Dark Kingdom

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This article is about the villain group. For the corresponding story arc, see List of Sailor Moon episodes (season 1). For other uses, see Dark Kingdom (disambiguation).
Sailor Moon villain group

The Dark Kingdom by Naoko Takeuchi. Left column: Jadeite, Zoisite, Kunzite, and Nephrite. Right column: Queen Metaria, Queen Beryl, and Endou.
Dark Kingdom
Story arc: Sailor Moon (anime)
Dark Kingdom (manga)
Live-action series
Codename: Sailor V (Dark Agency only)
Dub name: Negaverse
Leader: Queen Beryl
Chaos form: Queen Metaria
Key figures: Four Kings of Heaven, Endymion, Mio Kuroki, Dark Mercury
MOTD: Youma
Dark Agency Idols
Tools: Crystal Ball, Dark Crystal

The Dark Kingdom (ダーク・キングダム Dāku Kingudamu?) is a group of fictional characters in the Sailor Moon series by Naoko Takeuchi. They are the primary antagonists of the first story arc in every version of the series, and are responsible for the destruction of the ancient moon kingdom Silver Millennium.

The kingdom came into being in the 20th century when the servants of those who had served the evil Queen Metaria millennia before (in the battle against the civilization on the Moon) were reawakened. However, in the some English adaptations, the word "reborn" is used rather than "reincarnation" — it is implied that Queen Beryl and her cohorts were active the whole time even if they did not accelerate activities until the arrival of Sailor Moon. Queen Beryl and th Four Kings of Heaven lead this group, attempting to gather human energy with which to reawaken Metaria.

Monsters serve as monsters of the day in the anime adaptation. They are summoned by the Four Kings of Heaven in order to drain energy, hunt the Princess, distract the Sailor Soldiers, and perform various other tasks. In the English adaptation, the monsters are sometimes called "Negamonsters" by the Sailor Soldiers and Tuxedo Mask.

In the DIC English adaptation, the Dark Kigndom's name is changed to the Negaverse, a portmanteau of negative and universe. Being that the Negaverse and its inhabitants are inherently evil, the adaptation shows Beryl and her cohorts using "Nega" as a common prefix to show their devotion to wickedness and to underscore their dimension's inherent negativity — e.g. "negapower", "negahistory". The term applies to enemies in the first two seasons of the adaptation, implying that they are all loyal to Beryl or her cause. In the original version, the Dark Kingdom is separate from the origins of any other set of antagonists, and is the extra-dimensional location of the evil Queen Beryl and her minions. In the Cloverway English adaptation, references were made at first to "old enemies" but this was soon dropped entirely.

Key figures[edit]

Queen Beryl[edit]

Queen Beryl (クイン・ベリル Kuin Beriru?), named after the mineral beryl, is the first major antagonist in every version of the Sailor Moon series. Beryl has immense magical power, but she uses most of it to channel the life energy harvested by her servants to the entity called Queen Metaria. In most versions of the story, she has the ability to corrupt others into serving the powers of darkness. Her generals, for instance, were once the bodyguards and best friends of Prince Endymion, and in most versions of the story she is able to use her powers to sway Tuxedo Mask into her service.

Originally a young girl on Earth during the age of Silver Millennium,[1] Beryl was in love with Prince Endymion, but her love was unrequited; when she discovered Endymion with Princess Serenity of the moon, she was devastated. She later states that having Endymion was her sole reason for siding with the evil force from the Sun, Queen Metaria.[1] Corrupted and empowered by Metaria, Beryl used her new powers to mobilize the Earth in a war against their protectors, Silver Millennium. Beryl slayed Prince Endymion as he was trying to protect Princess Serenity, leading to the princess's own suicide. At some point after this, Sailor Venus killed Beryl with the holy moon sword. Queen Serenity, greatly weakened, sealed away Metaria again, and before dying sent the whole of her Kingdom to be reincarnated on Earth.[1] Beryl is "reborn" in the 20th century, but finds Queen Metaria sealed within the Earth while traveling in the Arctic. She becomes Queen of the Dark Kingdom, communicating with Queen Metaria and wielding her reincarnated generals Jadeite, Nephrite, Zoisite, and Kunzite to find the "Legendary Silver Crystal" and defeat the newly awakened Sailor Soldiers. Queen Beryl is able to summon the reincarnated Prince Endymion (Tuxedo Mask) to her side, but only after he has been killed and merely exists as a mindless zombie. In the end she fails to get the Silver Crystal, and is again killed by Sailor Venus, who drives a sword through her body. As she falls, she says Endymion's name, and murmurs that she had always just been watching him.[1] She is generally portrayed in a more tragic light in the manga than she is in the anime, even experiencing a brief moment of regret as she knows that she can no longer turn back.[2]

In the anime adaptation, Queen Beryl is responsible for the Tokyo attacks while Sailor Moon, and later the other Sailor Soldiers, are searching for the Moon Princess. She also kidnaps and brainwashes Prince Endymion in order to force him to kill his lover. But when he breaks free of her control and attacks her she lies in a swoon and begs Queen Metaria for more power, which results in Beryl becoming Metaria's vessel for the destruction of everything on Earth called Super Beryl.[3] Queen Beryl is soon obliterated along with Metaria when Sailor Moon, who has transformed into Princess Serenity, combines the power of the Silver Crystal with that of the Moon Stick.

In the DIC English adaptation, she is the ruler of the Negaverse from which she was somehow able to escape in order to attack this dimension. Despite being an extra-dimensional monster in human form that was never born on Earth, it can be assumed that Beryl has a similar origin because when she sees Tuxedo Mask without his mask, she recognizes his face and seeks to claim him as her own. Her love for Endymion is not mentioned; indeed, she does not even know anything about love, vaguely saying that she has heard of it when Jadeite mentions it as a human phenomenon.[4] She is, however, capable of carnal lust, as seen with her attraction to Darien. A key difference between the dubbed Beryl and her Japanese counterpart is that with the demotion of Metaria to the dub Negaforce, Beryl is much more assertive, vindictive, power hungry, and possessive (when towards the end of the first season, Darien is freed from mind control, she shouts "Traitor!" and attacks him with a stone spear, screaming "You are mine!"[5]).

