have had the opportunity to watch the contest on Swiss, Austrian or German television. The country has made attempts to participate in the contest in the past: in 1976 a Liechtenstein entry was selected to compete in the contest – Biggi Bachman and "Little Cowboy" would have been the country's first entry had there been a national broadcaster, but as there was none in the country the entry was rejected from competing.[29][30]

A broadcaster and Eurovision interest[edit]

On 15 August 2008, 1FLTV, licensed by the Liechtensteinese Government, became the first broadcaster based in Liechtenstein. This would allow the country to begin competing at the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time, should they decide to join the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), a pre-requisite for entering the contest.[31][32] Shortly after its foundation however, the broadcaster announced that they were not interested in joining the EBU or Eurovision at that time because they had no budget for membership.[33]

In July 2009, the broadcaster officially announced its intent to apply to join the EBU by the end of July, with the intent of taking part at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010, to be held in Oslo, Norway.[34] Peter Kölbel, managing director of 1FLTV, officially confirmed the broadcaster's interest, revealing that they had plans to develop a national final similar to Deutschland sucht den Superstar, the German version of the Idol series.[35] In November 2009, 1FLTV decided to postpone EBU and Eurovision plans, due to financial reasons began to search for other options for funding EBU membership in the future.[36][37]

1FLTV submitted its application for EBU membership on 29 July 2010. If accepted, 1FLTV would have gained full EBU membership and would have been able to send an entry to the Eurovision Song Contest 2011.[38] However, Liechtenstein did not appear on the official list of participants for Eurovision 2011. In late 2012 it was announced by Peter Kölbel of 1FLTV that Liechtenstein would not be able to take part till 2013 at the earliest. They had been trying to get government subsidies since 2010 to enable participation, participation was likely if in April 2012 the Government approved funding.

On 10 September 2013, 1FLTV informed and confirmed to Esctoday.com that Liechtenstein would not be participating at the Eurovision Song Contest 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark.[39] The broadcaster has no plans to join the EBU at the moment. This was confirmed again on 28 July 2014 in the run-up to the 2015 Contest in Austria. 1FLTV did however state their interest in participating in the Eurovision Song Contest, but that they have to evaluate the costs of EBU membership, a necessary prelude to participation.[40]

Qatar[edit]

Qatar
Flag
Member station Qatar Radio (pending)
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
http://www.qatarradio.net/
[ Qatar's page at Eurovision.tv]

Qatar Radio is currently an associate member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), while all competing countries of the Eurovision Song Contest are active members of the union. The broadcaster first revealed on 12 May 2009 that they were interested in becoming active members of the union, which would allow the nation to compete in the contest. Qatar Radio had stated that they hoped to participate in the contest by 2011.[2]

Qatar first became involved in the Contest at the 2009 edition, where the broadcaster sent a delegation to the contest and broadcast a weekly radio show called '12pointsqatar' dedicated to Eurovision. The show received favourable responses and has initiated further involvement of Qatar in the Contest.[2]

Scotland[edit]

Scotland
Flag
Member station BBC Scotland, Scottish Broadcasting Service or STV
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
[ Scotland's page at Eurovision.tv]

The Scottish National Party (SNP) has campaigned for a place in Eurovision for Scotland but had been rejected numerous times because Scotland is represented as a part of the British entry and is represented by the BBC. On 11 February 2008 the EBU stated that a Scottish broadcaster could apply for EBU membership, but under the current rules could not enter the Eurovision Song Contest as the BBC currently has exclusive rights to represent the entire United Kingdom.

Scotland would have been eligible to enter the contest had Scotland gained independence as a result of the Scottish independence referendum, 2014, as Scotland would therefore be a separate country.[41]

On 25 November 2013, the Scottish Government released a referendum blueprint which detailed plans for the transfer of BBC Scotland into the Scottish Broadcasting Service (SBS) and joining the EBU, as well as partaking in competitions, including Scottish entries in the Eurovision Song Contest. Had the referendum vote been favour of independence, then the earliest that Scotland would be eligible to début would have been 2017.[42][43][44] However, the referendum result on 18 September 2014 was to remain part of the United Kingdom, and the aforementioned BBC retains exclusive rights to represent the United Kingdom, including Scotland.

Soviet Union[edit]

Soviet Union
Flag
Member station CT USSR
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
[ Soviet Union's page at Eurovision.tv]

The Soviet Union never participated the Eurovision Song Contest, but it made several attempts in the late 1980s.

In 2009 Eduard Fomin, a former employee of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR, revealed that in 1987 George Veselov, the Minister of Education for the Soviet Union, brought forward the idea of Soviet participation in the Eurovision Song Contest due to the number of political reforms made by the President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev during the late 1980s. The idea was mainly a political one, with the thought that a win in the contest for the Soviet Union would impact on the relationships between the Soviet Union and the capitalist countries of the west. Valery Leontyev was suggested as a singer for the Soviet Union's first entry into the contest, but Veselov's ideas were not shared by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, or by Gorbachev himself, believing it to be too radical a step to take, and so the Soviet Union never entered the contest before dissolving.[45]

Ten former republics of the Soviet Union would later compete in the contest on their own in the 1990s and 2000s: Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, with five of the countries going on to win the contest: Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia, and Azerbaijan.

