|Ville de Québec|
|Nickname(s): La Vieille Capitale|
|Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir
("I shall put God's gift to good use"; the Don de Dieu was Champlain's ship)
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Metropolitan community||Communauté métropolitaine de Québec|
|Agglomeration||Agglomeration of Quebec City|
|Founded||July 3, 1608, by Samuel de Champlain|
|Constituted||January 1, 2002|
|• Type||Quebec City Council|
|• Mayor||Régis Labeaume|
|• Prov. riding|
|• City||484.10 km2 (186.91 sq mi)|
|• Land||454.10 km2 (175.33 sq mi)|
|• Urban||669.39 km2 (258.45 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,349.12 km2 (1,293.10 sq mi)|
|Elevation||98 m (322 ft)|
|• City||516,622 (11th)|
|• Density||1,137.7/km2 (2,947/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,041.2/km2 (2,697/sq mi)|
|• Metro||765,706 (7th)|
|• Metro density||228.6/km2 (592/sq mi)|
|• Pop 2006-2011||5.2%|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|Postal code(s)||G1A to G2N|
|Area code(s)||418 and 581|
|SGC code||24 23 027|
Quebec (//; French: Québec [kebɛk] ( )), also Québec, Quebec City, or Québec City (French: Ville de Québec), is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of 2011 the city has a population of 516,622, and the metropolitan area has a population of 765,706, making it the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about 233 km (145 mi) to the southwest.
The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'.
According to the federal and provincial governments, Québec is the city's official name in both French and English, although Quebec City (or its French equivalent, Ville de Québec) is commonly used, particularly to distinguish the city from the province. The city's most famous landmark is the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Architecture
- 6 Culture
- 7 Sports
- 8 Government
- 9 Education
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 Notable people
- 12 Partner cities
- 13 References
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America. While many of the major cities in Mexico date from the sixteenth century, among cities in Canada and the U.S.A., few were created earlier than Quebec City (St. John's, Harbour Grace, Port Royal, St. Augustine, Santa Fe, Jamestown, and Tadoussac). Also, Quebec's Old Town (Vieux-Québec) is the only North American fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536. He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement. This first settlement was abandoned less than one year after its foundation, in the summer 1542, due in large part to the hostility of the natives combined with the harsh living conditions during winter.
Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on July 3, 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, also called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life.
The name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although called the cradle of the Francophone population in North America, the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Jesuits, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu.
Quebec city was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War (Seven Years War), Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763. It was the site of three battles during Seven Years War - the Battle of Beauport, a French victory (July 31, 1759); the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, in which British troops under General James Wolfe defeated the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on September 13, 1759 and shortly thereafter took the city; and the final Battle of Sainte-Foy, a French victory (April 28, 1760). France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763.
At the end of French rule in 1763, forests, villages, fields and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture, fortifications, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs St-Jean and St-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets.
During the American Revolution, revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to 'liberate' Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the Battle of Quebec. The defeat of the revolutionaries from the south put an end to the hopes that the peoples of Quebec would rise and join the American Revolution so that Canada would join the Continental Congress and become part of the original United States of America along with the other British colonies of continental North America. In effect, the outcome of the battle would be the effective split of British North America into two distinct political entities. The city itself was not attacked during the war of 1812, when the United States again attempted to annex Canadian lands. Fearing another American attack on Quebec City in the future, construction of the Citadelle of Quebec began in 1820. The Americans never did attack Canada after the War of 1812, but the Citadelle continued to house a large British garrison until 1871. The Citadelle is still in use by the military and is also a tourist attraction.
In 1840, after the Province of Canada was formed, the role of capital was shared between Kingston, Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa and Quebec City (from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866). In 1867, Ottawa (which was chosen to be the permanent capital of the Province of Canada) was chosen to be the capital of the Dominion of Canada. The Quebec Conference on Canadian Confederation was held here.
20th and 21st centuries
Quebec City was struck by the 1925 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake.