In the anime adaptation, Beryl was content to serve Metaria and her chief motivation was loyalty to Metaria. In the English adaptation, she rules the Negaverse in her own name and is regarded by her foes as a "snake... all twisted and ugly and full of bitterness." Aside from enslaving the entire universe (or even destroying it with everyone in it) for herself, her chief motivation was to exact revenge on Queen Serenity for her defeat 1,000 years earlier.[6] She thinks Princess Serenity as being a nuisance. Beryl was supreme leader and junior partner to her advisor, the Negaforce. Aside from being one of the more ruthless and power hungry of her counterparts, there was almost no sympathy extended to her. The sole exception was when she recalled Queen Serenity imprisoning the Seven Shadows, Beryl's voice actress, Naz Edwards, intoned a sad voice when she read "they disappeared into the Earth's atmosphere..."[7]

At the end of the season, Beryl is exiled to the Negaverse when Sailor Moon defeats her. While the narrator who opened the first season opens the second season reiterating that information, there is also a continuity error when Artemis mentions during the second series that Queen Beryl had been "completely destroyed."[8] Ann and Alan also mention her, saying that she had told them about the Earth, though it is not specified at what point this ever happened; before or after Beryl's defeat.[9]

In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, as in the manga, Beryl has the Four Kings of Heaven collect energy for Metaria, find the princess, and obtain the Silver Crystal. Despite this, Jadeite and Nephrite were rivals for her affections; Zoisite was more loyal to Prince Endymion than to her; Kunzite had set his sights on taking Queen Metaria's power for himself. However, it was soon revealed that Beryl had revived the four and used her magic to bring them into her service, though only Jadeite and Nephrite are completely under her spell as they have forgotten their past memories. At one point, Beryl creates a shadow of herself, Mio Kuroki (Kuroki Mio), who sets out to ruin Usagi Tsukino's reputation while being Beryl's eyes and ears. When she learns that Mamoru Chiba was Prince Endymion, Beryl forces him to come with her by showing him that she can easily kill the Four Kings of Heaven with Nephrite as an example. Once she has the object of her desire under her services, Beryl has Jadeite implant an item in Mamoru's body that will shorten his life when he is with Usagi. However, Mamoru still risks his life for Usagi, to Beryl's dismay. Even more, thanks to Usagi's overuse of the Silver Crystal, Beryl loses control over Metaria's actions. She is killed when her castle crumbles under the stress of a distraught Princess using the Silver Crystal to destroy the world. However, for all her sadness she is not alone, as Jadeite stays by her side after she removes her mind-control spell on him, saying that Beryl is his master by choice.

Beryl appears as a boss in the Sailor Moon: Another Story video game. She is encountered in a cave by the Sailor Soldiers following the DD Girls destruction. Super Beryl serves as Queen Beryl's second form. Later on in the past level, it was shown that Queen Beryl had been a sage that lived at the North Pole wanting Endymion to be hers at the time and has followers all over the world.

Beryl's original form appears, blurrily, in a flashback in the later episodes of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Beryl's original form also appears in the manga, where she wears a gypsy-like outfit.[10] In the manga her original form had black hair, but in the live action series her hair was red in her original form. Beryl appears in the first musical, Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen and its revision, in a similar plot to the series' first story arc. She is then revived in the semi original musical Eien Densetsu and its revision by Sailor Galaxia, who merely uses her as a puppet to awaken Saturn.[11] Beryl dies while protecting Sailor Moon from a stab by the evil Tuxedo Mask mud puppet, her last statement being, "This time I die for passion".[12] Similarly, in Shin Densetsu Kourin Beryl kills the evil King Endymion mud puppet to give Sailor Moon a fighting chance against Galaxia.[13] Several times in the musical, Beryl and Sailor Pluto share the song Onna no Ronsou which explains why betrayal by Endymion in the past killed Beryl's emotion of love.[14] Each time this song is played, Sailor Pluto would always begin with "Because we are the same" or a similar phrase.[15][16][17]

In the anime series, her voice actress is Keiko Han. During recording, this contrast resulted in occasional fits of giggles among the cast when Han would change from Luna's cute, catlike voice to the deep, evil tones of Queen Beryl. Sometimes, she would accidentally play Beryl with Luna's voice.[18] In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Naz Edwards, with Jill Frappier as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Cindy Robinson. In Sailor Moon Crystal, she is voiced by Misa Watanabe.[19]

In the stage musicals, Queen Beryl has been played by two actresses: Yuri Nishina and Akiko Miyazawa (who previously played Sailor Venus). In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, she is portrayed by adult J-pop idol Aya Sugimoto.

The inclusion of her as an evil character in a line of dolls for girls has been described as a "radical idea".[20]

Queen Metaria[edit]

Queen Metaria (クイン・メタリア Kuin Metaria?) is a malignant, amorphous energy being, similar to the depersonalized Japanese god of evil Amatsu-Mikaboshi. She/it was born as a result of radioactivity in the Sun and is the true mastermind behind the Dark Kingdom. Like all arch-villains in the Sailor Moon manga, she is an incarnation of the final arch-villain, Chaos. While the first official English release of the anime in English spelled her name as "Metalia", it was a clear translation error and reprints of the manga in English as well as multiple reprints in Japanese[21][22] have consistently depicted the character's name spelled as "Metaria" in Latin letters. The name is both a Latin word referencing being buried in the Earth (as she is in the manga), and a phonetic play on the word "metal".

In the manga, when Prince Endymion and Princess Serenity were to be wed, Metaria took advantage of those on Earth who despised the union. Such a person was Beryl, whose affections for Endymion were preyed on by Metaria. After the war, Metaria was sealed at the North Pole and placed in suspended animation. In the 20th century, Metaria manages to return a reborn Beryl to her service and orders her to find the Silver Crystal so it may be used to free Metaria. After Endymion's reincarnated form is captured, Metaria enters the young man's body to use him as a suitable host, letting Beryl die in battle. After Sailor Moon is forced to kill Endymion, Metaria is freed to resume her evil. She is eventually destroyed by Sailor Moon.

In the anime adaptation, Metaria is much the same, with a few exceptions. She eventually becomes powerful enough to resurrect on her own and then takes possession of the dying Beryl, transforming into a towering goddess-like creature referred to as Super Beryl.

