Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)

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Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
Active 1661–1959
Country  Kingdom of England (1661–1707)
 Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
 United Kingdom (1801–1959)
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Role Line Infantry
Size 1–2 Regular Battalions
1 Militia Battalion (2nd Royal Surrey Regiment of Militia)
4 Volunteer Battalions
Part of Home Counties Brigade
Garrison/HQ Stoughton Barracks, Guildford[1]
Nickname Kirke's Lambs, The Mutton Lancers
Motto Pristinae Virtutis Memor (Mindful of Former Valour)
Vel Exuviae Triumphans (Even in Defeat Triumphant)
March Quick: The Braganza
Slow: Scipio
Anniversaries Glorious First of June (1 June)
Salerno (9 September)

The Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) was a regiment of the English and later British Army from 1661 to 1959.[2] It was the senior English line infantry regiment of the British Army, behind only the Royal Scots in the British Army line infantry order of precedence.[3] In 1959, it was amalgamated with The East Surrey Regiment, to form a single county regiment called The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment. Following further amalgamations the lineage of the regiment is continued today by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment.[4]

Titles[edit]

The regiment was raised in 1661 by Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough as The Earl of Peterborough's Regiment of Foot on Putney Heath (then in Surrey) specifically to garrison the new English acquisition of Tangier, part of Catherine of Braganza's dowry when she married King Charles II.[5] From this service, it was also known as the Tangier Regiment. As was usual at the time, it was also named after its current colonel, from one of whom, Percy Kirke, it acquired its nickname Kirke's Lambs.[6]

In 1685, it was given the Royal title the Queen Dowager's Regiment of Foot (after Queen Catherine, widow of Charles II) and in 1703 became The Queen's Royal Regiment of Foot.[7] In 1715, it was renamed The Princess of Wales's Own Regiment of Foot after Caroline of Ansbach, then Princess of Wales, and was re-designated The Queen's Own Regiment of Foot in 1727 when the Princess became Queen. It was ranked as 2nd Foot in the clothing regulations of 1747, and was renamed 2nd (The Queen's Royal) Regiment of Foot by Royal warrant in 1751.[8]

In the Childers reforms of 1881 it became the county regiment of West Surrey, named The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment). In 1921, its title was slightly altered to The Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey). By 1950 it was known as The Queen's Royal Regiment. In 1959, it was amalgamated with The East Surrey Regiment, to form The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment.

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

The Regiment shipped to Tangier where it remained until the port was evacuated in 1684, when it returned to England. It took part in the suppression of the Monmouth Rebellion, fighting at the Battle of Sedgemoor, where it earned a widespread (but probably exaggerated[9]) reputation for brutality.[10] After the Glorious Revolution, it fought in Ireland for the new King, William III, defending the besieged Londonderry in 1689 and at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. From 1692 to 1696 it fought in Flanders in the Nine Years' War, at the Battle of Landen and the recapture of Namur in 1695.

During the War of Spanish Succession it served in the Iberian campaign, at Cadiz, Vigo, the sieges of Valencia de Alcantara, Alburquerque, Badajoz, Alcantara[disambiguation needed] and Ciudad Rodrigo, and was virtually destroyed in the disastrous Battle of Almansa. In the campaign in the Low Countries in 1703, it defended Tongres against overwhelming odds, giving Lord Overkirk time to re-group his forces, until it was eventually captured.[11] It was for this action that it was awarded its Royal title and its mottoes. It spent most of the remainder of the 18th Century on garrison duty, being one of the regiments involved in putting down the Gordon Riots.

French and Napoleonic Wars[edit]

On the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, detachments were in the West Indies and acting as marines in the Channel Fleet, notably at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, where they served on Howe’s flagship, Queen Charlotte and also on board Russell, Defence, Royal George and Majestic. In recognition of the Regiment's service, it was granted the distinction of wearing a Naval Crown superscribed 1 June 1794 on its colours. Another Regimental tradition dating from this victory was that of drinking the Loyal Toast seated (as is Royal Navy custom, owing to the difficulty of officers standing in the low, crowded and often unsteady wardroom of a man-of-war). This tradition is maintained by the successor Regiment, the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. The Regiment was then reunited and sent to the West Indies where it took part in the capture of Guadeloupe in 1794, although the occupation was short-lived owing to outbreaks of disease, particularly yellow fever, among the troops, and the capture of Trinidad in 1797. A second battalion was formed in 1795 and stationed in Guernsey before being shipped to Martinique, where it was disbanded in 1797, its personnel being absorbed by 1st Battalion.

The Regiment was transferred to Ireland in 1798 where it helped put down the Irish rebellion and then took part in the unsuccessful 1799 Helder campaign. In 1800, it was part of the abortive expedition to Belle Isle,[12] from which it sailed to Egypt where it fought at the Battle of Alexandria and the Siege of Alexandria.

