Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry

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Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry
Active 1796 - 1992
Country United Kingdom
Branch British Army
Type Yeomanry
Role Boer War
Imperial Yeomanry
World War I
Yeomanry
Infantry
World War II
Royal Artillery
Post War
Royal Armoured Corps
Size World War I
Three Regiments
World War II
Two Regiments
Post War
One Squadron
Part of Territorial Force
Engagements World War I
Battle of Gallipoli
World War II
Operation Ariel
Operation Vitality
Operation Infatuate
Operation Blackcock
Operation Torch
Longstop Hill
Battle of Centuripe
the Viktor Line (Battle of Termoli)
Barbara Line
River Sangro (Gustav Line)
Battle of Monte Cassino
Gothic Line
battle of Argenta gap

The Queen's Own Glasgow can trace their formation back to the late 18th century, when King George III was on the throne, William Pitt the Younger was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and across the English Channel, Britain was faced by a French nation that had recently guillotined its king and possessed a revolutionary army numbering half a million men. The prime minister proposed that the English Counties form a force of Volunteer Yeoman Cavalry that could be called on by the king to defend the country against invasion or by the Lord Lieutenant to subdue any civil disorder within the country.[1]

History[edit]

Formation and early history[edit]

The regiment was first raised in 1796 as " The Glasgow Light Horse". It was subsequently disbanded in 1822 but re-raised as "The Glasgow and Lower Ward of Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry" in 1848. The additional title of "Queen's Own Royal" was conferred by Queen Victoria the following year.

Boer War[edit]

On December 13, 1899, the decision to allow volunteer forces serve in the Second Boer War was made. Due to the string of defeats during Black Week in December, 1899, the British government realized they were going to need more troops than just the regular army, thus issuing a Royal Warrant on December 24, 1899. This warrant officially created the Imperial Yeomanry.

The Royal Warrant asked standing Yeomanry regiments to provide service companies of approximately 115 men each. In addition to this, many British citizens (usually mid-upper class) volunteered to join the new regiment.[2] Although there were strict requirements, many volunteers were accepted with substandard horsemanship/marksmanship, however they had significant time to train while awaiting transport.

The first contingent of recruits contained 550 officers, 10,371 men with 20 battalions and 4 companies,[3] which arrived in South Africa between February and April, 1900.[4] Upon arrival, the regiment was sent throughout the zone of operations.
The Queen's Own Glasgow Yeomanry provided troops for the 9th (Scottish) Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry; the companies were:

17th (Ayrshire and Lanarkshire) Company, raised 1900; co-sponsored by Ayrshire Yeomanry Cavalry, and Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry
18th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow and Lower Ward of Lanark) Company, raised 1900
19th (Lothians and Berwickshire) Company, raised 1900
20th (Fife and Forfar Light Horse) Company, raised 1900; co-sponsored by 1st Fifeshire Light Horse Volunteers, and 1st Forfarshire Light Horse Volunteers
107th (Lanarkshire) Company, raised 1901
108th (Royal Glasgow) Company, raised 1901 [5]

World War I[edit]

Lowland Mounted Brigade
Organisation on 4 August 1914

In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 (7 Edw.7, c.9) which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country. However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split in August and September 1914 into 1st Line (liable for overseas service) and 2nd Line (home service for those unable or unwilling to serve overseas) units. Later, a 3rd Line was formed to act as a reserve, providing trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line regiments.[6]

1/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

On mobilisation in August 1914 the 1/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was attached to the Lowland Mounted Brigade and moved with it to Cupar, Fife on coastal defence duties. In May 1915, it left the brigade and was split up as divisional cavalry.[7]

V Corps Cavalry Regiment was assembled in France in May 1916 with the RHQ, A and B Squadrons along with B Squadron, Lothians and Border Horse.[7]

In July 1917 the regiment was dismounted and the squadrons were sent to No. 21 Infantry Base Depot at Étaples for infantry training on 23 August. On 29 September, 4 Officers and 146 Other Ranks joined 18th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry in 106th Brigade, 35th Division at Aizecourt-le-Bas which was redesignated as 18th (Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry.[7][b] The battalion was still in 106th Brigade, 35th Division at the end of the war, west of Grammont, Belgium.[11]

2/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

The second line regiment the 2/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was formed in September 1914. In March 1916, RHQ, A and B Squadrons joined the 65th Division prior to being drafted into the 1st Reserve Cavalry Regiment in February 1918 and being sent to Ireland. The regiments C Squadron has joined the 64th Division until 1917 when they were disbanded.

3/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

The 3/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was formed in 1915 and remained in the United Kingdom until being drafted into the 4th Reserve Cavalry Regiment in early 1917.

Between the Wars[edit]

On the reforming of the TA, the 14 senior Yeomanry Regiments remained as horsed cavalry regiments (6 forming the 5th and 6th Cavalry Brigades) the remaining Yeomanry Regiments would be re roled as Artillery. The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was one of the regiments now re-designated and formed part of the Royal Artillery.

World War II[edit]

54th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA[edit]

Mobilised in 1939 and attached to the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, they moved to France as a part of the 'Second B.E.F' in June 1940. After being evacuated from France during Operation Ariel together with the rest of the division they trained in mountain warfare.In August 1944, it became part of the First Allied Airborne Army. (As a mountain formation, it had little heavy equipment and transport, and could therefore operate as an air-transportable formation).

