Dartford Crossing

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Dartford Crossing
Dartford Crossing - geograph.org.uk - 1194694.jpg
Aerial view of the crossing looking northwards
Dartford Crossing is located in Greater London
Dartford Crossing
Magnify-clip.png
Location within London
General information
Type 2 tunnels
1 cable-stayed bridge
Location Dartford, Kent
Thurrock, Essex
Coordinates 51°27′53″N 0°15′31″E / 51.46472°N 0.25861°E / 51.46472; 0.25861Coordinates: 51°27′53″N 0°15′31″E / 51.46472°N 0.25861°E / 51.46472; 0.25861
Opening November 1963 (western tunnel)
May 1980 (eastern tunnel)
October 1991 (bridge)
Height 137 metres (449 ft) (bridge)
Website
www.highways.gov.uk/our-road-network/managing-our-roads/improving-our-network/the-dartford-thurrock-river-crossing/

The Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing, commonly known as the Dartford Crossing and until 1991 the Dartford Tunnel, is a major road crossing of the River Thames in England, connecting Dartford in Kent to the south to Thurrock in Essex to the north. It consists of two bored tunnels and the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge, a cable stayed bridge. The only fixed road crossing of the Thames east of Greater London, it is the busiest estuarial crossing in the United Kingdom, with an average daily use of over 130,000 vehicles.[1] It opened in stages: the west tunnel in 1963, the east tunnel in 1980 and the bridge in 1991. The crossing forms part of the M25 motorway's route, though it is not under motorway restrictions itself. It has been described as one of the most important road crossings in Britain, and suffers from heavy traffic and congestion.

The crossing's development started in the late 1930s, but was interrupted due to World War II and resumed in the 1950s. The original tunnel catered for a single lane of traffic in each direction, but rising traffic levels required the second tunnel to be built. The M25 connected to the tunnels at both ends when completed in 1986, and this increased traffic put pressure on the tunnels' capacity. A Private Finance Initiative scheme was started in 1988 to build the bridge. The combined crossing now handles four lanes of traffic in each direction.

The crossing has always been tolled, though since 2008 it has been free from 10 pm to 6 am. Currently payment is via cash or a DART-Tag, an electronic device that handles automatic payment at a discount. A residents' scheme is available, offering further discounts for people living near the crossing. The toll booths are planned to be removed in October 2014, to be replaced by a fully electronic charging scheme.

Location[edit]

The crossing spans the River Thames between Dartford, Kent, to the south and Thurrock, Essex, to the north. It is about 20 miles (32 km) east of the centre of London, outside the Greater London boundary.[2] The two tunnels are 1,430 metres (4,690 ft) long,[3] while the cable-stayed bridge is 137 metres (449 ft) high with a main span of 450 metres (1,480 ft).[4] The high-speed rail line High Speed 1 from St Pancras International Station to Ebbsfleet International Station passes under the crossing approach roads on the north side of the river, at a near right angle.[5]

The design capacity is 135,000 vehicles per day, but in practice the crossing can carry as much as 160,000.[6] It has been described by the Highways Agency as "a vital transport link for the national and South East economies"[7] and by the Secretary of State for Transport, Patrick McLoughlin as "a crucial part of the country’s strategic road network".[8] It is signed as a major destination on London's orbital route, the M25, though the crossing and its approach road are an all-purpose road (the A282), allowing traffic prohibited from motorways to use it. Southbound traffic crosses the four lane bridge, while northbound traffic uses both of the two lane road tunnels. However, the bridge is sometimes closed due to bad weather, such as high winds,[9] or for maintenance. On these occasions, traffic uses the tunnels in both directions.[10]

Alternative routes[edit]

The crossing is the easternmost road crossing of the River Thames, and the only one that is east of Greater London. The next nearest vehicle crossings to the west are the Woolwich Ferry and the Blackwall Tunnel, both well within East London. There is no official diversion route through London for high vehicles. When the bridge is closed, vehicles over 5.03 metres (16.5 ft) are diverted around the M25 in the opposite direction.[11]

A number of new crossings have been proposed as relief for the Dartford Crossing. The proposed Thames Gateway Bridge to the west was given planning permission in December 2004, but was cancelled in November 2008 when Boris Johnson became Mayor of London.[12] Johnson subsequently proposed the Gallions Reach Ferry, a ferry crossing in the same location, as an alternative.[13] The Lower Thames Crossing is a proposal for an alternative crossing, most likely a tunnel, to the east. Thurrock Council suggest that this crossing will be essential for managing congestion.[14] In July 2014, the government announced it would develop further plans for an alternative route. Option A is an additional crossing at the current location, while option C is a new crossing east of Gravesend.[8]

Charges[edit]

Toll booths towards the tunnel. The lane on the left gives change, while the three lanes on the right do not.

