Quad (figure skating)

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For other meanings of the word "Quad", see Quad.

A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with four or more, but fewer than five, revolutions.[1] Most quadruple jumps have exactly four revolutions; the quadruple Axel has 4½ revolutions, although no figure skater to date has completed this jump, either in practice or in competition.[citation needed] The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly skated. The first quad Lutz was ratified in 2011.

The first person to land a ratified quadruple jump in competition was Kurt Browning in 1988. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not having one in a program may be considered a handicap.[2]

Timeline of major events[edit]

Men[edit]

  • 1983
    • Alexander Fadeyev (USSR) lands a quad toe loop at the World Championships but has a touchdown with his hands.[3]
    • Mark Cockerell (USA) lands quads in training at the US National Sports Festival, but decides not to try it during his performance.[4]
  • 1984
    • Alexander Fadeyev (USSR) attempts a quad toe at the Olympics, but it is not officially recognized by the ISU because of a flawed landing.[5]
  • 1986
  • 1987
  • 1988
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands the first ratified quadruple jump, a toe loop, at the World Championships (with three turns on the landing).[6][8][9] Browning said: "I remember that there were a few people landing the jump (in practice) long before I did, and by watching them I was inspired to try it myself. After landing it, I certainly expected more skaters to start doing it in competition. I was surprised in the next few years when that really did not happen."[6]
    • Brian Boitano (USA) attempts a quad toe later in the same competition but cannot hold the landing and takes an extra step; ruled not valid.[8]
  • 1989
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands a quad toe loop at the World Championships but touchdown with free foot.[9]
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop at the same competition.[10]
  • 1990
    • Alexei Urmanov (USSR) becomes the first Russian skater to land a quad (quad toe loop) in competition, at the Soviet championships in December.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but touches down with free foot at the European Championships in January
  • 1991
    • Erik Larson (USA) attempts a slide spiral into a quad toe lands it and turns out at the NHK Trophy.
    • Michael Chack (USA) attempts a one-foot Axel/quad Salchow combination at the U.S. Nationals; quad landing is two-footed.
    • Alexei Urmanov lands a quadruple toe loop at the European Championships in January.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad in combination, the first quadruple toe loop-double toe loop combination, at the World Championships.[11] He later said that he had studied VHS tapes of Browning, Boitano, Fadeev, and Sabovcik to master the quad.[12]
  • 1992
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but stepping out on landing at the European Championships in January.[13]
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands the first quad (toe loop) in Olympic competition but touches down with the right hand.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a huge quad toe-loop but touch down with free foot.[14]
  • 1993
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
  • 1994
    • Min Zhang (CHN) lands a quad toe cleanly at the Winter Olympics, Lillehammer.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) attempts a quad toe-triple toe combination at the World Championships, but steps out on the landing.[15]
  • 1995
  • 1996
    • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) landed a quad-toe-double toe at the World Championships.[18]
  • 1997
    • Michael Weiss (USA) two-foots a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.[19]
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad-triple combination (the first quad toe-triple toe) at the Champions Series Final.[12]
    • A total of three quads are landed by three different skaters at this competition: Ilia Kulik (RUS), Alexei Urmanov (RUS) and Elvis Stojko (CAN).
    • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) is the first to land two quads in a single performance at the World Championships: a quad toe, plus a quad toe-double toe combination, thus also making him the first to land a single quad and a quad in combination together in one performance.
    • Elvis Stojko repeats his quad toe-triple toe at the World Championships.
    • Anthony Liu (AUS) becomes the first Australian to land a quad at his country's national championships in July (quad toe loop).
    • 17-year-old Tim Goebel (USA) attempts quads throughout the fall season at the Junior Champions series, and attempts a quad Salchow at the Ukrainian Souvenir competition (where five other men planned quads). The attempt is ruled a two-footed landing.
  • 1998
    • Michael Weiss (USA) attempts a quad lutz in both his U.S. Nationals free skate (two-footed) and in his Olympic free skate (fall).
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) falls on a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first American to land a quadruple jump (a quad Salchow in combination with a double toe loop) in competition at the Junior Champions Series Final. In so doing he also lands the first quadruple Salchow and the first quad Salchow in combination (as well as the first quad combination by an American). The jump is ratified by the ISU a month later.[20]
