Quaternary sector of the economy
|Primary sector: raw materials
Secondary sector: manufacturing
Tertiary sector: services
|Quaternary sector: intellectual activities
Quinary sector: decision-making
|Colin Clark · Jean Fourastié|
|Sectors by ownership|
|Business sector · Private sector · Public sector · Voluntary sector|
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy which typically includes services such as information generation and sharing, information technology, consultation, education, research and development, financial planning, and other knowledge-based services. The term has been used to describe media, culture, and government.
"Quaternary sector" is a further delineation of the three-sector hypothesis of industry in the sense that the quarternary sector refers to a part of the third or tertiary sector along with the quinary economic sector. It has been argued that intellectual services is distinct enough to warrant a separate sector and not be considered merely as a part of the tertiary sector. This sector evolves in well developed countries and requires a highly educated workforce.
In the quarternary sector, companies invest to ensure further expansion. It is seen as a way to generate higher margins or returns on investment. Research will be directed into cutting costs, tapping into markets, producing innovative ideas, new production methods and methods of manufacture, amongst others. To many industries, such as the pharmaceutical industry, the sector is the most valuable because it creates future branded products from which the company will profit.
According to some definitions, the quaternary sector includes other pure services, such as the entertainment industry.
The quarternary sector consists of those industries providing information services, such as computing and ICT (information and communication technologies), consultancy (offering advice to businesses) and R&D (research, particularly in scientific fields).
The quarternary sector is sometimes included with the tertiary sector, as they are both service sectors. Between them, the tertiary and quarternary sectors are the largest part of the UK economy, employing 76% of the workforce.
- Tor Selstad (1990). "The rise of the quarternary sector. The regional dimension of knowledge-based services in Norway, 1970-1985". informaworld. Retrieved 2010-06-17. "... knowledge-based services ..."
- Peter Busch (1967). "Tacit Knowledge in Organizational Learning". Tacit Knowledge in Organizational Learning. Retrieved 2010-06-17. "see page .. The quarternary sector of industry is the sector of industry that involves the intellectual services. That is research, development, and information."
- "ICTs, industry and the new teacher model". Asian Correspondent. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-06-17. "In Australia, the service sector accounts for 70 per cent of the country’s economic activity. Within the service sector, however, more intellectual activities such as government, education, culture and media, can be further defined as the ‘quarternary’ sector of economy. These activities are typically not measured in monetary value but they significantly contribute to the economy."
- press release (Feb 19, 2010). "TEXT-Fitch: Investment to increase in India's healthcare sector". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-06-17. "Fitch notes that newly commissioned hospitals and improved occupancy rates at existing ones will drive revenue growth. Better capcity utilisation and increased focus on higher-margin tertiary and quarternary healthcare services are expected to boost profitability, and improve cash flow from operations (CFO)."
- Zoltan Kenessey, U.S. Federal Reserve Board. "THE PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY AND QUARTERNARY SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY" (PDF). Review of Income and Wealth. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
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