In the DIC English adaptation, her name is changed to the Negaforce, a combination of Negative and Force. This dark lord (or lady) is a god/demon-like creature to the peoples of the Negaverse, and though it is the supreme being of its dimension, and thus not beholden to any being from the human dimension, not even Chaos, her/its role is greatly downplayed. As the name change implies, the Negaforce is nameless and impersonal and is more a force of nature. Unlike Metaria, she seems never to have been sealed away and she seems to have always been a faceless diabolic force, content to have Beryl do the actual work. Despite this, it is Beryl's primary adviser and the power behind her throne; without the Negaforce, Beryl could not rule. It is also more treacherous and manipulative than its Japanese counterpart, showing that despite having no overt dreams of power, has an agenda for which Beryl, her nominal superior is a tool. That can be seen with how she stokes Beryl's ego by telling her "queen" "You alone will rule the universe!" in one episode, and demanding the minion she insults for stupidity call her master in another. The possession of Beryl in the dub is reworked as "giving her one last chance", and appears to be the Negaforce imbuing Beryl with power rather than possessing her.

In the live-action series, Metaria lacks a personality other than the desire to destroy the world. Beryl originally intends to use the Silver Crystal to control Metaria, but later learns that the gem's power only makes Metaria stronger due to Usagi's rage transmitted through it. This escalates to the point where Beryl can no longer control the actions of her own Youma and fears that Metaria may destroy everything. During Acts 45-46, Metaria transfers her will into the strongest Youma at its service. In a vain attempt to stop Metaria, Endymion takes the creature into his own body with the intent of committing suicide to take it with him. This has nightmarish results, as Metaria takes control of Endymion and then uses him in an attempt to force Sailor Moon to use the Silver Crystal's power. Metaria's plan succeeds, but only after Sailor Moon is forced to kill Endymion. But Sailor Moon manages to revive Mamoru with the Silver Crystal's power, with Metaria gone for good.

In the original Japanese series, her voice actress is Noriko Uemura. In the DIC English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Maria Vacratsis. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, she was portrayed by Miyū Sawai.

Four Kings of Heaven[edit]

The Four Kings of Heaven (四天王 Shiten'ō?, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings") are the commanders of the Dark Kingdom working directly under Queen Beryl. The Shiten'ou provide the major antagonistic force for the beginning of every version of the series—manga, anime, musicals, and live-action. The group's title, Four Heavenly Kings, comes from Buddhist mythology. Each member has epaulettes on his uniform, which indicate their respective ranks.

In the manga, the Four Kings of Heaven originally functioned as the four guardians of Earth's crown prince Endymion. They were led astray during the time of the Silver Millennium, finally selling their souls to the Dark Kingdom and becoming Queen Beryl's servants. When reincarnated in the 20th century, they again fall prey to her and obey her every command, but retain a sense that they need to seek out their real master and aid him. In the manga, they continue to appear after the first season as spirit-advisors to Mamoru, the reincarnation of Endymion. This backstory was not included in the anime, but was reintroduced and built upon for the stage musicals and even more so live-action adaptation. It is also hinted that they were in romantic relationships with the remaining Sailor Soldiers. Kunzite and Venus, Zoicite and Mercury, Jadeite and Mars, and Nephrite and Jupiter were the hinted pairings in the manga.

In the DIC English adpatation, the Four Kings of Heaven were human-like beings from the Negaverse, an alternate dimension of evil, and had only a vague understanding of human ways. From dialogue between Nephlite (Nephrite) and Zoycite (Zoisite), they were even required to take classes in human psychology to blend in.[23] Zoisite was also changed from a male to a female named Zoycite.

The first musical, Sailor Moon - Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen and its revision featured the Four Kings of Heaven. During a ball, Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion sang Waltz ni Koi wo Nosete, and the Shiten'ou were paired with their respective partners, however, this romance was short-lived as Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, Sailor Mercury, and Sailor Venus were each forced to fight Jadeite, Nephrite, Zoisite and Kunzite respectively. While the Sailor Soldiers won in each case, the Four Kings of Heaven used lies and trickery to harm each of the soldiers, resulting in members of both sides dying.

In the 1997 musical Eien Densetsu, only Kunzite and Zoisite appear. Zoisite flirts with Ami, and even sings a duet with her (Itsuwari no Forevermore, lit. Lies Forevermore). Ami only responded to Zoisite's flirting because he subtly brainwashed her. They would have shared a kiss if they weren't interrupted.[24]

In the Sailor Moon: Another Story video game, the Four Kings of Heaven appear as ghosts who help four of the Sailor Soldiers get the respectul gems of each of the Four Kings of Heaven when Mamoru ends up injured by the Opposito Soldier.

In Starlights - Ryuusei Densetsu, the implied romance between the Four Kings of Heaven and Sailor Soldiers can be seen in various situations. The Four Kings of Heavenare sent to flirt with the Sailor Soldiers to make them distracted. The Four Kings of Heaven in their human identities protect the Sailor Soldiers who are also in their civilian identities, from Sailor Galaxia.[25] They can also each be seen flirting in their respective couples, as the Shiten'ou present gifts to the Sailor Soldiers in a park.[26][27] They take the alies of J. Taitou, Light Mifune, Saitou Izou and Saitou Kun and are known as a group called the Jewel Meterias. They say that they are dealing in gemstones and bring their business to Japan by being a part of Michiru, the Animamates' and Three Light's joint concert.

The musical Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin had a group that which called themselves the Neo Shiten'ou. The members of the Neo Shiten'ou were Kunzite, Hematite, Hiddenite, and Kalunite. There was no explanation for changing their names, but Hematite, Hiddenite, and Kalunite looked identical to Zoisite, Nephrite and Jadeite respectively. The group worked with the reborn Queen Beryl under Sailor Galaxia, though the five of them were plotting to get out of Galaxia's rule.

In La Reconquista, the Shitennou disguise themselves as a boy band known as Pandemic 4.The group consisted of Kunza, Jed, Nephra, and Zoi. The band appeared in the Pandemic Love game, in which they used the game to drain energy for Queen Beryl, and had one song, Erosion Boy (イロージョンボーイ Irōjon Bōi?).


Jadeite (ジェダイト Jedaito?) is the first of the Four Kings of Heaven to appear. In her Materials Collection, Naoko Takeuchi describes him as being about 18 years old in appearance,[28] making him the second-youngest, while in the live-action series he is the youngest. He is the head of the Dark Kingdom's Far-Eastern Division[29] and is named after the mineral jadeite.

