Quantum mysticism

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Quantum mysticism is a set of metaphysical beliefs and associated practices that seek to relate consciousness, intelligence, or mystical world-views to the ideas of quantum mechanics and its interpretations.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Quantum mysticism is considered pseudoscience\[7][8][9] and "quackery".[10]

Origin of the term[edit]

The term originally emerged from the founders of quantum theory in the early twentieth century as they debated the interpretations and implications of their nascent theories, which would later evolve into quantum mechanics, and later after World War II, with publications such as Schrödinger's and Eugene Wigner's 1961 paper.[2][11] The essential qualities of early quantum theory, and the ontological questions that emerged from it, made it difficult to distinguish between philosophical and scientific discussion as quantum theory developed into a strong scientific theory.[citation needed] Some of the leading quantum physicists gave mystical interpretations to their findings. In his book "My view of the world", Schrödinger outlined his mystical and metaphysical view as derived from Hindu Vedanta philosophy.

David Bohm was deeply influenced by Jiddu Krishnamurti, crediting him as a source for understanding the worldview he proposed in his interpretation of Quantum Mechanics that he put forth in Wholeness and the Implicate Order (his first footnote[12] credited Krishnamurti's book Freedom from the Known[13] - a treatise putting forth a distilled rendition of apophatic mysticism), and had a series of in depth dialogues with him that were published in the book The Ending of Time.[14] In On Creativity, he wrote of Krishnamurti, "I got to know Krishnamurti in the early sixties. I became interested around that time in understanding the whole thing more deeply. I felt that he was suggesting that it is possible for a human being to have some kind of contact with this whole [that Bohm postulated in his work]. I don't think he would want to use the word 'God' because of its limited associations."[15] The Harvard historian Juan Miguel Marin noted also the "“lucid mysticism,” a synthesis between rationality and religion" favored by Wolfgang Pauli, that Pauli "speculated that quantum theory could unify the psychological/scientific and philosophical/mystical approaches to consciousness". He further noted:

Among contemporary quantum field theories, the important gauge theories are indebted to the work of [Hermann] Weyl and Pauli. Yet many physicists today would be shocked if they learned how Weyl and Pauli understood the concept ‘field’ when they wrote their classic articles. They were both immersed in mysticism, searching for a way to unify mind and physics. Weyl published a lecture where he concluded by favoring the Christian-mathematical mysticism of Nicholas of Cusa. Moreover, Pauli's published article on Kepler presents him as part of the Western mystical tradition ... For those who do not favor the Copenhagen interpretation and prefer the alternative proposed by David Bohm, I would suggest reading Bohm's many published dialogues on the topic of Eastern mysticism ... Eddington and Schrödinger, like many today, joined forces to find a quantum gravity theory. Did their shared mysticism have a role to play in whatever insights they gained or mistakes they made? I do not know, but I think it's important to find out.[16]

—Juan Miguel Marin, "'Mysticism' in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy" in European Journal of Physics 30 (2009), as quoted by Lisa Zyga in "Quantum Mysticism: Gone but Not Forgotten"

Marin noted that Albert Einstein, though he claimed belief in Spinoza's God[17] remained opposed to some of the novel mystical formulations of Pauli and his colleagues. Wolfgang Pauli was strongly against pseudoscience, severely criticizing unfalsifiable theories, coining, when referring to them, the phrase "not even wrong". Nevertheless, his findings in quantum physics led, in his view[citation needed], to mystical interpretations.

According to Marin, the opposition to mystical interpretations of quantum mechanics that Einstein and others had stemmed from their adherence to the philosophical school of realism. Yet in the 2007 Nature paper An experimental test of non-local realism, Anton Zeilinger and his colleagues wrote that,

Most working scientists hold fast to the concept of ‘realism’—a viewpoint according to which an external reality exists independent of observation. But quantum physics has shattered some of our cornerstone beliefs. According to Bell’s theorem, any theory that is based on the joint assumption of realism and locality (meaning that local events cannot be affected by actions in space-like separated regions) is at variance with certain quantum predictions. Experiments with entangled pairs of particles have amply confirmed these quantum predictions, thus rendering local realistic theories untenable. Maintaining realism as a fundamental concept would therefore necessitate the introduction of ‘spooky’ actions that defy locality. Here we show by both theory and experiment that a broad and rather reasonable class of such non-local realistic theories is incompatible with experimentally observable quantum correlations. In the experiment, we measure previously untested correlations between two entangled photons, and show that these correlations violate an inequality proposed by Leggett for non-local realistic theories. Our result suggests that giving up the concept of locality is not sufficient to be consistent with quantum experiments, unless certain intuitive features of realism are abandoned.[18]

Professors Richard Conn Henry and Stephen R. Palmquist, commenting on that paper, stated: "Now we are beginning to see that quantum mechanics might actually exclude any possibility of mind-independent reality and already does exclude any reality that resembles our usual concept of such (Aspect: 'it implies renouncing the kind of realism I would have liked')." They concluded their commentary by adding that in their view, because of these findings, "a theistic view of our existence becomes the only rational alternative to solipsism."[19] Nonlocality is a concept in physics, previously known as action at a distance.

"Quantum flapdoodle"[edit]

"Quantum flapdoodle" is a term reportedly coined by Murray Gell-Mann to describe "stringing together a series of terms and phrases from quantum physics and asserting that they explain something in our daily experience". The term has been used to describe quantum mysticism as espoused by people such as Deepak Chopra.[20]

History[edit]

In the 1920s, with the inception of early quantum theory, Wolfgang Pauli[21] took an active interest in quantum mysticism.[citation needed]

Physicist Roger Penrose wrote in the Shadows of the Mind that consciousness may be a quantum phenomenon. The idea was cuttingly criticised by Stephen Hawking; a summary of his criticisms was added to Penrose's book.[citation needed] Penrose posited that quantum forces affected neural processing via microtubules in his Orchestrated objective reduction model that he developed in collaboration with the anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff.

