# Quadratic residue code

A quadratic residue code is a type of cyclic code.

There is a quadratic residue code of length $p$ over the finite field $GF(l)$ whenever $p$ and $l$ are primes, $p$ is odd and $l$ is a quadratic residue modulo $p$. Its generator polynomial as a cyclic code is given by

$f(x)=\prod_{j\in Q}(x-\zeta^j)$

where $Q$ is the set of quadratic residues of $p$ in the set $\{1,2,\ldots,p-1\}$ and $\zeta$ is a primitive $p$th root of unity in some finite extension field of $GF(l)$. The condition that $l$ is a quadratic residue of $p$ ensures that the coefficients of $f$ lie in $GF(l)$. The dimension of the code is $(p+1)/2$

Replacing $\zeta$ by another primitive $p$-th root of unity $\zeta^r$ either results in the same code or an equivalent code, according to whether or not $r$ is a quadratic residue of $p$.

An alternative construction avoids roots of unity. Define

$g(x)=c+\sum_{j\in Q}x^j$

for a suitable $c\in GF(l)$. When $l=2$ choose $c$ to ensure that $g(1)=1$ while if $l$ is odd $c=(1+\sqrt{p^*})/2$ where $p^*=p$ or $-p$ according to whether $p$ is congruent to $1$ or $3$ modulo $4$. Then $g(x)$ also generates a quadratic residue code; more precisely the ideal of $F_l[X]/\langle X^p-1\rangle$ generated by $g(x)$ corresponds to the quadratic residue code.

The minimum weight of a quadratic residue code of length $p$ is greater than $\sqrt{p}$; this is the square root bound.

Adding an overall parity-check digit to a quadratic residue code gives an extended quadratic residue code. When $p\equiv 3$ (mod $4$) an extended quadratic residue code is self-dual; otherwise it is equivalent but not equal to its dual. By the Gleason–Prange theorem (named for Andrew Gleason and Eugene Prange), the automorphism group of an extended quadratic residue code has a subgroup which is isomorphic to either $PSL_2(p)$ or $SL_2(p)$.

Examples of quadratic residue codes include the $(7,4)$ Hamming code over $GF(2)$, the $(23,12)$ binary Golay code over $GF(2)$ and the $(11,6)$ ternary Golay code over $GF(3)$.

## References

• F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, The Theory of Error-Correcting Codes, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam-New York-Oxford, 1977.
• Blahut, R. E. (September 2006), "The Gleason-Prange theorem", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. (Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press) 37 (5): 1269–1273, doi:10.1109/18.133245.