Quadruple Alliance (1815)
The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It renewed the alliance first agreed to in 1813 and it modified the aims of the alliance from defeating Napoleon Bonaparte to upholding the settlement following the Napoleonic Wars: with France's admission in 1818, it became the Concert of Europe, though British government distaste for the other allies' reactionary policies meant that it lapsed into ineffectiveness after the mid-1820s.
- Inc Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia, p. 1332 "Quadruple Alliance (1815) Alliance between Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia first formed in 1813 to oppose France in ..."
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- Dictionary of American diplomatic history - Page 429 "QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE (1815-1818). The four nations in this alliance- Great Britain, Prussia, .."
- H. F. van Panhuys, International law in the Netherlands, T.M.C. Asser p. 52 "alliance system established in 1815-1818 would function. ... In this convention Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia had promised to aid each other ..."
- Thomas Dwight Veve, The Duke of Wellington and the British army of occupation in France, 1815-1818, Page 168