During the Napoleonic Wars, the regiment first fought in the Peninsular War at the battles of Vimeiro and Corunna. It then took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign before returning to the Peninsula to fight at the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro, the second Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, the Battle of Salamanca and the unsuccessful Siege of Burgos. By the winter of 1812, the Regiment was so depleted by casualties and disease that four companies were amalgamated with the equally weakened 2nd Battalion, 53rd Foot, to form the 2nd Provisional Battalion. Six cadre companies returned home to re-form. As part of the 4th Division, the Provisional Battalion took part in the Wellington's triumph at the Battle of Vittoria on 21 June 1813, followed by the Siege of San Sebastian and, 1814, the battles of Orthes and Toulouse. In 1814, the Provisional Battalion was broken up and the Regiment re-formed.

Post Napoleonic 19th Century[edit]

The Regiment was on garrison duty in Baluchistan when the First Afghan War broke out in 1839. It formed part of the force that attacked the previously-impregnable city of Ghazni, taking the city by storm because the army lacked siege equipment, and opening the way to Kabul. It returned to India in November 1839, storming the city of Khelat en route, and avoiding destruction along with the rest of Elphinstone's army.

It was shipped to the Cape Colony during the Eighth Kaffir War in 1851. On February 25, 1852 a draft of 51 men under the command of Ensign Boyland were aboard HMS Birkenhead travelling from Simon's Bay to Port Elizabeth when the ship struck rocks. The troops were assembled on deck and remained at attention to afford the embarked women and children time to take their place in the lifeboats. Shortly after this the ship broke up and the vast majority of the troops on board were either drowned or fell victim to sharks. The bravery of the troops, made up of cadres from ten different regiments, led to the naming of Birkenhead Drill.[13] It once again became the 1st Battalion when the 2nd Battalion was reformed in 1857, and went to China in 1860 at the time of the Second Opium War, fighting at the Third Battle of Taku Forts and the capture of Beijing. In 1897–98, it took part in the Tirah Expedition on the North-West Frontier. The 2nd Battalion fought in the Third Anglo-Burmese War from 1886 to 1888 and in South Africa from 1899 to 1904 in the Second Boer War.

In 1909, many years after the event, the Regiment was granted the Battle Honour of "Tangier 1662-80", the oldest in the British Army. The Honour is still held by its successor, the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment.

The Great War[edit]

The 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre in August 1914, and spent the entire war on the Western Front. The 2nd Battalion was in South Africa when war broke out and was shipped to France in November 1914. It fought in France and Flanders until November 1917, when it was sent to the Italian Front, taking part in the battles of the Piave and Vittorio Veneto. The Territorial and New Army battalions undertook a number of duties, including training, garrison duty around the Empire and combat service on several fronts.[14] 270 other rank returning prisoners of war were awarded a "Welcome Home Medal" at a reception in Guildford in January 1919. The medal has the regimental badge on one side and the inscription, " Prisoners of War The Queens Regiment Welcome Home on the reverse and is dated MCMXVIII. Following the armistice troops from the 4th/5th reserve Battalion were involved in a mutinous riot at Clipstone Camp, Nottinghamshire, following disquiet at the slow rate of being demobilised.[15]

Between the wars[edit]

The 1st Battalion spent the inter-war years on garrison duty, both in Britain and overseas. The 2nd Battalion took part in the Waziristan campaign of 1919-1920, attempting to pacify the tribal areas during the unrest following the Third Afghan War. It was in Palestine during the Insurgency of 1936-1939.

The Second World War[edit]

The 1st Battalion was in India on the outbreak of the Second World War and fought in the Burma Campaign throughout the war. The 2nd Battalion spent the early years of the war in the Middle East and Syria before also going out to the far East.

Post-war service and amalgamation[edit]

The 2nd Battalion was disbanded in 1948 and its personnel transferred to 1st Battalion (which had previously been reduced to nil strength in 1947). The 1st Battalion served in Berlin during the blockade to 1949 then Iserlohn in BAOR (British Army of the Rhine) part of 5 Inf Brg, 2nd Inf Div (Crossed Keys) until 1953. The 1st Battalion fought the Communist guerrillas during the Malayan Emergency from 1954-1957. In 1957, it returned to Germany where, in 1958, it was amalgamated with 1st Battalion, The East Surrey Regiment, to form 1st Battalion, The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment.