During World War II, two conferences were held in Quebec City. The First Quebec Conference was held in 1943 with Franklin Delano Roosevelt (the United States' president at the time), Winston Churchill (the United Kingdom's prime minister), William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada's prime minister) and T.V. Soong (China's minister of foreign affairs). The Second Quebec Conference was held in 1944, and was attended by Churchill and Roosevelt. They took place in the buildings of the Citadelle and of nearby Château Frontenac. A large part of the D-Day landing plans were made during those meetings.
Throughout its over four hundred years of existence, Quebec City has served as a capital. From 1608 to 1627 and 1632 to 1763, it was capital of French Canada and all of New France; from 1763 to 1791, it was the capital of the Province of Quebec; from 1791 to 1841, it was the capital of Lower Canada; from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866, it was capital of the Province of Canada; and since 1867, it has been capital of the Province of Quebec. The administrative region in which Quebec City is situated is officially referred to as Capitale-Nationale, and the term "national capital" is used to refer to Quebec City itself at provincial level.
Quebec City is located in the Saint Lawrence River valley, on the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River near its meeting with the St. Charles River. The region is low-lying and flat. The river valley has rich, arable soil, which makes this region the most fertile in the province. The Laurentian Mountains lie to the north of the city.
Upper Town lies on the top of Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond) promontory. A high stone wall surrounds this portion of the city. The Plains of Abraham are located near the edge of the promontory. Lower Town is located at shore level, below Cap-Diamant.
Quebec City experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and occasionally hot, with periods of hotter temperatures which compounded with the high humidity, create a high heat index that belie the average high of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 11–13 °C (52–55 °F). Winters are often cold, windy and snowy with average high temperatures −5 to −8 °C (23 to 18 °F) and lows −13 to −18 °C (9 to -0 °F). Spring and Fall, although short, bring chilly to warm temperatures. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a common occurrence.
On average, Quebec City receives 1,230 millimetres (48.43 in) of precipitation, of which 924 millimetres (36.38 in) is rain and 307 millimetres (12.09 in) is the melt from 316 centimetres (124.4 in) of snowfall per annum.[note 1] The city experiences around 1,905 hours of sunshine annually or 41% of possible sunshine, with summer being the sunniest, but also slightly the wettest season. During winter, snow stays on ground from about December to April.
|Climate data for Quebec City (Jean Lesage International Airport)|
|Record high Humidex||10.6||11.7||17.8||32.9||37.3||44.1||49.2||49.3||40.1||30.9||24.9||14.6||49.3|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−7.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−17.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||89.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||26.1
|Snowfall cm (inches)||72.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||18.5||14.9||14.3||13.3||14.3||13.7||13.8||13.9||14.2||15.1||16.4||19.5||181.9|
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||3.6||2.3||5.5||10.4||14.3||13.7||13.8||13.9||14.2||14.8||10.3||4.4||121.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||17.5||13.9||11.4||5.2||0.29||0||0||0||0||0.96||9.0||18.1||76.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||100.3||123.6||149.4||168.6||215.9||232.0||251.7||225.2||155.5||119.8||81.6||81.1||1,904.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||36.0||42.5||40.6||41.4||46.4||49.0||52.5||51.2||41.2||35.4||28.9||30.4||41.3|
|Source: Environment Canada|
Boroughs and Districts
On January 1, 2002, the 12 former towns of Sainte-Foy, Beauport, Charlesbourg, Sillery, Loretteville, Val-Bélair, Cap-Rouge, Saint-Émile, Vanier, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures and Lac-Saint-Charles were annexed by Quebec City. This was one of several municipal mergers which took place across Quebec on that date. Following a demerger referendum, L'Ancienne-Lorette and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures were reconstituted as separate municipalities on January 1, 2006, but the other former municipalities remain part of Quebec City. On November 1, 2009, the Quebec City re-organized its boroughs, reducing the number from 8 to 6.