In the manga, Jadeite's mission is to track down the Silver Crystal but eventually changes to gathering life energy to awaken Queen Metaria. He has very little interaction with the other Shiten'ou, only briefly being seen with and mocked by Nephrite. He expresses an attraction to Sailor Mars and is eventually killed by her Akuryo Taisan technique. After Jadeite's death, Nephrite vows to exact revenge as he preserves Jadeite's skeleton in a glass coffin. In the later side story Casablanca Memories, Zoisite also tries to avenge Jadeite. Jadeite was briefly revived near the end of the "Dark Kingdom" arc and was able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of jadeite (along with the stones for the other three Shiten'ou) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.

In the anime adaptation, hunting energy is Jadeite's primary mission. He is adapted to be outspokenly sexist against women, often remarking how women and girls cannot match his power nor comprehend his methods, although the DIC English adaptation replaces it with a more general rivalry between himself and the Sailor Soldiers. Most of his schemes in the anime involve disguises; he takes on a variety of occupations and personas to trick humans into giving him energy, always targeting mass numbers at once. Due to his repeated failures to destroy the Sailor Soldiers and the loss of Thetis (who was one of Queen Beryl's top Monster and Jadeite's love interest), Jadeite is threatened to destroy the Sailor Soldiers or be condemned to "Eternal Sleep" (reputed to be worse than death itself as anyone condemned to it will drift in profound darkness forever.) His last attempt was to draw out the Sailor Soldiers (Which was Moon, Mars and Mercury at the time), threatening to destroy the city of Tokyo if they did not meet at the airport. He tries killing them by running them over with large, passenger jets, but failed, getting ran over by one. At that time, he also found out the citizen of the Sailor Soldiers before he tried to kill them. He retreated back, only to face his capital punishment of eternal sleep due to his repeated failures of trying to get the crystals and energy. As he was about to reveal the real names of the Sailor Soldiers, Queen Beryl, who dismissed his words as an "excuse", froze him, crystallizing him before he was sent up into a portal of eternal sleep.

Jadeite is eventually succeeded by Nephrite. He (alongside the other Four Kings of Heaven) is featured in a flashback where it depicted the Dark Kingdom's invasion of Silver Millennium.

Of all the Four Kings of Heaven, Jadeite is the only one to retain his basic appearance and mannerisms in the live-action series. He is totally subservient to Queen Beryl, for which she rewards him with her favor, sending him on missions that range from gathering energy to spying on his fellow warriors to attacking the Sailor Guardians directly. He disappears early in the series reverting to crystalline form due to an injury from one of his battles, but is revived some time later by the growing power of Queen Metaria. Firmly loyal to Beryl, he rejects Endymion as his true master until the very last episode of the series where he stays with Queen Beryl as her castle collapses around her.

In the first official Sailor Moon popularity poll, Jadeite was ranked the twentieth most popular character out of thirty eight choices.[30]

In the original Japanese series, he is voiced by Masaya Onosaka. In Crystal, he is voiced by Daisuke Kishio.[19] In the DIC English adaptation, his name was changed to Jedite and is voiced by Tony Daniels. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Todd Haberkorn. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Jun Masuo, and two people have played him in the stage musicals: Susumu Futabashi and Yuhka Asami (an actress).


Nephrite (ネフライト Nefuraito?) is the second of the Four Kings of Heaven to appear. Takeuchi describes him as cocky and emotional, writing in her concept notes he will probably get himself killed right off. He is the second-oldest, estimated at about 19 years old,[28] and is in charge of the Dark Kingdom's North American division.[31] He is named after the mineral nephrite.

Nephrite's primary goal in the manga is to locate the Silver Crystal, but he also takes on a vow to avenge the death of Jadeite, and this is his main driving force. He uses a female "shadow" of himself to attack his victims, simultaneously taking control over their bodies and draining their energy. Sailor Jupiter kills him with her Jupiter Thunderbolt technique. Nephrite is briefly revived near the end of the "Dark Kingdom" arc and is able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of nephrite (along with the stones for the other three Kings of Heaven) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.

In the anime adaptation, Queen Beryl appoints Nephrite to continue the energy hunting job following Jadeite being condemned to "Eternal Sleep." Nephrite hypothesizes that more energy can be taken by concentrating on a single human than by drawing from a crowd as Jadeite usually did which he claimed to be one of the reasons why Jadeite had failed Queen Beryl. Establishing himself in an abandoned church, he uses intonation with the stars to detect the "energy potential" of individual people before attacking them when he implants the essence of one of his Monster into a specific person's object. He, in turn, is mocked by his would-be successor, Zoisite. Also as opposed to Jadeite, Nephrite uses just one alter ego, that of "Masato Sanjouin" (三条院正人 Sanjōin Masato?), a wealthy businessman and socialite. To match his monogrammed belongings, DIC changed his name to "Maxfield Stanton", which author Patrick Drazen describes as "ridiculously soap-opera."[32] Over the course of his missions, Nephrite inadvertently attracts the attention and affections of Usagi's best friend, Naru Osaka, which interferes with his progress. When Nephrite discovers that Tuxedo Mask is Sailor Moon's weakness, Queen Beryl tells Nephrite that he would better destroy Sailor Moon or he will end up in her "Eternal Sleep". Even though he is unable to destroy Sailor Moon, he siphons some energy from Naru earlier which impresses Queen Beryl. The Dark Crystal he crafts to detect the Silver Crystal reacts instead to Naru's love for him. Eventually, he comes to return her love and chooses to rescue her from Zoisite at the cost of his own life, dying in her arms just as the Sailor Soldiers arrive to help. Naru screams in despair, which Drazen says must have been an unexpected development for viewers used to happy endings. Drazen describes Nephrite's death as a scene of redemption, pointing out that, before the end, Nephrite gives a genuine smile, as well as a good laugh, which Drazen considers "would have been beyond him in the past, but love is turning him human."[32] Nephrite (alongside the other Four Kings of Heaven) is featured in a flashback where it depicted the Dark Kingdom's invasion of the Moon Kingdom.

In the live-action series, Nephrite is Jadeite's main rival for the attentions of Queen Beryl, who considers him useless. His physical appearance is drastically changed, and he is portrayed as hot-headed and violent. Repeatedly humiliated by the Sailor Soldiers, and mocked by the other Kings of Heaven, he strives to win Beryl's favor, but she kills her as a demonstration of her power. He is then reborn in Tokyo as a normal human being with all his memories intact, getting a job at the karaoke parlor and forging a tenuous friendship with Ami Mizuno, who was compassionate toward him when she was Dark Mercury. At the end of the series, he is re-established with the other Kings of Heaven as one of Prince Endymion's guardians.