Tunisia[edit]

Tunisia
Flag
Member station RTT
Appearances
Appearances 0
External links
http://www.watania1.tn/
[ Tunisia's page at Eurovision.tv]

Tunisia was to perform fourth in the 1977 Eurovision Song Contest's running order. The reason for the country's withdrawal was never officially established; rumours suggest RTT did not want to compete with Israel.[9][46] To date, the only African nation to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest is Morocco, who made just one appearance, in the 1980 contest. On 18 June 2007, the public Tunisian television broadcaster confirmed that due to a governmental request they will not participate in the Contest.[47] No comment by the post-Arab Spring government has been made.

Other EBU members who can participate but have never entered[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ VRT and RTBF alternate responsibilities for the contest.
  2. ^ The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia competed as "Yugoslavia" in 1992.
  3. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ European Broadcasting Union (22 February 2006). Membership conditions. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  2. ^ a b c Repo, Juha (2009-05-12). "Gulf nation wants to join Eurovision". ESCToday. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  3. ^ ESCtoday.com. Eurovision Song Contest 1993. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  4. ^ O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X.
  5. ^ ESCtoday.com. Eurovision Song Contest 1996. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  6. ^ Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1997. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  7. ^ BBC News (12 May 2004). Eurovision finalists chosen. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  8. ^ a b European Broadcasting Union (1 October 2007). Two semi-finals Eurovision Song Contest 2008. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  9. ^ a b BBC (26 April 2007). The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 - present. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  10. ^ ESCtoday.com (26 February 2007). Rúsza wins by just 18 votes. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
  11. ^ Victor Hondal (24 September 2008. Slovakia returns to Eurovision in 2009. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 24 September 2008.
  12. ^ Gylleneskor.se (13 December 2006). Monaco drag sig ur Eurovision Song Contest (Swedish). Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
  13. ^ Ian Taylor (14 May 2007). From pariah state to kitsch victory: how a Balkan ballad showed Europe a new Serbia. The Guardian. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
  14. ^ ESCtoday.com (20 November 2007). Austria will not go to Belgrade. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
  15. ^ Eurovision.tv. History by country. Retrieved on 20 August 2014.
  16. ^ Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1970. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
  17. ^ ESCtoday.com (27 November 2002). No new countries at next Eurovision Song Contest. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
  18. ^ ESCtoday.com (27 November 2002). EBU released list of participants for 2003. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
  19. ^ Eurovision.tv (27 October 2006). Georgia set on 2007. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
  20. ^ BBC News (20 March 2006). Row prompts Eurovision withdrawal. Retrieved on 14 February 2008.
  21. ^ "Kazajistán negocia su incorporación a la UER". Eurovision Spain (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  22. ^ "Kosovo: RTK wants to enter Eurovision in 2009". oikotimes.com. Retrieved 22 May 2008. 
  23. ^ "NDR on the Kosovo potential participation in Eurovision" oikotimes.com 22 May 2008 Link accessed 27/05/08
  24. ^ Albavision (2011-04-07). "Kosovo new steps in ebu agreement". albavision.tk. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  25. ^ "Participant Profile - Kosovo". European Broadcasting Union. 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  26. ^ Eurosong (2008-04-19). "Kosovo wil snel deelnemen aan het Songfestival" (in Dutch). eurosong.be. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  27. ^ setimes (2010-04-08). "EBU membership key to Kosovo's Eurovision future". Setimes.com. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  28. ^ Eurovisionary (2011-06-02). "Kosovo a possible candidate for Eurovision?". eurovisionary.com. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  29. ^ "No, No, Never!!! - Songs That Did Not Make It To Eurovision". eurovisionsongs.net. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  30. ^ "The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 - present". BBC. 2007-04-26. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  31. ^ Kuipers, Michael (2008-08-24). "Liechtenstein gets a TV station". ESCToday. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  32. ^ Backfish, Emma (2008-08-31). "Liechtenstein gets national TV station". Oikotimes. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  33. ^ "1FL TV from Lichtenstein not entering the EBU & Eurovision". Oikotimes. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  34. ^ Harley, Lee (2009-07-21). "Liechtenstein: Set to debut in Eurovision 2010?". Oikotimes. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  35. ^ "News Eurovision Russia 2009". ESCKaz. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  36. ^ Hondal, Victor (2009-11-04). "Liechtenstein rules out Eurovision participation". ESCToday. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  37. ^ Coroneri, Alenka (2009-11-04). "Liechtenstein decides to postpone Eurovision plans". Oikotimes. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  38. ^ "Liechtenstein: 1FL expects "good chances" for Eurovision debut". ESCToday. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  39. ^ "Liechtenstein: No debut in Eurovision 2014!". ESCToday. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  40. ^ Jiandani, Sergio (28 July 2014). "Liechtentestein: 1 FL TV will not debut in Eurovision 2015". esctoday.com. ESCToday. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "Scotland heading for 2009 bid?". eurovision.tv. Retrieved 12 February 2008. 
  42. ^ Granger, Anthony (26 November 2013). "Scotland would participate in Eurovision". Eurovoix.com. BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  43. ^ "Scotland's Referendum 2014 - What will happen to the BBC following independence?". Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  44. ^ "Scotland's Referendum 2014 - Would the Scottish Broadcasting Service (SBS) join the European Broadcasting Union (EBU)?". Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  45. ^ Невероятно! Леонтьев должен был представлять СССР на Евровидение-87! (in Russian). nnm.ru. 
  46. ^ Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1977. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
  47. ^ "Tunisia will not participate "in the forseeable (sic) future"". ESCToday. Retrieved 18 June 2007. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X.