Quarterback sack

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Green Bay quarterback Aaron Rodgers getting sacked by Seattle defensive end Patrick Kerney.

In American football and Canadian football, a sack occurs when the quarterback (or another offensive player acting as a passer) is tackled behind the line of scrimmage before he can throw a forward pass, when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage in the "pocket" and his intent is unclear, or when a passer runs out of bounds behind the line of scrimmage due to defensive pressure.[1] This often occurs if the opposing team's defensive line, linebackers or defensive backs are able to apply pass pressure to quickly get past blocking players of the offensive team (the quarterback's protection), or if the quarterback is unable to find a back to hand the ball off to or an available eligible receiver (including wide receivers, running backs and tight ends) to catch the ball, allowing the defense a longer opportunity to tackle the quarterback. A quarterback that is pressured but avoids a sack can still be aversely affected by being forced to hurry.

In the National Football League (NFL), it is possible to record a sack for zero yards. The QB must pass the statistical line of scrimmage to avoid the sack. A sack is also credited when a defender causes the quarterback to fumble and the defending team recovers the ball behind or at the line of scrimmage. If a sack is done when the quarterback is in his own end zone, it results in a safety and the defending team is awarded two points.

Rules[edit]

To be considered a sack the quarterback must intend to throw a forward pass. If the play is designed for the quarterback to rush (run) the ball, any loss is subtracted from the quarterback's rushing total (and the play is ruled a Tackle-for-loss as opposed to a sack). If the quarterback's intent is not obvious, statisticians use certain criteria, such as the offensive line blocking scheme, to decide. Unique situations where a loss reduces a quarterback's rushing total (not a sack) are "kneel downs" (used to run time off the game clock).

A player will receive credit for half of a sack when multiple players contribute to the sacking of a quarterback, even if more than two players contributed.

In the NFL yards lost on the play are added as negative yardage to the team's passing totals; however, the quarterback's individual passing total stats remains unchanged.[2] NCAA continues to subtract sack yardage from individual rushing totals.

History[edit]

The term "sack" was first coined by Hall of Fame defensive end Deacon Jones in the 1960s, who felt that a sack devastated the offense in the same way that a city was devastated when it was sacked.[3]

Prior to "sack", the term "dump" was often used, and the NFL's statistical office recorded all sacks under "dumping the passer".[4]

The NFL only began to keep track of times passers lost yardage in 1961[5] and no credit was given to the defensive player responsible until 1982.[6] Researcher John Turney of the Pro Football Researchers Association estimated that Jones recorded 173 12 sacks in his career.[7]

Pass pressure[edit]

Of all forms of defensive pressure against the opposition's passer, sacks provide the most immediate impact by ending the offensive play.[8] However, quarterbacks sometimes avoid a sack by throwing an incomplete pass or risking an interception.[9] According to Football Outsiders, a quarterback hurry is the most common form of pass pressure. In the 2009 NFL season, there were 1,106 sacks and 3,268 hurries, and a hurried quarterback generally averaged fewer yards per pass play compared to the average pass play.[8]

Records[edit]

[6]

  • NFL Most Consecutive Games committing a sack: 69 Tampa Bay, 1999-2003
  • NFL Super Bowl Most sacks, career, 4.5 (sacks compiled since XVII)
  • Official in NFL since 1982

*Deacon Jones had 26 sacks in 14 games in the 1967 season, and 24 sacks in 14 games in the 1968 season. However, as sacks were not officially recorded by the NFL at that point, Michael Strahan is attributed the single season record.

**Al "Bubba" Baker had 23 sacks in his rookie 1978 season. However, as sacks were not officially recorded by the NFL at that point, Jevon Kearse is attributed the single season rookie record.

***L.C. Greenwood had 4 sacks in Super Bowl X.[13] However, as sacks were not officially recorded by the NFL at that point, Reggie White and Darnell Dockett are attributed the Super Bowl record "Most sacks, single game" (3).