    • Ilia Kulik (RUS) becomes the first Olympic champion to land a quad in a winning program.
    • The ISU votes to permit solo quadruple jumps in the men's short program at their biennial congress in June.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a clean (solo) quad Salchow at the Goodwill Games in July.
    • Derek Schmidt (CAN) attempts quad toe loops in his short programs during two minor regional Canadian summer competitions but fails to complete the jumps cleanly.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) is the first to attempt a quad (toe loop) in a short program at a major international competition at Skate America, but falls on the attempt.
  • 1999
    • Min Zhang (CHN) becomes the first man to land a quadruple jump (a toe loop) in a short program at the Four Continents Championship in February.[21]
    • Michael Weiss (USA) is the first American to land a quadruple toe at the World Championships.[22]
    • Ilia Klimkin (RUS) becomes the first man to land two different quadruple jumps (salchow and toe loop) in a program at the 1999 Nebelhorn Trophy.[23]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first man to land three quadruple jumps in a program (long program) at 1999 Skate America in October; he landed a quad salchow, quad toe loop in combination, and a quad toe as a solo jump.[6]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs the world's first quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) combination at the NHK Trophy.
  • 2000
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quadruple jumps in his long program at the World Championships, including one in combination[24]
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) lands his first quadruple jump in competition at the Masters of Figure Skating.[25]
  • 2001
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) at the World Championships.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) falls on a quad lutz attempt at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2002
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands a quad-triple combination jump in his short program at the 2002 Olympics.[26]
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympic-winning long program: 1) a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe, toe-triple toe, double loop) combination and 2) a quadruple toe loop.[27]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympics long program: a quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop attempt (step out on the last jump) and a solo quad toe.[28]
    • Min Zhang (CHN) is the first to land three quadruple jumps in the long program at the Olympic Games.[29]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a quad salchow-triple toe loop combination in his Olympic short program.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands two quad salchow (one in combination with a triple toe loop) and one quad toe loop during his Olympic free program.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands the first quad-triple-triple (quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop) combination in competition at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2003
  • 2006
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination in his Olympic-winning free skate.[31]
    • Stephane Lambiel (CHE) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination during his free skate at the Olympics. He attempts a second quad past the halfway point, but steps out and touches down with his hand.[32]
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) lands three quads (a quad toe in combination with double toe, a quad Salchow and a second quad toe) in competition at the Cup of Russia. He became the first European to perform it, and the first skater to land three quads in a free program under the ISU Judging System.[33]
  • 2008
  • 2010
  • 2011
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) becomes the first skater to land more than 100 quadruple jumps in his career at ISU competitions.[citation needed]
    • Brandon Mroz (USA) lands a quad Lutz in the short program at the 2011 Colorado Springs Invitational.[38][39] The U.S. Figure Skating-sanctioned competition was a small non-ISU event with three men's entries, making it unclear whether the accomplishment would be recognized by the International Skating Union.[39][40] On October 26, the ISU announced it had ratified the jump as the first quad Lutz to be performed in a sanctioned competition.[41][42] World Champion Patrick Chan of Canada commented, "I don't think it can be an official ISU record until [Mroz] has done it in an ISU event."[43]
    • On November 12, 2011, Brandon Mroz (USA) landed a quad Lutz as his opening jump in the men's short program at the NHK Trophy in Sapporo, Japan, becoming the first skater to land a quadruple lutz in international competition.[44]
  • 2012
    • Javier Fernández López (ESP) becomes the second European skater to land three quads (two salchows and a toe-loop) in a free program and the first one to do it with a quad-triple combination (4S+3T) at the 2012 Grand Prix Final in Sochi, Russia.
  • 2013
    • Javier Fernández López (ESP) becomes the first skater to land three quads twice in the same season after the 2012-13 Grand Prix Final and the 2013 European Championships. In both programs he did two quad salchows and a quad toe-loop, the first salchow in combination with a triple toe-loop.

