Hainanese

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For Hainanese people, see Hainan people.
Hainanese
Qiong wen
海南話 Hái-nâm-oe
Native to China, United States (New York City, California), Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau
Region Hainan
Ethnicity Hainanese (Han Chinese)
Native speakers
1.1 million  (date missing)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog hain1237[1]
hain1238[2]
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     Hainanese
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Bible in Hainan Romanised (Genesis), published by the Bible Society of Great Britain.

Hainanese (simplified Chinese: 海南话; traditional Chinese: 海南話; pinyin: Hǎinán huà), also known as Qióng Wén (simplified Chinese: 琼文; traditional Chinese: 瓊文) or Qióng yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a variety of Min Nan Chinese spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan and part of a language family that sometimes includes Leizhou Min spoken on the neighboring mainland Leizhou Peninsula. "Hainanese" is also used to describe the language of the Li people living in Hainan, but generally refers to the Chinese dialect spoken in Hainan. It is mutually unintelligible with other Min Nan varieties, such as Teochew and HokkienTaiwanese, which has led to it being occasionally designated as Qiongwen Min, a separate language from Min Nan. Many Hainanese, mostly from the north-eastern part of the island, emigrated to Singapore.

Phonology[edit]

Hainanese has a simple five vowel system[citation needed].

Vowels Front Back
High /i/ /u/
Mid-High /e/ /o/
Mid-Low /ɛ/ /ɔ/
Low /a/

Hainanese notably has a series of implosive consonants, which it has picked up under influence from surrounding languages, probably Hlai.

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal
Voiced Stop/Implosive /ɓ/ /ɗ/ (/ɠ/)
Voiceless Stop /p/ /t/ /k/ (/ʔ/)
Affricate /c/ [ts~tɕ]
Voiceless Fricative /f/ /s/ [s~ɕ] /x/ /h/
Voiced Fricative /v/ /ʑ/ [z~ʑ] /ɦ/
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Liquid (/w/) /l/ (/j/)

The phonological system of Hainanese corresponds well with that of Hokkien, but it has had some restructuring. In particular, etymological *anterior plain stops have undergone implosivization (*p > [ɓ], *t > [ɗ], etymological *aspirated stops have spirantized (*pʰ > [f], *tʰ > [h], *cʰ > [ɕ] *kʰ > [x]), and etymological *s have hardened into stop (*s > [t]), and *h > [ɦ]. Additionally, some dialects have [ɡ], and [ʑ] is allophonic with /j/.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hainanese". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hainanese". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

Further reading[edit]