Battle honours[edit]

  • Tangier 1662-80, Namur 1695, Ushant, Egypt, Vimiera, Corunna, Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Toulouse, Peninsula, Ghuznee 1839, Khelat, Affghanistan 1839, South Africa 1851-2-3, Taku Forts, Pekin 1860, Burma 1885-87, Tirah, Relief of Ladysmith, South Africa 1899-1902
  • The Great War (25 battalions): Mons, Retreat from Mons, Marne 1914 '18, Aisne 1914, Ypres 1914 '17 '18, Langemarck 1914, Gheluvelt, Aubers, Festubert 1915, Loos, Somme 1916 '18, Albert 1916 '18, Bazentin, Delville Wood, Pozières, Guillemont, Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Thiepval, Le Transloy, Ancre Heights, Ancre 1916 '18, Arras 1917 '18, Scarpe 1917, Bullecourt, Messines 1917, Pilckem, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Broodseinde, Passchendaele, Cambrai 1917 '18, St. Quentin, Bapaume 1918, Rosières, Avre, Villers Bretonneux, Lys, Hazebrouck, Bailleul, Kemmel, Soissonais Ourcq, Amiens, Hindenburg Line, Épéhy, St. Quentin Canal, Courtrai, Selle, Sambre, France and Flanders 1914-18, Piave, Vittorio Veneto, Italy 1917-18, Suvla, Landing at Suvla, Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli 1915, Rumani, Egypt 1915-16, Gaza, El Mughar, Jerusalem, Jericho, Tell 'Asur, Palestine 1917-18, Khan Baghdadi, Mesopotamia 1915-18, N W Frontier India 1916-17
  • Afghanistan 1919
  • The Second World War: Defence of Escaut, Villers Bocage, Mont Pincon, Lower Maas, Roer, North-West Europe 1940 '44-45, Syria 1941, Sidi Barrani, Tobruk 1941, Tobruk Sortie, Deir el Munassib, El Alamein, Advance on Tripoli, Medenine, Tunis, North Africa 1940-43, Salerno, Monte Stella, Scafati Bridge, Volturno Crossing, Monte Camino, Garigliano Crossing, Damiano, Anzio, Gothic Line, Gemmano Ridge, Senio Pocket, Senio Floodbank, Casa Fabri Bridge, Menate, Filo, Argenta Gap, Italy 1943-45, North Arakan, Kohima, Yenangyaung 1945, Sittang 1945, Chindits 1944, Burma 1943-45
  • 4th, 5th Battalions: South Africa 1900-02

List of Colonels of the Regiment[edit]

Victoria Cross[edit]

The following members of the Regiment were awarded the Victoria Cross:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Regimental Depots". "...in 1873 Edward Cardwell, Secretary of State for War, chose Guildford as the site for the 2nd Regimental District (Infantry) to be known as Stoughton Barracks" 
  2. ^ The Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) at the archive of regiments.org
  3. ^ Foot Guards Regiments rank higher in precedence than Line Infantry regiments, even if they are not as old.
  4. ^ "History of the Regiment". British Army Website. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment: The Raising of the Regiment and Tangier 1661–84
  6. ^ Anon (1916) Regimental Nicknames and Traditions of the British Army. London: Gale and Polden. p. 43
  7. ^ Swinson, A. (1972) A Register of the Regiments and Corps of the British Army. London: The Archive Press. p. 75
  8. ^ Fife and Drum: The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751
  9. ^ Timmons, S.A. (2003), Executions following Monmouth's rebellion: a missing link. Historical Research, 76: 286–291.
  10. ^ Kirke's Lambs entry in the Nuttall Encyclopaedia
  11. ^ (Queen’s) Royal Regiment: Tangier, War of the Spanish Succession, Tongres, Garrison Duty in the 18th Century
  12. ^ Sir John William Fortescue, A History of the British Army, Volume IV, Part II, MacMillan & Co, London, 1906, p. 779
  13. ^ The Birkenhead Disaster
  14. ^ The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment)
  15. ^ Whatling, Frank Henry. "Frank Henry Whatling Memoirs". Great War Forum. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  16. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 1
  17. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 5
  18. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 7
  19. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 8
  20. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 9
  21. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 12
  22. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 13
  23. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 22
  24. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 24
  25. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 28
  26. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 33
  27. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 35
  28. ^ a b Cannon (1838) p. 36
  29. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 37
  30. ^ a b Cannon (1838) p. 40
  31. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 69
  32. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 71
  33. ^ Cannon (1838) p. 72
  34. ^ The London Gazette: no. 20632. p. 2953. 14 August 1846.
  35. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21472. p. 2417. 2 September 1853.
  36. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21943. p. 3827. 21 November 1856.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22025. p. 2611. 28 July 1857.
  38. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24440. p. 2396. 3 April 1877.
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24442. p. 2516. 10 April 1877.
  40. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26182. p. 3722. 14 July 1891.
  41. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26224. p. 5987. 17 November 1891.
  42. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26448. p. 5694. 10 October 1893.
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26785. p. 5609. 13 October 1896.
  44. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27435. p. 3324. 20 May 1902.
  45. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29030. p. 153. 5 January 1915.
  46. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32096. p. 10262. 22 October 1920.
  47. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33582. p. 1144. 21 February 1930.
  48. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34622. p. 2996. 5 May 1939.
  49. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37056. p. 2282. 1 May 1945.
  50. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 40286. p. 5499. 28 September 1954.

External links[edit]