Ladies[edit]

  • 1989
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad toe loop at the European Championships; first quad attempt by a woman in a major competition. She also falls on a quad Salchow attempt.
  • 1991
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad attempt at the World Championships.
  • 1992
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad toe at the Olympics and later repeats this at the World Championships.[45]
  • 2001
    • Sasha Cohen (USA) lands a quad Salchow in warmup and practice at Skate America, but her attempt in her long program ends up aborted.[46]
  • 2002
    • Miki Ando (JPN) becomes the first woman to land a quadruple (a Salchow) at the Junior Grand Prix Final.[47]

Pairs[edit]

Execution[edit]

A jump harness is often employed in training quads.[53] Max Aaron stated that the smallest error may make the difference in the success of a quad attempt: "The minute your left arm is behind you, or your three-turn is too fast, if your hips don't turn in time, if your foot isn't in the right place, anything will throw you off."[53] Ross Miner stated that the quality of the ice sometimes plays a role but more on the quad salchow than the toe loop.[53] Practicing quads increases the risk of injury and wear and tear on a skater's body.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Olympic Committee - Sports
  2. ^ Borzilleri, Meri-Jo (2003-03-25). "Not taking same path as others". The Gazette (Colorado Springs). 
  3. ^ "Worlds men" (in Russian). Kiraivanova.nm.ru. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  4. ^ "Cockerell Captures Skating". Associated Press (The New York Times). 2003-06-27. 
  5. ^ Smith. "Figure Skating: A Celebration"
  6. ^ a b c d Wilner, Barry (December 2, 1999). "The quad: Skating's evolution is for more revolution". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on October 31, 2000. 
  7. ^ "Boitano Isn't Upset By Loss Of His Title". The New York Times. 1987-03-14. 
  8. ^ a b "A Quadruple Jump on Ice". Associated Press (The New York Times). 1988-03-26. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  9. ^ a b "Kurt Browning FAQ". 
  10. ^ Smith, Beverley (1998-04-21). "Artistic Success". Globe and Mail. 
  11. ^ Dodd, Mike (2002-02-15). "Men leaps and bounds ahead in skating". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. 
  12. ^ a b Kwong, PJ (October 29, 2010). "The Quad and The Canadians". CBC Sports. Retrieved October 31, 2011. 
  13. ^ (Russian) European Championships - Men's
  14. ^ Janofsky, Michael (1992-02-16). "Petrenko Gets a Gold, Wylie a Silver Surprise". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtefctPOl6Y
  16. ^ L'Equipe. 12/1994
  17. ^ Patinage Magazine #46, page 56
  18. ^ "Worlds". Iceskatingintnl.com. 1996-03-24. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  19. ^ Longman, Jere (February 16, 1997). "Kwan's Slips Open Door For a Younger Champion". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2011. 
  20. ^ Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 4/1/1998
  21. ^ "Zhang". International Skating Union. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  22. ^ "Michael Weiss: Online Interview". Goldenskate.com. 2004-05-16. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  23. ^ Mittan, Barry (May 6, 2003). "Klimkin Recovers From Injuries to Record Best Season". GoldenSkate. Retrieved April 12, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Quad jumps bring Yagudin third title". The Independent, London. 2000-03-21. 
  25. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVNOF2FWTPw
  26. ^ "Yagudin short program at the 2002 Olympics". 
  27. ^ "Yagudin 2002 Olympic Long Program". 
  28. ^ "Plushenko 2002 Olympic Free Program, Carmen". 
  29. ^ "Yagudin skates to glory". BBC News. 2002-02-15. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  30. ^ "2003 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships: Highlights". Golden Skate. February 20, 2003. 
  31. ^ "Plushenko - Figure Skating - Men's Individual - Turin 2006 Winter Olympic Games". Youtube. Torino Olympics. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "Stephane Lambiel FS Olympic Winter Games 2006 (Torino)". Youtube. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Bangs, Kathleen (January 20, 2007). "Brian Joubert: In Peak Form". Golden Skate. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Buttle's world gold comes without quad; Weir takes bronze". Associated Press (ESPN). March 22, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. 
  35. ^ Macur, Juliet (February 19, 2010). "Lysacek Wins the Gold With Style". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ http://www.isuresults.com/results/wc2010/wc10_Men_FS_Scores.pdf
  37. ^ Nealin, Laurie (October 29, 2010). "Oda leads, Reynolds makes history at Skate Canada". Agence France-Presse (Google News). Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  38. ^ Brandon Mroz - Quad Lutz (2011 Colorado Springs invitational) at Official U.S. Figure Skating Youtube
  39. ^ a b Hersh, Philip (September 21, 2011). "Top skating official says Mroz could jump into record books". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 21, 2011. 
  40. ^ Ainsworth, Alexa (September 21, 2011). "Will Mroz's quad Lutz go down in history?". Universal Sports. Retrieved October 31, 2011. 
  41. ^ "The first reportedly recognized quadruple Lutz jump". International Skating Union. October 26, 2011. 
  42. ^ Rosewater, Amy (October 26, 2011). "ISU confirms Mroz's historic accomplishment". Icenetwork. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  43. ^ Rutherford, Lynn (October 27, 2011). "Rippon plans quad Lutz at Skate Canada". Retrieved October 31, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Brandon Mroz lands historic quad lutz". Associated Press. Espn.go.com. 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  45. ^ "Fire of an ice queen". [dead link]
  46. ^ Rosewater, Amy (2001-12-26). "Cohen Continues Her Comeback". The New York Times. 
  47. ^ "Miki Ando". Absolute Skating. 
  48. ^ "Sergei Grinkov: Information and Much More from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  49. ^ "icenetwork.com: Skaters". Web.icenetwork.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  50. ^ "Quadruple Throw Salchow - Tiffany Vise and Derek Trent Land the First Quad Throw Salchow". Figureskating.about.com. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  51. ^ http://www.isuresults.com/results/jgpaut2011/jgpaut2011_JuniorPairs_FS_Scores.pdf
  52. ^ http://www.isuresults.com/results/fc2012/fc2012_Pairs_FS_Scores.pdf
  53. ^ a b c d Brannen, Sarah S. (March 20, 2012). "The fourth dimension: U.S. men analyze the quad". Ice Network. 

External links[edit]