Qi (state)

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This article is about the major state of Qí (). For the minor state of Qǐ (), see Qi (Henan).
Qi
or
*Dzəj
Kingdom

 

1046 BC–221 BC
 

Qi in 260 BC
Capital Linzi
Religion Chinese folk religion
ancestor worship
Government Monarchy
Chancellor
 -  685–645 BC Guan Zhong
History
 -  Enfeoffment of Jiang Ziya 1046 BC
 -  Conquered by Qin 221 BC
Currency Knife money
Other ancient Chinese coinage
Qi
Great wall of qi 2008 07 14.jpg
The Great Wall of Qi on Dafeng Mountain
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
State of Qi
Traditional Chinese 齊國
Simplified Chinese 齐国

Qi, formerly romanized as Ch‘i or Chi, was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. Its Old Chinese name has been reconstructed as *Dzəj.[1] Its capital was Linzi (present-day Zibo in Shandong).

Qi was founded around in 1046 BC as one of the many vassal states of the Zhou Dynasty. The first ruler of Qi was Jiang Ziya, the most powerful official during that time. The Jiang family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 386 BC. In 221 BC, Qi was the last major state of pre-Imperial China to be conquered by the State of Qin, which became the Qin Dynasty, the first centralized empire of China.

History[edit]

Bronze knife-shaped coins of State of Qi, collected in Shandong Museum

Foundation[edit]

With the founding of the Zhou dynasty in 1046 BC,[2] King Wu of Zhou assigned the conquered lands as hereditary fiefs to his relatives and ministers. Territory in the area of modern day Shandong was given to Jiang Ziya, his most important general from which the state of Qi arose.[3] Little information survives from this period. King Yi of Zhou (r. 865–858) attacked Qi and boiled Duke Ai of Qi to death. At the time of King Xuan of Zhou (r. 827–782) there was a succession struggle. During this time many of the native Dongyi peoples were absorbed into the Qi state.

Spring and Autumn Period[edit]

In 706 BC, Qi was attacked by the Shan Rong. Qi rose to prominence under Duke Huan of Qi (685–643). He and his minister Guan Zhong strengthened the state by centralizing it. He annexed 35 neighboring states including Tan and brought others into submission. In 667 Duke Huan met with the rulers of Lu, Song, Chen and Zheng and was elected leader. Subsequently King Hui of Zhou made him the first Hegemon. He attacked Wei for supporting a rival of the Zhou king and intervened in the affairs of Lu. In 664 he protected Yan from the Rong. In 659 he protected Xing and in 660, Wei, from the Red Di. In 656 he blocked the northward expansion of Chu. After his death, his sons quarrelled and the hegemony passed to Jin.

In 632 Qi helped Jin defeat Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. In 589 Qi was defeated by Jin. In 579 the four great powers of Qin (west), Jin (center), Chu (south) and Qi (east) met to declare a truce and limit their military strength. In 546 a similar four-power conference recognized several smaller states as satellites of Qi, Jin and Qin.

Warring States Period[edit]

Early in the period, Qi annexed a number of smaller states. Qi was one of the first states to patronize scholars. In 532, the Tian clan destroyed several rival families and came to dominate the state. In 485, the Tian killed the ducal heir and fought several rival clans. In 481, the Tian chief killed a puppet duke, most of the ruler's family and a number of rival chiefs. He took control of most of the state and left the Duke with only the capital of Linzi and the area around Mount Tai. In 386, the House of Tian replaced the House of Jiang as rulers of Qi. In 221, Qi was the last of the warring states to be conquered by Qin, thereby putting an end to the wars and uniting China under the Qin Dynasty.

Rulers[edit]

Sacrificial horses discovered in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qi

House of Jiang[edit]