In the original anime series, his voice actor is Katsuji Mori. In Crystal, he is voiced by Kōsuke Toriumi.[19] In the DIC English adaptation, his name was changed to "Neflite" or "Nephlite"[33] and he is voiced by Kevin Lund. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Liam O'Brien. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Hiroyuki Matsumoto, and two actors have played him in the stage musicals: Toshikazu Seike and Shuusuke Yoda.

Nephrite was the joint seventeenth favorite male character in a May 1993 Animage poll, tying with a character from Zettai Muteki Raijin-Oh.[34]


Zoisite (ゾイサイト Zoisaito?) is the third of the Four Kings of Heaven. Of the four, his character has undergone the most drastic changes from version to version of the story. He is the youngest, at about 16–17 years of age, described by Takeuchi as the least mature and most effeminate.[28] He manages the Dark Kingdom's European Division[35] and is named after the mineral zoisite.

Zoisite enters the manga in much the same way as his predecessor, first mocking Nephrite and then crying out in anguish when he is killed. However, he also works closely with the one remaining Shiten'ou, Kunzite, sharing concerns and strategies as he works. Seeking the Silver Crystal, he uses news reports and press releases to make the population of Tokyo help with his search, then resorts to taking their energy when they fail. He very nearly defeats the Sailor Soldiers, but is killed by Sailor Venus. Zoisite was briefly revived near the end of the "Dark Kingdom" arc and was able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of zoisite (along with the stones for the other three Kings of Heaven) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Four Kings of Heaven for advice.

In the anime, Zoisite is introduced along with Nephrite, mocking him in each episode. Despite Nephrite's plans to kill Sailor Moon failing, Nephrite manages to impress Queen Beryl with the energy he got from Naru Osaka. When Zoisite asks why she does not punish Nephrite, Queen Beryl warns Zoisite that he will be in "Eternal Sleep" should he question her judgement again. Later, he finally organizes Nephrite's death by having the Plant Sisters kidnap Naru and having the Plant Sister Housenka critically wound Nephrite. After Queen Metaria's awakening, Queen Beryl appoints Zoisite to find the Rainbow Crystals that are in specific humans that are hosts to the Seven Monsters. He is more successful than either of his predecessors, obtaining the seven fragments of the Silver Crystal. Tuxedo Mask saves Sailor Moon from certain death by intercepting Zoisite's attack. The two are then revealed to be Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion. Infuratied that Zoisite injured Prince Endymion, Queen Beryl fatally wounds Zoisite. Zoisite (alongside the other Four Kings of Heaven) is featured in a flashback where it depicted the Dark Kingdom's invasion of Silver Millennium.

In the DIC English adaptation, Zoisite's name was changed to "Zoycite", and his gender was changed to a female henchman and girlfriend of Kunzite. DIC also changed the characterization, giving her a snarky personality as well as playing up the rivalry between the character and Nephrite. This was the first time that the English dub changed the gender of a character and was later done with the characters Fisheye (male to female) and Zirconia (female to male) in Sailor Moon SuperS.

In the live-action series, Zoisite is a pianist, using magical songs to hunt for the hidden Moon Princess. In addition to his own "Requiem for a Princess," he plays such compositions as the "Fantaisie-Impromptu" and "Moonlight Sonata." He cares very little for Queen Beryl and comes to recognize Prince Endymion as his master long before the others. After being killed by Sailor Venus and later revived by the power of Queen Metaria, he ignores Queen Beryl and uses his music to attempt to reach out to Endymion and to restore the memories of their collective past life to his fellow Kings of Heaven. His loyalty to Endymion is such that he offers his own life in exchange for the Prince's, and when Queen Beryl asks for Usagi's life instead, Zoisite sets out to kill her. Diverted from this course of action by Endymion, he dies protecting Sailor Moon instead.

In the original anime series, his voice actor is Keiichi Nanba. In the Crystal anime, he is voiced by Masaya Matsukaze.[19] In the DIC English adaptation, Zoycite is voiced by Kirsten Bishop. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his name is spelled as Zoicite and his voice is supplied by Lucien Dodge. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Yoshito Endou, and four actors have played him in the stage musicals: Toshitaka Akita, Misao Idono, Akira Tomemori and Kaname Aoki.

Zoisite was the tenth most popular male anime character in a May 1993 Animage poll.[34]


Kunzite (クンツァイト Kuntsaito?) is the fourth and final member of the Four Kings of Heaven, and the highest in rank and by far the strongest. He carries a shortsword, and Takeuchi describes him as the greatest of the four, with the majesty of an Arabian king. She also admits to being very fond of him as a character. He is about 25–26 years old,[28] leads the Dark Kingdom's Middle Eastern Division,[36] and is named after the mineral kunzite (or, in the dub, malachite). Unlike the others, he wears a white cape in addition to his uniform, with his tunic partially opened.

In the manga, Kunzite is first shown acting in an advisory role to Zoisite, finally taking over as Queen Beryl's henchman when all the other Kings of Heaven are dead. He defeats the Sailor Soldiers at Tokyo Tower and nearly kills Sailor Moon, but Tuxedo Mask takes the injury for her, and they are revealed to be Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion. Remembering that Endymion was his former master, Kunzite becomes uncertain about his loyalties causing Queen Beryl to plant a crystal in his forehead that reduces him to little more than a zombie. It takes the combined strength of all the Sailor Soldiers to defeat him. Kunzite was briefly revived near the end of the "Dark Kingdom" arc and was able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. During that time, Kunzite told Mamoru where Queen Metaria's weakness. The piece of kunzite (along with the stones for the other three Shiten'ou) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.

Kunzite and Zoisite are even closer in the anime adaptation, lovers as well as allies. Kunzite has comforted Zoisite when Queen Beryl had denied Zoisite's request to take Nephrite off the Silver Crystal-searching assignment. Following Queen Metaria's awakening, Kunzite has occasionally assisted Zoisite in obtaining the Rainbow Crystals. When he and Zoisite were asked to explain for losing the Rainbow Crystals and wounding Prince Endymion, Kunzite is spared while Zoisite is mercilessly killed. As Zoisite dies in his arms, Queen Beryl tells Kunzite to let Zoisite's punishment be a warning to him if he ever harms Prince Endymion. Although he greatly resents being forced to work with the brainwashed Prince Endymion, blaming himself for the death of Zoisite, as well as resenting Endymion for Beryl favoring him despite him blundering his plans. Following Zoisite's death, Kunzite's goal was to get revenge on the Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Moon especially, and often turns any human into a Monster to help him. Near the end of the series, he battles the Sailor Soldiers all at once and captures all of them except Sailor Moon. Sailor Moon tries to use "Moon Healing Escalation" on him to turn him good but Kunzite refuses to give in and attacks her with an energy blade. Kunzite's attack on her reflects back and kills him. He dies crying out to Zoisite, begging his love to meet him on the other side. Kunzite (alongside the other Four Kings of Heaven) is featured in a flashback where it depicted the Dark Kingdom's invasion of Silver Millennium.