The toll to use the crossing can be paid in cash or via a DART-Tag, a device held in a vehicle that is detected at the payment booth, automatically deducting the charge from a pre-paid account.[15] The charges for the crossing as of 2014 are as follows:[15]

Vehicle class Day charges[a] - cash Day charges - DART-Tag Night charges[b]
Motorcycles free free free
Cars £2.00 £1.33 free
2 axle goods £2.50 £2.19 free
Multi axle goods £5.00 £4.33 free

The charge payment booths for both directions of travel are located on the south side of the crossing. Various categories of vehicles are exempt from the charge, including emergency services vehicles, military vehicles and those exempt from Vehicle Excise Duty on the grounds of disability.[16] The charge may generally be suspended when it would ease congestion, such as when there is a continuous queue of traffic travelling under 10 mph from either junction 4 (between Sevenoaks and Bromley) or junction 28 (near Brentwood) on the M25.[17]

Overhead view of the tolls

The cash charges vary according to the type of vehicle. Motorcycles are free but there are standard charges for cars, two-axle goods vehicles and larger vehicles with more than two axles.[18] There are two types of booths: the wider staffed lanes (1-9 northbound and 15-23 southbound) give change, while the remainder only accept exact change in coins or a DART-Tag and are not available for goods vehicles.[17]

Drivers who cannot pay the toll in cash or a DART-Tag are issued a debt ticket. UK car drivers must produce identification and pay the debt within seven days, while commercial and foreign drivers are refused entry and must turn back. In 2014, it was reported the amount of unpaid tolls had tripled between 2010 and 2013.[19]

Since 2008, a local residents' scheme gives 50 free crossings to car drivers resident in the Dartford and Thurrock council areas for an annual registration fee of £10, with additional crossings at 20p each.[20] On 1 March 2014,[21] this scheme was extended to include privately owned 2-axle goods vehicles. A further option was introduced giving unlimited free crossings for £20 annually.[15]

History[edit]

First tunnel[edit]

Northbound vehicles approaching the entrance to the western tunnel, with the bridge in the background

The idea of a tunnel crossing was first proposed by the Ministry of Transport in 1924.[22] Initial reports at the start of the year suggested a crossing between Tilbury and Gravesend, replacing a ferry service,[23] but this had been rejected by July in favour of a route further upstream, near Dartford.[24] By 1929, the total cost of building the tunnel had been estimated at £3M.[25] The tunnel was planned to be part of an general orbital route around London and was provisionally known as part of the "South Orbital Road".[26]:xxxii

The first engineering work to take place was a compressed air driven pilot tunnel, which was drilled between 1936 and 1938.[27] Work on the tunnel was delayed due to World War II, and resumed in 1959, using a Greathead Shield, similar to the work on the Blackwall Tunnel some 60 years earlier.[27] The delay in work due to the war allowed the tunnel's design to be improved, which included a better ventilation system. After negotiations with the Ministry of Transport, Kent and Essex County Councils successfully levied a toll on the tunnel in 1960, before opening.[26]:846 The two-lane bore tunnel[28] opened to traffic on 18 November 1963,[3][29] costing £13M.[6] It initially served approximately 12,000 vehicles per day.[28]

A ventilation shaft to the north of the east tunnel

The toll was originally two shillings and sixpence, equivalent to 12.5p post-decimalisation, and approximately equivalent in purchasing power to £2.00 in 2014[30][31] The Dartford Tunnel Act 1967 gave Kent and Essex County Councils authority to change the tolls, and in December 1977, the toll was raised from 25p to 35p for cars, 40p to 55p for 2 axle goods vehicles, and 60p to 85p for HGVs.[32] By 1984, the toll for cars had risen to 60p.[31]