As of 2011[update] Quebec City has thirty-five districts in six boroughs. All districts are numbered, and most are named. In most cases the name of the district is similar to a historical town or village it replaced, but not always. Districts each elect their own council, which are part of public consultations with the city government. The numbering system was based on the 2002-2009 borough boundaries, so post-2009 the numbers do not correspond completely with the boroughs.
|1/6 La Cité-Limoilou||La Cité: 1-1 Vieux-Québec—Cap-Blanc—colline Parlementaire · 1-2 Saint-Roch · 1-3 Saint-Jean-Baptiste · 1-4 Montcalm · 1-5 Saint-Sauveur · 1-6 Saint-Sacrement · Limoilou: 6-1 Vieux-Limoilou · 6-2 Lairet · 6-3 Maizerets|
|2 Les Rivières||2-1 Neufchâtel-Est–Lebourgneuf · 2-2 Duberger-Les Saules · 2-3 Vanier|
|3/8 Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge||3-2 Cité universitaire · 3-3 Saint-Louis · 3-4 Plateau · 3-5 Pointe-de-Ste-Foy 8-2 · L'Aéroport · 8-3 Cap-Rouge|
|4 Charlesbourg||4-1 Notre-Dame-des-Laurentides · 4-2 Quartier 4-2 · 4-3 Quartier 4-3 · 4-4 Jésuites, Quebec City · 4-5 Quartier 4-5 · 4-6 Quartier 4-6|
|5 Beauport||5-1 Quartier 5-1 · 5-2 Quartier 5-2 · 5-3 Chutes-Montmorency · 5-4 Quartier 5-4 · 5-5 Vieux-Moulin|
|7/8 La Haute-Saint-Charles||7-1 Lac-Saint-Charles · 7-2 Saint-Émile · 7-3 Loretteville · 7-4 Des Châtels · 8-1 Val-Bélair|
According to the 2011 census, there were 516,622 people residing in Quebec City proper, and 765,706 people in the city's census metropolitan area. Of the former total, 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 4.7% of the resident population of Quebec City. This compares with 5.2% in the province of Quebec, and 5.6% for Canada overall.
The vast majority of city residents are native French-speakers. The English-speaking community peaked in relative terms during the 1860s, when 40% of Quebec City's residents were Anglophone. Today, Anglophones make up only 1.5% of the population of both the city and its metropolitan area. However, the annual Quebec Winter Carnival attracts both Francophone and Anglophone tourists alike, so the Anglophone population increases considerably during the duration of the event.
According to the Statistics Canada website, 94.55% of Quebec City's population speaks French as their mother tongue. While nearly everyone speaks French as their first language, more than a third can speak both French and English.
|English and French||1,460||0.31%|
|Unilingual French speakers||315,135||65.31%|
|Unilingual English speakers||835||0.17%|
|Bilingual French and English speakers||165,340||34.26%|
In 2001, 13.0% of the resident population in Quebec City was of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada. The average age is 39.5 years of age compared to 37.6 years of age for Canada as a whole.
In the five years between 2006 and 2011, the population of Quebec City grew by 6.5%, compared with an increase of 4.9% for the province of Quebec. The population density of Quebec City averaged 228.6 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 5.3 for the province as a whole.
At the time of the 2001 census, the population of the Quebec City authority was 682,757, but was 710,700 when encompassing the Greater Quebec City Area, compared with a resident population in the province of Quebec of 7,237,479 people. In 2006, visible minorities make up 3% of the population.
According to the 2001 census, over 90% of the population was Roman Catholic. The city also contains small Protestant, Muslim and Jewish communities.
Most jobs in Quebec City are concentrated in public administration, defence, services, commerce, transport and tourism. As the provincial capital, the city benefits from being a regional administrative and services centre: apropos, the provincial government is the largest employer in the city, employing 27,900 people as of 2007. CHUQ (the local hospital network) is the city's largest institutional employer, with more than 10,000 employees in 2007. In 2008, the unemployment rate in Quebec City was 4.5%, well below provincial and national averages (7.3% and 6.6%, respectively).
Around 10% of jobs are in manufacturing. Principal products include pulp and paper, processed food, metal/wood items, chemicals, electronics and electrical equipment, and printed materials. The city hosts the headquarters of a variety of prominent companies, including: engineering firms BPR and Roche; investment fund Cominar; Industrial Alliance, La Capitale, Promutuel, SSQ, and Union Canadienne in the insurance sector; Beenox, Frima Studio, Sarbakan and Ubisoft in the computer games industry; AeternaZentaris and DiagnoCure in pharmaceuticals; Amalgame, Cossette and Vision 7 in marketing and advertising; Institut National d'Optique (INO), EXFO in technology not forgetting the Desjardins Group, the area's largest employer in the financial sector.
