Quadrilateral group

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The Quadrilateral group or the Quad is an informal group which includes the trade ministers of the European Commission, the United States, Japan and Canada. It was first suggested during a private meeting during the 7th G7 summit in July 1981. Initially, a trilateral group was proposed (excluding Canada) because of tensions between the two North American countries at the time but eventually, the Canadian government successfully lobbied to be included.[1] The European Commission has avoided formalizing the group because of resistance from certain European Union members, particularly France, who resent their lack of direct involvement.[1]

Quadrilateral Meetings of Trade Ministers[edit]

Location Dates[1]
Key Biscayne, Florida, USA 15-16 January 1982
Chateau d'Esclimont, France 12-13 May 1982
Tokyo, Japan 11 February 1983
Brussels, Belgium 29 April 1983
London, UK 16-17 July 1983
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 26-27 September 1983
Islamorada, Florida, USA 2-4 February 1984
Erbach Im Reingau, Germany 28-30 June 1984
Kyoto, Japan 9-11 February 1985
Oba, Ontario, Canada 11-14 July 1985
San Diego, California, USA 16-19 January 1986
Sinta, Portugal 4-7 September 1986
Kashikojima, Japan 24-26 April 1987
Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada 15-17 April 1988
Brainerd, Minnesota, USA 22-24 June 1988
The Hague, Netherlands 2-4 June 1989
Hakonemachi, Japan 12-14 November 1989
Napa, California, USA 2-4 May 1990
St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada 11-13 October 1990
Angers, France 12-14 September 1991
Fukushima, Japan 24-26 April 1992
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada 16-18 October 1992
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 12-14 May 1993
Tokyo, Japan 23-24 June 1993
Los Angeles, California, USA 9-11 September 1994
Whistler, British Columbia, Canada 3-5 May 1995
Ripley Castle, Yorkshire, UK 20-21 October 1995
Kobe, Japan 19-21 April 1996
Seattle, Washington, USA 26-28 September 1996
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 30 April - 2 May 1997
Versailles, France 29-30 April 1998
Tokyo, Japan 11-12 May 1999

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cohn, Theodore H. (2002). Governing Global Trade: International institutions in conflict and convergence. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7546-1593-6.