Second tunnel[edit]

The tunnel was expected to carry two million vehicles a year[6] but by 1970 was carrying over eight million.[33] That year, Michael Heseltine, then a transport minister, announced that a second tunnel would be built in conjunction with the North Orbital Road, later to become the M25.[34]

Construction was approved in April 1971, with an initial expected opening date in 1976.[35] Work was delayed due to a lack of funds, which was resolved by EEC funding granted in 1974.[36] The second tunnel opened in May 1980, allowing each tunnel to handle one direction of traffic, by which time the joint capacity of the two tunnels had increased to 65,000 vehicles per day.[28] Connection of the crossing to the M25 was completed on the northerly Essex side in September 1982 (Junction 31), and to the southerly Kent side in September 1986 (Junction 1a).[37] Following the completion of the M25 in 1986, the daily demand had grown to 79,000 vehicles.[28]

Queen Elizabeth II Bridge[edit]

The Queen Elizabeth II Bridge as viewed from Greenhithe, 2.5 km east of the bridge in Kent

During the early 1980s, it was anticipated that traffic through the tunnel would rise on the completion of the M25 in 1986. At the time, the expectation was that other routes in London would be improved instead, diverting 15% of traffic away from the tunnel.[38] In 1985, the Secretary of State for Transport, Lynda Chalker, announced that the number of toll booths would be increased to 12 each way, but concern grew that two tunnels would not be able to cope with the full demands of a completed M25.[39]

Between September 1985 and December 1986, proposals for improvements to the Dartford Crossing underwent several changes,[40] and in 1986, a Trafalgar House consortium won a bid to build a new bridge at Dartford crossing, valued at £86M.[28] At the time there were several other privately financed projects planned or under construction in the UK, including the Second Severn Crossing. From 1981 until the establishment of the Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) in the late 1980s, private investment projects were governed by the Ryrie Rules which dictated that "any privately-financed solution must be shown to be more cost-effective than a publicly-financed alternative, and that privately-financed expenditure by nationalised industries could not be additional to public expenditure provision, which would be reduced by the amount of private financed borrowed."[41]

Each tower on the Queen Elizabeth II bridge is 61 metres (200 ft) high

On 31 July 1988, a Private Finance Initiative concession was enabled under the Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Act 1988, which transferred control of the crossing from Kent and Essex county councils to Dartford River Crossing Limited, a private company managed by Rodney Jones.[42] The company would also bear the debt of the bridge, then under construction, "financed 100% by debt, with no equity contribution".[43][c] The private company was at risk of not recuperating their costs, but ultimately the Dartford scheme demonstrated that the Ryrie Rules were no longer a barrier to the private financing of public infrastructure projects.[45] The concession was scheduled for 20 years from the transfer date, with a stipulation that it could end when debts had been paid off, which was agreed to have been achieved on 31 March 2002.[46]:5 According to the International Handbook on Public-Private Partnership, the chief financing for the project came from a "20-year subordinated loan stock, 16-year loan stock and £85 million as a term loan from banks".[45]

Construction of bridge started immediately after the creation of the PFI in 1988.[47] It was designed by German engineer Helmut Homberg, and the two main caissons supporting the bridge piers were constructed in the Netherlands. Each caisson was designed to withstand a bridge strike of a ship weighing up to 65,000 tonnes and travelling up to 18.5 kilometres per hour (11.5 mph)[48] The towers are about 61 metres (200 ft) height, and it took a team of around 56 to assembly the bridge structure. During construction of the approach road, a World War II bomb was found in its path, which required closure of the entire crossing.[49]

The bridge was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 October 1991.[26]:xiii The total cost of construction was £120 million (£238 million as of 2014),[30] including £30m for the approach roads.[50] The proposed name had been simply the Dartford Bridge, but Thurrock residents objected and suggested the Tilbury Bridge, leading to a compromise.[49] At the time of opening, it had the longest cable-stayed span of any bridge in Europe.[48] It was the first bridge across the Thames downstream of Central London to be opened since Tower Bridge in 1894.[51]

Charging scheme[edit]