100 Sack Club[edit]

Since 1982, when the NFL first began keeping track of sacks, only 31 players have managed to reach the 100 sack milestone.

Bold denotes an
active player
Elected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame
Rank[14] Pos. Player Seasons by team Total sacks[15] Year of induction into
Pro Football Hall of Fame
Ref.
1 DE Bruce Smith Buffalo Bills (19851999)
Washington Redskins (20002003)
200 2009 [16]
2 DE Reggie White Philadelphia Eagles (19851992)
Green Bay Packers (19931998)
Carolina Panthers (2000)
198 2006 [17]
3 LB Kevin Greene Los Angeles Rams (19851992)
Pittsburgh Steelers (19931995)
Carolina Panthers (1996, 19981999)
San Francisco 49ers (1997)
160 Finalist three times [18][19]
4 DE Chris Doleman Minnesota Vikings (19851993, 1999)
Atlanta Falcons (19941995)
San Francisco 49ers (19961998)
150.5 2012 [20]
5 DE Michael Strahan New York Giants (19932007) 141.5 2014 [18][21]
6 DE Jason Taylor Miami Dolphins (19972007, 2009, 2011)
Washington Redskins (2008)
New York Jets (2010)
139.5 Eligible in 2016 [22]
7 DT John Randle Minnesota Vikings (19902000)
Seattle Seahawks (20012003)
137.5 2010 [23]
DE Richard Dent Chicago Bears (19831993, 1995)
San Francisco 49ers (1994)
Indianapolis Colts (1996)
Philadelphia Eagles (1997)
137.5 2011 [24]
9 DE / OLB John Abraham New York Jets (20002005)
Atlanta Falcons (20062012)
Arizona Cardinals (2013–Present)
133.5 Active; injured reserve [25]
10 DE Jared Allen Kansas City Chiefs (20042007)
Minnesota Vikings (20082013)
Chicago Bears (2014–Present)
133 Active [26]
11 LB Lawrence Taylor New York Giants (19811993) 132.5 1999 [27]
DE Leslie O'Neal San Diego Chargers (19861995)
St. Louis Rams (19961997)
Kansas City Chiefs (19981999)
132.5 Z [28]
13 LB Rickey Jackson New Orleans Saints (19811993)
San Francisco 49ers (19941995)
128 2010 [29]
14 DE DeMarcus Ware Dallas Cowboys (20052013)
Denver Broncos (2014–Present)
127 Active [30]
15 LB Derrick Thomas Kansas City Chiefs (19891999) 126.5 2009 [31]
16 DE Julius Peppers Carolina Panthers (20022009)
Chicago Bears (20102013)
Green Bay Packers (2014–Present)
123.5 Active [32]
17 DE Simeon Rice Arizona Cardinals (19962000)
Tampa Bay Buccaneers (20012006)
Denver Broncos (2007)
Indianapolis Colts (2007)
122 Z [33]
18 DE Clyde Simmons Philadelphia Eagles (19861993)
Arizona Cardinals (19941995)
Jacksonville Jaguars (19961997)
Cincinnati Bengals (1998)
Chicago Bears (19992000)
121.5 Z [34]
19 DE Sean Jones Los Angeles Raiders (19841987)
Houston Oilers (19881993)
Green Bay Packers (19941996)
113 Z [35]
20 OLB Robert Mathis Indianapolis Colts (2003–Present) 111 Active; injured reserve [36]
21 OLB Dwight Freeney Indianapolis Colts (20022012)
San Diego Chargers (2013–Present)
110 Active [37]
22 DE Greg Townsend Los Angeles Raiders (19831993)
Philadelphia Eagles (1994)
Oakland Raiders (1997)
109.5 Z [38]
23 LB Pat Swilling New Orleans Saints (19861992)
Detroit Lions (19931994)
Oakland Raiders (19951998)
107.5 Z [39]
24 DE Trace Armstrong Chicago Bears (19891994)
Miami Dolphins (19952000)
Oakland Raiders (20012003)
106 Z [40]
25 OLB/DE Terrell Suggs Baltimore Ravens (2003–Present) 105.5 ZActive [41]
26 DE Neil Smith Kansas City Chiefs (19871996)
Denver Broncos (19971999)
San Diego Chargers (2000)
104.5 Z [42]
DE Kevin Carter St. Louis Rams (19952000)
Tennessee Titans (20012004)
Miami Dolphins (20052006)
Tampa Bay Buccaneers (20072008)
104.5 Z [43]
28 DE Jim Jeffcoat Dallas Cowboys (19831994)
Buffalo Bills (19951997)
102.5 Z [44]
29 LB / DE Charles Haley San Francisco 49ers (19861991, 19981999)
Dallas Cowboys (19921996)
100.5 Finalist five times [18][45]
DE William Fuller Houston Oilers (19861993)
Philadelphia Eagles (19941996)
San Diego Chargers (19971998)
100.5 Z [46]
31 LB Andre Tippett New England Patriots (19821993) 100 2009 [47]