Title Name Period of reign Relationship Notes
Duke Tai
齊太公
Lü Shang
吕尚
11th century BC Enfeoffed by King Wu of Zhou, with capital at Yingqiu.
Duke Ding
齊丁公
Lü Ji
吕伋
10th century BC 5th-generation descendant of Duke Tai Traditionally believed to be son of Duke Tai.
Duke Yǐ
齊乙公
De
10th century BC Son of Duke Ding
Duke Gui
齊癸公
Cimu
慈母
c. 10th century BC Son of Duke Yǐ
Duke Ai
齊哀公
Buchen
不辰
9th century BC Son of Duke Gui Boiled to death by King Yi of Zhou.
Duke Hu
齊胡公
Jing
9th century BC Son of Duke Gui Moved capital to Bogu, killed by Duke Xian.
Duke Xian
齊獻公
Shan
859?–851 BC Son of Duke Gui Moved capital back to Linzi
Duke Wu
齊武公
Shou
850–825 BC Son of Duke Xian
Duke Li
齊厲公
Wuji
無忌
824–816 BC Son of Duke Wu Killed by supporters of Duke Hu's son.
Duke Wen
齊文公
Chi
815–804 BC Son of Duke Li
Duke Cheng
齊成公
Yue
803–795 BC Son of Duke Wen
Duke Zhuang I
齊前莊公
Gou
794–731 BC Son of Duke Cheng Reigned for 64 years.
Duke Xi
齊僖公
Lufu
祿甫
730–698 BC Son of Duke Zhuang I
Duke Xiang
齊襄公
Zhu'er
諸兒
697–686 BC Son of Duke Xi Committed incest with sister Wen Jiang, murdered her husband Duke Huan of Lu, conquered the state of Ji, murdered by cousin Wuzhi.
none Wuzhi
無知
686 BC Cousin of Duke Xiang, grandson of Duke Zhuang I Killed by Yong Lin.
Duke Huan
齊桓公
Xiaobai
小白
685–643 BC Younger brother of Duke Xiang First of the Five Hegemons, when Qi reached zenith of its power. Starved to death by ministers.
none Wukui or Wugui
無虧 or 無詭
643 BC Son of Duke Huan Killed by supporters of Duke Xiao.
Duke Xiao
齊孝公
Zhao
642–633 BC Son of Duke Huan Crown prince of Qi.
Duke Zhao
齊昭公
Pan
632–613 BC Son of Duke Huan His supporters murdered the son of Duke Xiao.
none She
613 BC Son of Duke Zhao Murdered by uncle, Shangren.
Duke Yì
齊懿公
Shangren
商人
612–609 BC Uncle of She, son of Duke Huan Killed by two ministers.
Duke Hui
齊惠公
Yuan
608–599 BC Son of Duke Huan Defeated Long Di invaders.
Duke Qing
齊頃公
Wuye
無野
598–582 BC Son of Duke Hui Defeated by Jin at the Battle of An.
Duke Ling
齊靈公
Huan
581–554 BC Son of Duke Qing Annexed the State of Lai; defeated by Jin at the Battle of Pingyin, capital Linzi burned.
Duke Zhuang II
齊後莊公
Guang
553–548 BC Son of Duke Ling Ascended throne by killing Prince Ya with the help of Cui Zhu; committed adultery with Cui's wife, killed by Cui Zhu.
Duke Jing
齊景公
Chujiu
杵臼
547–490 BC Half brother of Duke Zhuang II Killed Cui Zhu. Had famous statesman Yan Ying as prime minister.
An Ruzi
安孺子
Tu
489 BC Youngest son of Duke Jing Deposed by Tian Qi, killed by Duke Dao. Also called Yan Ruzi.
Duke Dao
齊悼公
Yangsheng
陽生
488–485 BC Son of Duke Jing Killed by minister, possibly Tian Heng.
Duke Jian
齊簡公
Ren
484–481 BC Son of Duke Dao Killed by Tian Heng.
Duke Ping
齊平公
Ao
480–456 BC Brother of Duke Jian
Duke Xuan
齊宣公
Ji
455–405 BC Son of Duke Ping
Duke Kang
齊康公
Dai
404–386 BC Son of Duke Xuan Deposed by Duke Tai of Tian Qi, died in 379 BC.

House of Tian[edit]

Subject to the Jiang
Posthumous name Personal name Period as leader Relationship Notes
Tian Jingzhong
田敬仲
Chen Wan
陳完
Son of Duke Li of Chen Exiled to Qi from the State of Chen
Tian Mengyi
田孟夷
Tian Zhi
田穉
Son of Chen Wan
Tian Mengzhuang
田孟莊
Tian Min
田湣
Son of Mengyi
Tian Wenzi
田文子
Tian Xuwu
田須無
Son of Mengzhuang
Tian Huanzi
田桓子
Tian Wuyu
田無宇
Son of Wenzi
Tian Wuzi
田武子
Tian Kai
田開
 ?–516 BC Son of Huanzi
Tian Xizi
田僖子
Tian Qi
田乞
Brother of Wuzi Deposed An Ruzi
Tian Chengzi
田成子
Tian Heng
田恆
Son of Xizi Killed Duke Jian, became de facto ruler of Qi
Tian Xiangzi
田襄子
Tian Pan
田盤
Son of Chengzi
Tian Zhuangzi
田莊子
Tian Bai
田白
 ?–411 BC Son of Xiangzi
Tian Daozi
田悼子
unknown 410–405 BC Son of Zhuangzi
Independent
Title Name Period of reign Relationship Notes
Duke Tai
齊太公
Tian He
田和
404–384 BC Son of Tian Bai Officially recognized as Qi ruler in 386 BC.
none Tian Yan
田剡
383–375 BC Son of Duke Tai Killed by Duke Huan.
Duke Huan
齊桓公
Tian Wu
田午
374–357 BC Brother of Tian Yan
King Wei
齊威王
Tian Yinqi
田因齊
356–320 BC Son of Duke Huan Most powerful Qi ruler of the Warring States.
King Xuan
齊宣王
Tian Bijiang
田辟彊
319–300 BC Son of King Wei
King Min
齊愍王
Tian Di
田地
300–283 BC Son of King Xuan Temporarily declared himself "Emperor of the East".
King Xiang
齊襄王
Tian Fazhang
田法章
283–265 BC Son of King Min
none Tian Jian
田建
264–221 BC Son of King Xiang Qi conquered by Qin.

Culture of Qi[edit]

While visiting Qi, Confucius was deeply impressed with perfection of performance of Shao music 韶 therein.[4]

During the Warring States period, Qi was famous for its capital's academy Jixia.

Qi in astronomy[edit]

Qi is represented by the star Chi Capricorni in the "Twelve States" asterism in the "Girl" lunar mansion in the "Black Turtle" symbol. Qi is also represented by the star 112 Herculis in the "Left Wall" asterism in the "Heavenly Market" enclosure.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baxter, William & al. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction", p. 3. 2011. Accessed 26 Nov 2013.
  2. ^ Cambridge History of Ancient China. 
  3. ^ Eberhard, Wolfram (1966). A History of China. ISBN 160303420X.  p.63
  4. ^ Analects, 17 ("Shu er"):14.

Further reading[edit]

  • Michael Loewe, ed. (2006). The Cambridge history of ancient China: from the origins of civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8. 
  • Glessner Creel, Herrlee (1979). The birth of China: a study of the formative period of Chinese civilization. New York: Ungar Publ. ISBN 0-8044-6093-0. 

See also[edit]