In 2000, the European Union issued a directive that value-added tax should be charged on all road tolls, including the Dartford Crossing. The Government opposed the directive and said it would bear the additional cost.[52] It was anticipated that the tolls would be removed on 1 April 2003 under the original PFI scheme contract. However, the Highways Agency decided that the tolls would become a "charge", under a charging scheme under powers introduced by the Transport Act 2000 to introduce charging schemes on any trunk road bridge or tunnel at least 600 metres (2,000 ft) in length.[46]:5[53]

Under the 2000 Transport Act, the A282 Trunk Road (Dartford-Thurrock Crossing charging scheme) Order 2002 allowed the continuation of the crossing fee, which officially became a charge and not a toll on 1 April 2003. Management of the crossing was contracted to Le Crossing Company Limited on behalf of the Highways Agency.[46]:6 In September 2009 the Highways Agency made a new contract with Connect Plus (M25) Limited. As well as maintaining the crossing, the contract required the company to widen around 40 miles of the M25 and to refurbish one of the motorway's tunnels at Hatfield.[46]:6 In October 2009, the Government announced its intention to sell the crossing as part of a public sector deficit reduction strategy.[54] The announcement was unpopular with local residents, who encouraged drivers to sound their horns in protest when using the crossing.[55] After the change of government following the 2010 Election, the new prime minister David Cameron announced that the crossing might still be sold, despite local opposition, particularly from Gareth Johnson, member of parliament for Dartford.[56] Subsequently, the chancellor George Osborne announced that tolls would be increased instead to cover the budget deficit.[57]

Under the 2008 Charging Order introduced on 15 November 2008, charges between 10pm and 6am were discontinued, but standard daytime rates increased, starting at £1.50 for cars.[58] On 7 October 2012 the tolls increased to £2 for cars, £2.50 for 2 axle goods vehicles and £5 for multi-axle goods vehicles.[59] By 2012, local businesses were complaining that the crossing's toll booths were impeding local growth. The government announced that a new electronic charging system would be introduced in October 2014. Drivers would be able to pay by phone, text, online or in shops.[60] The charge is proposed to increase to £2.50 for cars, £3 for 2-axle goods vehicles and £6 for multi-axle vehicles.[61] A later report stated that drivers evading the toll could be fined as much as £105.[62]

Preparation work on the free-flow scheme started in April 2014.[63] Concerns have been raised about reliability, with a Highways Agency report predicting that it could lose up to £6m of unpaid tolls per year.[64]

Traffic[edit]

A total of 1,486,929,267 vehicles have used the crossing as of 31 March 2014. The highest recorded daily usage was 181,990 vehicles on 23 July 2004, since when traffic levels have decreased. From April 2013 to March 2014, 49,645,356 vehicles used the crossing: a daily average of 136,015 vehicles.[65] The total income for the financial year ended 31 March 2012 was £72,147,091, while the corresponding figure for the following financial year was £80,331,662.[46]:6

Bicycles are not permitted on the crossing, but cyclists can be carried across the crossing by the transport authority at no charge. Cyclists report to the crossing control offices on either side, using a free telephone service. The transfer takes around 15 to 30 minutes.[17]

A bus designed to transport bicycles through the Dartford Tunnel in 1963

In October 1963, London Transport ordered five double decker buses based on the Ford Thames Trader chassis for special duties, taking cyclists through the Dartford Tunnel. These had a lower deck purpose-built for carrying bicycles, with upper deck seats for cyclists. Access was via a stairwell to the upper deck starting several feet above the level of the road, accessible from special platforms built at either end of the tunnel; there was also a ladder built into the side of the bodywork for access elsewhere. The design was criticised for failing to protect any passenger from falling off the vehicle, and running costs were estimated at £2,550 per month, with only £45 revenue. The service was reduced to one bus in April 1964 and then cancelled in 1965, to be replaced by the current transfer service.[66] One of these buses has been preserved.[67]

The transport of hazardous goods through the crossing is governed by the European ADR Agreement. The Dartford Crossing is class C, which restricts transporting goods such as nitrates and flammable liquids.[68][69] The introduction of the ADR scheme initially caused confusion, and for a short time, transporting aerosols through the tunnel was banned.[70] Certain hazardous goods vehicles, together with some oversize and abnormal loads (if permitted) may require escorting by Highways Agency Traffic Officers. The crossing authority must hold exercises in conjunction with the emergency services. In 2006 Exercise Orpheus was held, involving the closure of both road tunnels for five hours.[71]