The security and defence industries are quite prominent, and have given birth to an industrial pole: Technopôle Defence and Security.
Much of the city's most notable architecture is located east of the fortification walls in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec) and Place Royale. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. Porte St-Louis and Porte St-Jean are the main gates through the walls from the modern section of downtown; the Kent Gate was a gift to the province from Queen Victoria and the foundation stone was laid by the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, on June 11, 1879. West of the walls are the Parliament Hill district and the Plains of Abraham.
The Upper Town is linked by the Escalier « casse-cou » (literally "neck-breaking" steps) and the Old Quebec Funicular to the Lower Town, which includes such sites as the ancient Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church, the historic Petit Champlain district, the port, and the Musée de la Civilisation (Museum of Civilization). The Lower Town is filled with original architecture and street designs, dating back to the city's beginnings. Murals and statues are also featured. The Lower Town is also noted for its wide variety of boutiques, many featuring hand-crafted goods.
Quebec City's downtown is on the lower part of the town. Its epicentre is adjacent to the old town, spanning from the Saint-Roch district, throughout the Saint Sauveur, Saint-Sacrement and Limoilou quarters. Some interpretations consider Quebec's Down town to be the central southern portion of the town ranging from the old city and Saint Roch, all the way west to the Quebec city Bridge.
Quebec City's skyline is dominated by the massive Château Frontenac Hotel, perched on top of Cap-Diamant. It was designed by architect Bruce Price, as one of a series of "château" style hotels built for the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The railway company sought to encourage luxury tourism and bring wealthy travelers to its trains. The hotel is beside the Terrasse Dufferin (Dufferin Terrace), a walkway along the edge of the cliff, offering beautiful views of the Saint Lawrence River.
The Terrasse Dufferin leads toward the nearby Plains of Abraham, site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the Citadelle of Quebec, a Canadian Forces installation and the federal vice-regal secondary residence. The Parliament Building, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle.
Near the Château Frontenac is Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral, mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It is the first church in the New World to be raised to a basilica and is the primatial church of Canada.
Jardin zoologique du Québec, reopened in 2002 after two years of restorations but closed in 2006 after a political decision. It featured 750 specimens of 300 different species of animals. The zoo specialized in winged fauna and garden themes, but also presented several species of mammals. While it emphasized the indigenous fauna of Quebec, one of its principal attractions was the Indo-Australian greenhouse, featuring fauna and flora from these areas.
Parc Aquarium du Québec, reopened in 2002 on a site overlooking the Saint Lawrence River, presents more than 10,000 specimens of mammals, reptiles, fish and other aquatic fauna of North America and the Arctic. Polar bears and various species of seals of the Arctic sector and the "Large Ocean", a large basin offering visitors a view from underneath, form part of the principal attractions.
There are a number of historic sites, art galleries and museums in Quebec City, such as Citadelle of Quebec, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Ursulines of Quebec, and Musée de la civilisation.
As well as having a number of local sports teams, Quebec City has hosted a number of sporting events. The Special Olympics Canada National Winter Games was held in the city from February 26 to March 1, 2008. Quebec City co-hosted with Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 2008 IIHF World Championship. Regular sporting events held in the city, include the Challenge Bell, a Women's Tennis Association tournament; Crashed Ice, an extreme downhill skating race; Quebec City International Pee-Wee Tournament, a minor hockey tournament; and the Tour de Québec International cycling stage race.
In December 2011, Quebec City hosted the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final at the Pavillon de la Jeunesse at ExpoCité.
The city has a professional baseball team, the Capitales de Québec which plays in the Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball. The team was established in 1999, and originally played in the Northern League. The team has five league titles, won in 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The team's stadium is the Stade Municipal.
Other teams include the local football team, the Rouge & Or of the Université Laval; the junior hockey team, Quebec Remparts of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League; the Canadian football teams, Quebec City Monarks and Quebec City Rebelles of La Ligue de Football de Québec; the women's hockey team Quebec Phoenix of the Canadian Women's Hockey League; and soccer club Quebec Arsenal of the W-League.