In the live-action series, Kunzite is first introduced in the form of a kindly amnesiac named Shin, whom Usagi attempts to befriend. His memories are restored by Queen Beryl, who had apparently tucked him away until she needed him, and he becomes a ruthless and powerful warrior. His efforts to reawaken Queen Metaria are largely motivated by a desire for personal gain, and he is dismissive to Beryl, sometimes to the point of insubordination. For the most part, however, he works with her toward their shared goals, and it is he who transforms Sailor Mercury into Dark Mercury. Kunzite is awakened early on to the memory that Endymion was his master in his previous life, but he feels extreme contempt for the prince, believing he betrayed the Shiten'ou in ages past and left them for dead. In the end, however, he defends Endymion against an attack by Jadeite and confesses his loyalty before dying.

His voice actor is Kazuyuki Sogabe in the original series. In Crystal, Kunzite is voiced by Eiji Takemoto.[19] In the DIC English adaptation, his name was changed to "Malachite" and he is Dennis Akayama, with John Stocker as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Patrick Seitz. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Akira Kubodera, and four people have played him in the stage musicals: Yuuta Mochizuki, Ryuji Kasahara, Hideka Asano, Miki Kawasaki (an actress).


Prince Endymion[edit]

Main article: Tuxedo Mask

In both the anime and manga, Queen Beryl found out that Mamoru Chiba is the reincarnated Prince Endymion and used her magic to brainwash him into serving her. In this form, he is known as Endou in the manga. Sailor Moon managed to break Queen Beryl's spell in the final battle.

Dark Mercury[edit]

Main article: Dark Mercury

In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Kunzite attempts an experiment in which he turns one of the Sailor Guardians evil. In Act 20, he kidnaps Ami Mizuno, who at the time is the loneliest and most vulnerable member of the team, and exposes her to the power of Queen Metaria, changing her into her evil alter ego, Dark Mercury. A black motif is added to her uniform, and she uses "Dark" powers and an icicle sword. Kunzite keeps her fairly close, being careful to withdraw her whenever Sailor Moon attempts a healing, but he does take advantage of her newly-sadistic personality by allowing her to attend school and antagonize Usagi. While a part of the Dark Kingdom, Mercury is as arrogant as her allies, but she does extend a small amount of kindness to Nephrite. Queen Beryl finds the experiment interesting, but does not entirely trust it. In the end, Dark Mercury is very nearly able to kill Sailor Moon, but the knowledge that she has injured her friend finally reverts her back to herself. She has no memory of her experiences afterward.

Mio Kuroki[edit]

Mio Kuroki (黒木ミオ Kuroki Mio?) is a minor villain appearing only in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. On the outside, she was a new teenage idol whose signature song, "Change of Pace," had a following comparable to that of Minako Aino's "C'est la Vie." Also like Minako, she was good at volleyball, and claimed to be a good friend of Usagi's. The truth, however, was much more sinister.

Mio was a "shadow" of Queen Beryl, created by her and Jadeite some time between Act 25 and Act 28. Her objectives in life were: to be Beryl's eyes and ears in the human world, to give Mamoru Chiba to Queen Beryl, and to generally make the lives of the Sailor Guardians as miserable as possible - especially Usagi's. To do this, Mio did her best to be Usagi's friend (and always called her "Usagi-chan"), while simultaneously humiliating her at every turn, by pretending self-pity so other people would feel bad for her and turn against whoever "did" her harm. She also harmed people who saw through her, such as Naru Osaka, and constantly tried to upstage Minako whenever she could, with mixed to failed results. Mio's behavior had often time gave her away to Minako whom was fully aware of it. She has warned Usagi several times to stay from Mio because she knew that she'd get hurt in the end. Because of Usagi's forgiving nature, she always forgave Mio, much to Minako's chagrin. In Act 44, Rei Hino finally came across Mio and like Minako, she saw her for who she truly is. She knows that Mio was torturing Usagi and will tell her unless she allows her to see Mamoru one last time.

Mio was the principal player in getting Mamoru Chiba into Beryl's grasp; she also generally watched Mamoru during his time in the Dark Kingdom and provided him with outside "encouragement" from Rei when he was cursed. After overhearing her tell Mamoru to forget the past, Mio amusingly tells Rei that she can't escape Princess Serenity using the crystal to destroy the Earth in the past and will repeat once again. She is confident that keeping him with Beryl will prevent Serenity from using the powers again. However, Mio's treatment of Mamoru inadvertently came back to haunt her when Prince Endymion was possessed by Queen Metaria, who seemingly blasted her out of existence.

Unfortunately, it turned out that the attack did not completely destroy her, though it took her four years to completely recover without Beryl's power to help her.[citation needed] Nevertheless, she returned in the Special Act and attempted to recreate the Dark Kingdom with her as its queen - and Mamoru as the king. After realizing that Mamoru would always love Usagi even when brainwashed, she transformed into her true form: a terrifying, giant black flower with sharp vines. She was finally destroyed when the Sailor Guardians, sans Mars (whom she had managed to defeat earlier on, rendering her incapacitated) performed the Sailor Planet Attack.

She was played by Alisa Yuriko Durbrow.

Dark Agency[edit]

Main article: Dark Agency

In Codename: Sailor V, Minako faces off with the Dark Agency, a group of villains posing as a talent and idol agency. The Dark Agency manipulated idols into helping them gather energy for the Dark Kingdom. In the final volume of the manga, it is revealed to Sailor V that the Dark Agency was established by the Dark Kingdom. After Sailor V defeats their leader, the group dissolves and the Dark Kingdom begins to act directly, thus leading into the Sailor Moon series. They are never mentioned in the Sailor Moon manga or other continuities.