Active players with 80 sacks or more (As of week 15 of the 2014 season.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] 2011 Football Statisticians Manual, p. 17.
  2. ^ http://www.nflgsis.com/gsis/documentation/stadiumguides/guide_for_statisticians.pdf
  3. ^ "Jones, NFL coiner of 'sack the quarterback,' dies at 74". CNN. June 4, 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "Sack or Dump: To Quarterback It's All Downhill". The Milwaukee Journal. November 7, 1975. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  5. ^ NFL Records
  6. ^ a b NFL Records
  7. ^ Unofficially, Sack Record Doesn't Add Up, The New York Times
  8. ^ a b Schatz, Aaron (June 1, 2010). "Examining the art of the hurry". ESPN.com. Retrieved February 2, 2014. (subscription required)
  9. ^ Long, Howie; Czarnecki, John (2011). "Football For Dummies". John Wiley & Sons. p. 166. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  10. ^ NFL Career Sacked Leaders - Pro-Football-Reference.com
  11. ^ NFL Single-Season Sacked Leaders - Pro-Football-Reference.com
  12. ^ NFL Single Game Sacked Leaders - Pro-Football-Reference.com
  13. ^ "Super Bowl X play-by-play". USA TODAY. January 11, 2002. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  14. ^ Rank is as of Week 12 of the 2014 season.
  15. ^ Total is through Week 12 of the 2014 season.
  16. ^ "Bruce Smith stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Reggie White stats". pro-football-reference. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c "Hall Of Fame Finalists". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  19. ^ "Kevin Greene stats". pro-football-reference. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Chris Doleman stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  21. ^ "Michael Strahan stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  22. ^ "Jason Taylor stats". pro-football-reference. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "John Randle stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Richard Dent stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  25. ^ "John Abraham stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  26. ^ "Jared Allen stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  27. ^ "Lawrence Taylor stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  28. ^ "Leslie O'Neal stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  29. ^ "Rickey Jackson stats". pro-football-reference. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "DeMarcus Ware stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  31. ^ "Derrick Thomas stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  32. ^ "Julius Peppers stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  33. ^ "Simeon Rice stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  34. ^ "Clyde Simmons stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  35. ^ "Sean Jones stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Robert Mathis stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  37. ^ "Dwight Freeney stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  38. ^ "Greg Townsend stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  39. ^ "Pat Swilling stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  40. ^ "Trace Armstrong stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  41. ^ "Terrell Suggs stats". nfl.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  42. ^ "Neil Smith stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  43. ^ "Kevin Carter stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  44. ^ "Jim Jeffcoat stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  45. ^ "Charles Haley stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  46. ^ "William Fuller stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  47. ^ "Andre Tippett stats". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 

External links[edit]