The city had a hockey team, the Quebec Nordiques, which played in the World Hockey Association (WHA) from 1972 to 1979 and then in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1979 to 1995, maintaining a strong rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens. Due to a disadvantageous exchange rate with respect to the US Dollar, the team moved to Denver, Colorado in 1995, becoming the Colorado Avalanche.
The New Quebec City Amphitheatre is being built with the hope of getting an NHL franchise (relocation or expansion) in Quebec City. The project is being funded regardless of whether an NHL team arrives in Quebec City. It is also hoped that the arena can help Quebec City win a future Winter Olympics games bid. It will replace Colisée Pepsi as the main arena in Quebec City.
The current mayor of Quebec City is Régis Labeaume, who was elected in a special election on December 2, 2007, following the death in office of Andrée P. Boucher, an independent, on August 24. Jacques Joli-Coeur of the Renouveau municipal de Québec party served as interim mayor between Boucher's death and the by-election.
Université Laval (Laval University) is located in the western end of the city, in the borough of Sainte-Foy. However, the school of architecture of Université Laval is located in Old Quebec. The main campus of the Université du Québec system is also located in Quebec City, including its specialized schools École nationale d'administration publique, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, and Télé-université (TELUQ), the distance learning component of the 'Université du Québec' network.
Numerous CEGEPs are located in Quebec city, including Collège François-Xavier-Garneau, Cégep O'Sullivan, Cégep Limoilou, Cégep de Sainte-Foy and Champlain College St. Lawrence, as well as private institutions such as Collège Notre-Dame-de-Foy, Collège Mérici, Collège Bart, Collège CDI and Collège Multihexa.
Quebec City has the oldest educational institution for women in North America, the Ursulines of Quebec monastery, located at 12 Rue Donnacona.
Two bridges (the Quebec Bridge and Pierre Laporte Bridge) and a ferry service connect the city with Lévis and its suburbs along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River. The Orleans Island Bridge links Quebec City with pastoral Orleans Island.
Quebec City is an important hub in the province's autoroute system. Autoroute 40 connects the region with Montreal and Ottawa to the west and Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré and the Charlevoix region to the east. Autoroute 20 parallels the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, linking Quebec City with Montreal and Toronto to the west and Rivière-du-Loup, Rimouski, and the Maritime Provinces to the east. Autoroute 73 provides a north-south link through the metropolitan area, linking it with Saint-Georges, the Beauce region, and Maine to the south and Saguenay and the Lac-Saint-Jean region to the north.
Within the metropolitan region, Autoroutes 40, 73, and several spur routes link the city centre with its suburbs.
Autoroute 573 (Autoroute Henri-IV) connects the city with CFB Valcartier. Autoroute 740 (Autoroute Robert-Bourassa) serves as a north-south inner belt. Autoroute 440 comprises two separate autoroutes to the west and east of the urban core. Originally meant to be connected by a tunnel under the city centre, the two sections are separated by a 6 kilometre (3.7 mi) gap. There are no current plans to connect them. The western section (Autoroute Charest) connects Autoroutes 40 and 73 with Boulevard Charest (a main east-west avenue) while the eastern section (Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency) links the city centre with Beauport and Montmorency Falls.
The Réseau de transport de la Capitale is responsible for public transport in the region. The RTC operates a fleet of buses and has recently implemented articulated buses. The RTC is studying the return of a tram system to help ease overcrowding on its busiest lines as well as attract new users to public transit. The $900-million revitalization project needs approval from higher levels of government since the city does not have the financial resources to fund such an ambitious project on its own.
Rail transport is operated by VIA Rail at the Gare du Palais ('Palace Station'). The station is the eastern terminus of the railway's main Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. An inter-city bus station, with connections to the provincial long-distance bus network, is adjacent to the train station.
Air and sea
Quebec City is protected by Service de police de la Ville de Québec and Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec. Quebec City has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada. The city reported no murders in 2007, a streak that stretched back to October 31, 2006.