A renewed interest in mystical interpretations and the psychological aspects of the new physics arose in the 1970s with physicists such as Fritjof Capra, whose popularly successful book The Tao of Physics explored parallels between quantum physics and principles of Eastern mysticism. The 1980 book Wholeness and the Implicate Order by David Bohm portrays reality as a unity which can be understood in terms of implicate and explicate orders. Steven Weinberg disagreed with Bohm, due to the many "erroneous claims" about physics and quantum theory, in the "science wars".[citation needed] Another well-known contribution was Quantum Reality by physicist Nick Herbert (1985) which dealt mainly with possible interpretations of quantum theory.

The 1979 book The Dancing Wu Li Masters by Gary Zukav (self-confessedly "not a physicist") again included parallels between Eastern mysticism and modern physics. Michael Talbot's The Holographic Universe developed the ideas of David Bohm in relation to the recent Aspect experiment. In 1990, Robert Anton Wilson wrote a book called Quantum Psychology which explains Timothy Leary's Eight Circuit Model of Consciousness in terms of quantum mysticism.[22]

Deepak Chopra's 1988 book Quantum Healing explained a theory of psychosomatic healing using quantum concepts and his Ageless Body, Timeless Mind (1993, a New York Times Bestseller that sold over two million copies worldwide) discusses specific claims of healing, reversal of the aging process and immortality, adopting a "quantum worldview" and prescribing specific practices. In 1998, Chopra was awarded the parody Ig Nobel Prize, in the physics category, for "his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness".[23]

In his The scientist's Conversations with the Teacher, Alexander Zelitchenko introduced the notion of what he called "a subtle matter" and speculated about how the physics of subtle matter may be understood in connection with de Broglie waves.[24]

The 2004 film What the Bleep Do We Know!? dealt with a range of New Age ideas in relation to physics. It was produced by the Ramtha School of Enlightenment, founded by J.Z. Knight, who said that her teachings were based on a discourse with a 35,000-year-old disembodied entity named Ramtha. It made controversial use of some aspects of quantum mechanics—including the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the observer effect—as well as biology and medicine.[25] Numerous critics dismissed the film as pseudoscience.[26][27] William Tiller, a scientist interviewed in the film, wrote a reserved defense of it.[28]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Athearn, D. (1994). Scientific Nihilism: On the Loss and Recovery of Physical Explanation (S U N Y Series in Philosophy). Albany, New York: State University Of New York Press.
  2. ^ a b Edis, T. (2005). Science and Nonbelief (Greenwood Guides to Science and Religion). New York: Greenwood Press.
  3. ^ Stenger, V. J. (2003). Has Science Found God? The Latest Results in the Search for Purpose in the Universe. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
  4. ^ Edis, T. (2002). The Ghost in the Universe: God in Light of Modern Science. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
  5. ^ Crease, R. P. (1993). The Play of Nature (Indiana Series in the Philosophy of Technology). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  6. ^ Seager, W. (1999). Theories of Consciousness: An Introduction (Philosophical Issues in Science). New York: Routledge.
  7. ^ Grim, Patrick (1982). Philosophy of Science and the Occult. SUNY Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 9781438404981. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  8. ^ Collins, Tim (2010-03-02). Behind the Lost Symbol. Penguin Group US. pp. 87–. ISBN 9781101197615. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Udemans, Fuad (2013-09). The Golden Thread: Escaping Socio-Economic Subjugation: An Experiment in Applied Complexity Science. Author House. pp. 388–. ISBN 9781491879337. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  10. ^ Pigliucci, Massimo (2010-05-15). Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science from Bunk. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226667874. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Niels Bohr, "Discussion with Einstein," In P. A. Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, p. 235.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Freedom From the Known - Jiddu Krishnamurti
  14. ^ The Ending of Time - Jiddu Krishnamurti
  15. ^ On Creativity. Bohm, David and Lee Nichol. Psychology Press, 1998. p. 77 [2]
  16. ^ Zyga, Lisa. "Quantum Mysticism: Gone but Not Forgotten". Phys.org. 
  17. ^ Victor J. Stenger, Has Science Found God?, 2001, chapter 3; "I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings". (Einstein, letter to Rabbi Herbert Goldstein)
  18. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/pdf/nature05677.pdf
  19. ^ Alain Aspect and Anton Zeilinger on Unreality
  20. ^ Shermer, Michael (December 20, 2004). "Quantum Quackery". Scientific American. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  21. ^ "I confess, that very different from you, I do find sometimes scientific inspiration in mysticism ... but this is counterbalanced by an immediate sense for mathematics."—W. Pauli, from [3]
  22. ^ Wilson, Robert Anton - Quantum Psychology 1990
  23. ^ The 1998 Ig Nobel Prize Winners
  24. ^ Alexander Zelitchenko (2001). The scientist's Conversations with the Teacher, San Jose, Writers Club Press ISBN 0595194125
  25. ^ What the Bleep are they On About?! Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  26. ^ Wilson, Elizabeth (2005-01-13). "What the Bleep Do We Know?!". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  27. ^ "The minds boggle". The Guardian Unlimited
  28. ^ "What the Bleep Do We Know; A Personal Perspective", Vision-In- Action (VIA) Magazine, 2 (4) (2004)

Further reading[edit]

Publications relating to quantum mysticism
Criticism of quantum mysticism