Until 1983, when it separated through a local referendum, Quartucciu was a district of Cagliari. The other three municipalities which separated from Cagliari in this decade were Elmas (1989) and Monserrato (1991).
Quartucciu's territory is home to one of the largest Giant's tomb in Sardinia, Sa Dom'è S'Orcu, dating to the 10th-6th century BC. Also present is a Phoenician-Roman necropolis, in the archaeological park of Pill'è Matta, including more than 200 tombs. It was frequented from the 4th century BC to the 5th century AD. Other sights include the Nuraghe Arrù (13th-9th century BC) and the church of St. George Martyr; the latter was built by the Aragonese, over a pre-existing Pisan structure, in the 14th century, and houses a 16th-century retablo.