Quebec City is twinned with:
- Reference number 51718 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
- Geographic code 23027 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
- "(Code 2423027) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
- "(Code 0685) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
- "(Code 421) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
- Québec City - The Canadian Encyclopedia
- The city's name is not on a federally-legislated list of "81 locales of pan-Canadian significance with official forms in both languages", as is the case with the province of Quebec/Québec. Quebec is a common exception to the practice of retaining accented letters from French in the English versions of place names (as is Montreal). Similarly, Quebec City is common (e.g., per the Canadian Oxford Dictionary (ISBN 0-19-541816-6, p. 1265)), and is used particularly to distinguish the city from the province. According to Editing Canadian English (ISBN 1-55199-045-8, p. 77) the form Québec City makes no sense in either English or French; nonetheless, it is used by the municipal government and other sources (e.g., Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport).
- "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage; UNESCO. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- "Old Quebec City, Seven Wonders of Canada". cbc.ca. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- "Faut-il traduire les toponymes?" [Should place names be translated?] (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- CBC.CA - Seven Wonders of Canada - Your Nominations - Old Quebec City, Quebec
- "View of Quebec, Capital of Canada". World Digital Library. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). The Oxford History of the American People. New York City: Mentor. p. 150. ISBN 0-451-62600-1.
- See Royal Proclamation I
- Décret concernant la révision des limites des régions administratives du Québec, R.Q. c. D-11, r.2, made pursuant to the Territorial Division Act, R.S.Q. c. D-11
- "Québec Portal > Portrait of Québec > Administrative Regions > Regions". Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- "An Act respecting the National capital commission, R.S.Q. c. C-33.1". CanLII. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "Quebec/Jean Lesage INT'L A, Quebec". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Environment Canada. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
- Nouveau découpage des arrondissements (archive of broken link)
- "Évolution démographique des 10 principales villes du Québec (sur la base de 2116) selon leur limites territoriales actuelles1, Recensements du Canada de 1871 à 2011". Stat.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Morrin Centre. "Anglos in Québec". Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- "Voice of English-speaking Québec: A Portrait of the English-speaking Community in Quebec". Voice of English-speaking Québec. 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- "Canada's largest employers by city, 2007: Quebec City." London: University of Western Ontario. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- "Labour: Labour force characteristics, population 15 years and older, by census metropolitan area."Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- "Latest release from the Labour Force Survey." Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- "Québec City: Economy, transportation, and labour force." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historical Foundation of Canada, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.
- The 37 sites in Quebec City are listed in the Directory of Federal Heritage Designations as being located in Québec and the following boroughs/enclaves: Beauport, Cap-Rouge, Notre-Dame-des-Anges, Sainte-Foy and Wendake.
- "History of Major Special Olympics Canada (SOC) Events" (PDF). Special Olympics Canada. 2007-01-29. Retrieved 2011-07-14.[dead link]
- "Here comes the 4th Tour de Quebec!". tourdequebec.com. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Karine Gagnon, Qmi Agency (2011-03-01). "Quebecor joins arena plan, eyes NHL team | Hockey | Sports". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "The Quebec gravy train chugs off without Ottawa on board for once | Full Comment | National Post". Fullcomment.nationalpost.com. 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "Quebec City plans $400 million arena to attract NHL team, Winter Olympics — ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Territorial Division Act. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
- "Port of Quebec". Retrieved June 24, 2009.
- White, Marianne (2007-12-28). "Quebec City closing in on a year without murder". Nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2008.[dead link]
- "Bordeaux - Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Commissariat aux relations internationales (2011). "Partenariats de la Ville de Quebec" (in French). Ville de Québec. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- Although snow is measured in cm the melted snow (water equivalent) is measured in mm and added to the rainfall to obtain the total precipitation. An approximation of the water equivalent can be made by dividing the snow depth by ten. Thus 1 cm (0.4 in) of snow will be 1 mm (0.04 in) of water. See snow gauge, Rainfall, Snowfall, and Precipitation and MANOBS 7th Edition Amendment 17
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- CBC Television Archives on Preserving Quebec City (1976)
- CBC Digital Archives - Quebec City: 400 Years of History
||La Jacques-Cartier RCM|
|Portneuf RCM||La Côte-de-Beaupré RCM|
|Saint Lawrence River
|Saint Lawrence River