Monsters are the villain of the week in the first arc of the Sailor Moon anime and in the live-action series. All of the Four Kings of Heaven, as well as Queen Beryl and occasionally Metaria herself, use monsters to achieve their goals. Although the origin of earlier monsters is not shown, Kunzite's monsters are created from human beings in the anime. Any monster created from humans can be returned to their human form by Sailor Moon using "Moon Healing Escalation" (which restores the human while destroying/expelling the monster side) while others would be finished off by "Moon Tiara Action" (or other Sailor Soldier attacks on occasion). In the English dub members of the Negaverse refer to the monsters as their "servants", while the Sailor Scouts and Tuxedo Mask just call them "monsters" or sometimes "Negamonsters".

Seven Monsters[edit]

In the anime, the great Seven Monsters are the most powerful monsters in the Dark Kingdom. Thanks to the power of Queen Serenity, they were sealed within seven separate shards of the Silver Crystal and carried to Earth where they were reincarnated centuries later with no memories of their prior existences. Zoisite manages to reawaken them one by one, only for Sailor Moon to heal them with her "Moon Healing Escalation" and revert them to their humanoid forms which also destroys/expels the Monster's form at the same time.[37] Queen Beryl later sent the brainwashed Prince Endymion to capture the hosts of the Seven Monsters in order to combine them into one powerful Monster. Before Prince Endymion could get to Rei's grandfather, Sailor Mercury manages to break the crystal that held the other six hosts of the Seven Monsters.

  • Gēsēn (ゲーセーン?) (Game Machine Man): The keeper of the red Rainbow Crystal, he is a cyber-monster reborn as Crane Joe (Game Machine Joe in the English version), a pro at arcade games.[38] His name is short for "game center".
  • Boxy (ボクシー?) (Bobo the Vulture): The keeper of the orange Rainbow Crystal, he is a winged, boxing Monster reborn as a priest who Naru meets at a cemetery.[39] While fighting, Boxy repeatedly paraphrases Muhammad Ali. His name is a pun on bokushi, meaning "priest" in Japanese, and bokushingu, meaning "boxing".
  • Bumboo (ブンボー?): The keeper of the yellow Rainbow Crystal, he is a reptilian Monster reborn as Ryo Urawa, who Ami developed a crush on. Though the beast awakened, Urawa attempted to retain control himself and attacked Zoisite, only to end up completely under his control.[40]
  • Veena (ビーナ?): The keeper of the green Rainbow Crystal, she is an angelic Monster reborn as local artist Yumeni Yumeno. Her attacks are art-based.[41]
  • Rikokeidā (リコケイダー?) (Techniclon): The keeper of the blue Rainbow Crystal, she is a Monster wearing a black bandeau bathing suit reborn as Motoki's girlfriend, Reika Nishimura.[42]
  • Jiji (ジジ?) (Pox): The keeper of the indigo Rainbow Crystal, he is an Oni-like Monster who is reincarnated as Rei's grandfather.[43] Its name may be derived from the Japanese word for grandfather, ojīsan.
  • Bakēne (バケーネ?): The keeper of the violet Rainbow Crystal, he is a beastly cat Monster reborn as the cat Rhett Butler, who had a thing for Luna, even in Monster form.[44] In the English version, he is simply called Hercules.

DD Girls[edit]

The DD Girls, who target the Sailor Soldiers in Episode 45.

The DD Girls (ディーディー・ガールズ Dī Dī Gāruzu?) are a group of five high-ranking monsters who work together in the penultimate episode of the first anime series. The DD Girls have the power to fly, to produce powerful tentacles from their bodies (flexible or rigid and sharp like spears), generate electricity, and to create illusions of people the Sailor Soldiers care about (namely Tuxedo Mask for Moon and Mars, Motoki Furuhata for Jupiter and Ryo Urawa for Mercury) in danger or pain, as well as one of a giant fireball that gave off real heat while the fireball itself was fake. The source of these illusions is the stone in the leader's forehead decoration, which is eventually destroyed by Sailor Mercury. When Queen Beryl asks her Monster subjects which one of them would like to dispose of the Sailor Soldiers and earn a spot in Dark Kingdom history, the DD Girls volunteer to try to kill the Sailor Soldiers as they attempt to find the entrance to the Dark Kingdom. One by one, each of the Sailor Soldiers sacrifices herself to protect Sailor Moon and ensure that she reaches Queen Beryl. Sailor Jupiter is the first as she becomes captured by all 5 DD girls after being stunned by an illusion of a trapped Motoki. She becomes completely wrapped by their tentacles and the DD Girls move close to her so that Sailor Moon and Mars hesitate to attack for fear of wounding her. Jupiter urges them to forget about her an seek out Queen Beryl. The DD girls then begin shocking Jupiter with electricity. She smirks and says "You've got some nerve using electric shock against me!" She then uses a massive Supreme Thunder attack, screaming as it engulfs her and destroys two of the DD Girls. She dies atop a giant ice-spike formation after again urging them to contour to Queen Beryl and after a touching scene with Sailor Moon. Next is Sailor Mercury, who tells the remaining other three Sailor Soldiers to continue without her because their attacks are stronger than hers and will be needed against Queen Beryl. She makes a promise to Sailor Moon that she won't die but Venus and Mars have to lead Usagi away. Mercury then determined with her computer that the image of Urawa is an illusion and that the ball of lava is also-though it can still hurt her. She is captured in tentacles but manages to use her mini-computer ("I wonder if this is the last time I'll use this?") to smash the stone that allows the DD Girls to create illusions and, though she survives a lava-flow with the protection of her "Bubble Spray" used as a force-field, she loses her life when she is crushed to death by the DD Girls' tentacles. She is followed by Sailor Venus, who knocks Sailor Moon away from a trap and performs her "Crescent Beam" attack point blank to the head of one of her assailants, blowing her apart and losing her own life in the resulting explosion. Finally, Sailor Mars detonates the rock formation, killing only one of the DD Girls and apparently herself. Before the final remaining DD Girl can kill Sailor Moon, Sailor Mars is revealed to be alive, expending the last of her living strength to set fire to the final Monster. Sailor Mars finally dies only after clearing the way for Sailor Moon to proceed, meeting Beryl for their final battle.[3]

In the English dub, the scenes of each sacrificed Sailor's dead bodies crucified in the frozen explosions following each Monster's death are all removed, and the episode is combined with the one following, also editing out a violent fight scene between a possessed Prince Endymion and Sailor Moon. The dubbed episodes are further edited so that, rather than killing the Scouts, the "Doom and Gloom Girls" state that they are merely captured and being held hostage in the "Negaverse".[45]

The DD Girls appear in the "Sailor Moon: Another Story" video game where they were a reincarnated Queen Beryl's last line of defense.