They returned to France in October 1944, and were assigned to the First Canadian Army to help open the vital port of Antwerp and were involved in the Scheldt Estuary of Belgium and the Netherlands. Operation Vitality, Operation Infatuate and the capture of the island of Walcheren to open the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. In January 1945 they participated in Operation Blackcock, the clearing of the Roer Triangle between the rivers Meuse and Roer.[12]

64th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA[edit]

Mobilised in September 1939 they remained in the United Kingdom as part of the 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division until March 1942 when they moved to North Africa with the 78th Infantry Division. The 78th was formed specifically for Operation Torch from regular British Army units, landing at Algiers in 1942. Thereafter it continued in Tunisia, then through to the Sicily, up the length of Italy, arriving in Austria for the end of the war. Units also saw action in Greece, Palestine, and Egypt. Notable engagements include in Tunisia Longstop Hill, in Sicily the Battle of Centuripe and in Italy the assaults on the Viktor Line (Battle of Termoli), the Barbara Line and the River Sangro (Gustav Line) as well as the Battle of Monte Cassino, the Gothic Line and battle of Argenta gap.[13]

64th (QORGY) A-T Regt, R.A. was the first unit in the Italian campaign to be issued with the powerful 17 Pounder anti-tank guns, though some troops in the Regiment were later moved to M10 Self-Propelled 3in Anti-Tank Guns.

Post war[edit]

After the War, the regiment reconstituted in the Territorial Army as a yeomanry regiment, under its old title of the Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry, and transferred into the Royal Armoured Corps. In 1956 it amalgamated with the Lanarkshire Yeomanry and the 1st/2nd Lothians and Border Horse to form The Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry.[14] In November 1992 they formed the Scottish Yeomanry, with the amalgamation of the Queen's Own Yeomanry and elements 153 (Highland) Regiment Royal Corps of Transport (Volunteers) and 154 (Lowland) Regiment Royal Corps of Transport (Volunteers). The Squadrons were;

HQ (Lothians and Border Horse) Squadron at Edinburgh.
A (Ayrshire (Earl of Carrick's Own) Yeomanry) Squadron at Ayr.
B (Lanarkshire and Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Squadron at East Kilbride.
C (Fife and Forfar/Scottish Horse) Squadron at Cupar.

On July 1, 1999 the Regiment was disbanded as a result of the Strategic Defence Review. [15]

Battle honours[edit]

Honorary Distinction awarded to the Shropshire Yeomanry for service as a Royal Artillery regiment. The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry Honorary Distinction would be similar.

The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was awarded the following battle honours:[14]

Second Boer War

South Africa 1900–01

World War I

Loos, Ypres 1917 '18, Passchendaele, Somme 1918, Bapaume 1918, Ancre 1918, Coutrai, France and Flanders 1915–18

World War II

The Royal Artillery was present in nearly all battles and would have earned most of the honours awarded to cavalry and infantry regiments. In 1833, William IV awarded the motto Ubique (meaning "everywhere") in place of all battle honours.[16]

Honorary Distinction: Badge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery with year-dates "1940 '42–45" and four scrolls: "North-West Europe", "North Africa", "Sicily" and "Italy"

Uniform[edit]

Prior to 1902 the Regiment wore a dragoon style uniform of dark blue with red facings, which had not altered a great deal since its establishment in 1848. A silver spiked helmet with black plumes was worn by all ranks in full dress.[17] Following the Boer War khaki was introduced for home service but the full dress uniform described above was retained for wear by officers in review order, with the addition of a gold lace covered shoulder and waist belt, gold cord shoulder knots and gold trouser stripes. Other ranks wore a simpler dark bue uniform with peaked cap, chain shoulder-straps, red collar and trouser stripes for walking out dress.[18]

After World War I khaki service dress was the normal uniform for the Regiment, although by the 1930s officers attending the King's Levee at St James' or Buckingham Palace wore the former blue, red and gold full dress. Mess uniforms and blue "patrol" uniforms were also reintroduced between the Wars for officers only.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ C Squadron was replaced in XXI Corps Cavalry Regiment by B Squadron, Hertfordshire Yeomanry.[8]
  2. ^ The Lothians and Border Horse elements joined 17th Battalion, Royal Scots in 106th Brigade, 35th Division.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "worcestershire". [dead link]
  2. ^ "Boer War Notes". Retrieved 11 June 2007. 
  3. ^ Imperial Yeomanry at regiments.org by T.F.Mills at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 May 2007)
  4. ^ "Boer War - Imperial Yeomanry Battalions". Retrieved 3 July 2007. 
  5. ^ "Imperial Yeomanry (by Btn)". AngloBoerWar.com. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Rinaldi 2008, p. 35
  7. ^ a b c d e f James 1978, p. 19
  8. ^ a b James 1978, p. 20
  9. ^ James 1978, p. 22
  10. ^ James 1978, p. 24
  11. ^ James 1978, p. 103
  12. ^ Barton, Derek. "54 (Queens Own Royal Glasgow Yeo) Anti-Tank Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  13. ^ Barton, Derek. "64 (Queens Own Royal Glasgow Yeo) Anti-Tank Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry at regiments.org by T.F.Mills at the Wayback Machine (archived 9 June 2007)
  15. ^ Drenth, Wienand (28 August 2000). "Yeomanry". Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  16. ^ Royal Regiment of Artillery at regiments.org by T.F.Mills at the Wayback Machine (archived 15 July 2007)
  17. ^ Harris 1972, plate 9
  18. ^ Haswell Miller 2009, figures 26, 36 and 85

Bibliography[edit]

  • Harris, R.G. (1972). 50 Years of Yeomanry Uniforms 1. Muller. ISBN 0-584-10937-7. 
  • Haswell Miller, A.E. (2009). Vanished Armies: A Record of Military Uniform Observed and Drawn in Various European Countries During the Years 1907 to 1914. Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-74780-739-1. 
  • James, Brigadier E.A. (1978). British Regiments 1914–18. London: Samson Books Limited. ISBN 0-906304-03-2. 
  • Rinaldi, Richard A (2008). Order of Battle of the British Army 1914. Ravi Rikhye. ISBN 978-0-97760728-0.