In the anime series, their voice actresses are Naoko Nakamura and Asako Satou. In the DIC English adaptation, their name was changed to the "Doom and Gloom Girls" and were voiced by Tracey Hoyt, Mary Long, Tracey Moore, Barbara Radecki, and Nadine Rabinovitch. Three DD Girls appear in the first musical, Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen, played by Hisako Doubayashi, Yuko Nishi and Mayumi Maikuma, and in its revision, played by Yuriko Nishiyama, Kaori Ishikawa and Ai Suzuki.

Live-action Monsters[edit]

In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, monsters serve much the same purpose as in the anime, except that they are most often monsters in their own right, rather than possessing the bodies of human beings. The creature designs used for individual monster are not thematically influenced by the story of the episode, and they are usually portrayed by human actors in suits with only two being computer-generated. They never speak and are commanded by the Four Kings of Heaven. Also, none of them are named in the series except for the ones in the Special Act.

In the second half of the live-action series, swarms of black hooded-robed monsters begin to appear in acts 31, 37-38, 40-41, 43, and 47 after Sailor Moon is revealed to be the Princess. Their loyalty is to Queen Metaria herself rather than to Queen Beryl and her servants, and their abilities include earth-swimming and fast movement. The costumes for these entities are recycled from the Golem Soldiers/Putty Patrol from Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger/Mighty Morphin Power Rangers[46] with hooded robes added.

Monster Metaria[edit]

In Act 41, the remains of numerous hooded robed monsters pile up on top of one another and merge into a single monster. This composite entity is an agent of Metaria, gathering energy from everything around it and responding to the Silver Crystal. Naru and Motoki are among its numerous victims. Using the energy it gathers, the Monster is powerful enough to withstand attacks by the Sailor Guardians. Princess Sailor Moon almost finishes him off in Act 42, but Usagi restrains herself because she knows the power will make Queen Metaria stronger. In Act 43, he appears again with the hooded robed Monster but is unimpressed with the Sailor Guardians. He fights Sailor Moon along with Zoisite's Monster in Act 44. It impales Zoisite with crystals from its body and Zoisite manages to fire off energy that causes the Monster to retreat. By Act 45, Queen Metaria turns it into her host Monster Metaria in order to absorb every bit of energy in the world. However, she is soon forced by Sailor Venus to leave her host which is then destroyed by a group attack. This Monster was capable of speech while Metaria was using it as a host.


  1. ^ a b c d Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). "Act 12". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6. 
  2. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). "Act 7". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4. 
  3. ^ a b Sailor Moon episode 045
  4. ^ Dub episode 2, "Talk Radio," equivalent to original episode 3, "Mysterious Sleeping Illness, Protect the Girls' Hearts in Love."
  5. ^ Dub episode 40, "The Day of Destiny," equivalent to original episode 46, "Usagi's Everlasting Wish! A New Reincarnation"
  6. ^ Dub episode 39, "The Past Returns". Equivalent to original episode 44 "Usagi's Awakening".
  7. ^ Dub episode 21, "Jupiter Comes Thundering In" equivalent to original episode 25, "Jupiter, the Brawny Girl In Love."
  8. ^ Dub episode 43 "A Knight to Remember" equivalent to original episode 49, "For Whom is the White Rose? The Moonlight Knight Appears"
  9. ^ Dub Episode 41, "The Return of Sailor Moon", equivalent to original episode 47, "Moon Revived! The Mysterious Aliens appear".
  10. ^ Materials Collection - Section 1
  11. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban, after Galaxia Gorgeous Galaxia gets a vision of Hotaru sadly saying she cannot transform and protect the princess, and Galaxia decides to use the Queen of Darkness (Beryl)
  12. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban, before Mou ii No (Its alright)
  13. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Shin Densetsu Kourin after Onna no Ronsou
  14. ^ "Onna No Ronsou". Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  15. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban
  16. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Shin Densetsu Kourin
  17. ^ Sailor Moon Musical 2004 Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin
  18. ^ "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. ~05.08.1993. Toei.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Sailor Moon Crystal Cast Adds Misa Watabane, Daisuke Kisho, Kousuke Toriumi and More". Anime News Network. 2014-06-30. 
  20. ^ Klugman, Karen (1999) "A Bad Hair Day for G.I. Joe" in Beverly Lyon Clark, Margaret R. Higonnet ed. Girls, Boys, Books, Toys: Gender in Children's Literature and Culture page 173
  21. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon reprint 1st and 2nd edition, Vol. 3, Table of Contents;
  22. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Perfect Edition, Vol. 2, Table of Contents;
  23. ^ Dubbed Episode 17, "An Animated Mess". Equivalent to original Episode 21.
  24. ^ Sailor Moon Musical, 1997 Eien Densetsu, during Itsuwari no Forevermore
  25. ^ Sailor Moon Musicals, 2003 Starlights - Ryuusei Densetsu, before Prince of Earth
  26. ^ Sailor Moon Musicals, 2003 Starlights - Ryuusei Densetsu, after Dream Yume wa Ookiku
  27. ^ Sailor Moon Musicals, 2003 Starlights - Ryuusei Densetsu, after Seishun no Shoumi Kigen
  28. ^ a b c d Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7. 
  29. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 2". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7. 
  30. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6. 
  31. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 3". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7. 
  32. ^ a b Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281. 
  33. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (October 2000). Sailor Moon Scout Guide - Meet Sailor Moon: Crystal. Tokyopop Press. ISBN 1-892213-32-X. 
  34. ^ a b http://animage.jp/gp/gp_1993.html
  35. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). "Act 6". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4. 
  36. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). "Act 8". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4. 
  37. ^ "Bunny's Tour Through the Silver Millennium". Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  38. ^ Sailor Moon episode 025
  39. ^ Sailor Moon episode 026
  40. ^ Sailor Moon episode 027
  41. ^ Sailor Moon episode 028
  42. ^ Sailor Moon episode 029
  43. ^ Sailor Moon episode 030
  44. ^ Sailor Moon episode 031
  45. ^ Dub episode 40
  46. ^ Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Review > Japan Hero > Super Sentai, Kamen Rider, Tokusatsu Heroes and Anime Heroes

External links[edit]