The tunnel is patrolled by Highways Agency Traffic Officers. Officers may stop and direct traffic on the crossing and its approach roads, and must be in uniform to exercise their powers.[72] The crossing is subject to a 50 mph[d] speed limit for all vehicles, which is enforced by safety cameras. Between October 2012 and June 2014, 24,229 drivers were caught speeding, with some travelling as fast as 94 mph.[e] A spokesman from the Highways Agency said the cameras were "helping us improve safety and make journeys more reliable".[73]

Congestion[edit]

The crossing is the busiest in the United Kingdom.[74][75] Because the design capacity has been exceeded, the crossing is subject to major traffic congestion and disruption, particularly when parts are closed due to accidents or bad weather. Though the Government was adamant that the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge should be designed to avoid closure due to high winds,[76] the bridge has nevertheless had to close. In February 2014, during the winter storms, it was closed on the 12th due to 60 mph winds,[77] and again on the evening of 13th - 14th.[78]

At busy times there is significant delay at the payment booths. There are numerous junctions on either side of the crossing, and because it is not under motorway restrictions, a high proportion of local traffic mixes with long distance traffic, for example travelling from the North and Midlands onwards to Continental Europe.[79] In 2004, a BBC survey reported that the crossing was "the most stressful section of the M25"[80] while in 2009, the crossing was listed in a Royal Automobile Club report as the fourth most congested road in Britain.[81]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ 06:00 - 22:00
  2. ^ 22:00 - 06:00
  3. ^ Some sources say "near" 100% rather than 100% explicitly.[44]
  4. ^ approx. 80 km/h
  5. ^ approx. 151 km/h
Citations
  1. ^ Pickford & Blythe 2006, p. 256.
  2. ^ Simpson, Robert. "Dartford River Crossing: Innovation in Civil Engineering". Dartford Town Archive. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Tunnel Test 2004 - Dartford Tunnel". AA Motoring Trust. September 2004. p. 3. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  4. ^ "Structures Queen Elizabeth II Bridge". Structurae. Nicolas Janberg ICS. 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  5. ^ Ordnance Survey. East London, Billericay & Gravesend (Map). 1:50,000.
  6. ^ a b c "Golden birthday for Dartford Tunnel". Kent Messenger. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Kirby, Lucy (31 August 2012). "£25million to ease hold-ups at Dartford Tunnel". Kent Echo. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Francis, Paul (15 July 2014). "Two Thames crossing options". Kent Messenger. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Payne, Sam (30 December 2013). "Dartford Crossing reopens after high winds". Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Closures and diversions at Dartford Crossing". Kent Messenger. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Morris, Thom (14 May 2014). "Dartford Crossing to get tunnel and bridge closures as Dart Charge introduced and gantries installed near QEII bridge". Kent Messenger. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  12. ^ "Mayor outlines ten year plan for massive transport expansion" (Press release). Transport for London. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  13. ^ Andrew Adonis (11 June 2013). "Boris can't put off a new Thames crossing in the east". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "Tunnel recommended for new Thames crossing". BBC News. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c "Dart Tag". Highways Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  16. ^ "Exempt scheme". Dart-tag.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c "Improving our network : The Dartford - Thurrock River Crossing". Highways Agency. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  18. ^ "Charges and Methods of Payments". Dart-tag.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  19. ^ "Dartford Crossing: Unpaid tolls triple in three years". BBC News. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  20. ^ "Local residents scheme". Dart-tag.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  21. ^ "Greater discounts for local residents". gov.uk. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  22. ^ The Times. 20 December 1924. 
  23. ^ Gosling, Harry (28 February 1924). "Gravesend - Tilbury Tunnel". Hansard. Retrieved 30 April 2014. ,
  24. ^ Burney, Charles (31 July 1924). "Air Force Estimates 1924–25". Hansard. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  25. ^ Ashley, Wilfrid (16 April 1929). "Thames Tunnel Scheme". Hansard. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  26. ^ a b c Bridle, Ron; Baldwin, Peter; Porter, John et al., eds. (2004). The Motorway Achievement, Volume 1. Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-3196-8. 
  27. ^ a b Jardine & McCallum 2013, p. 246.
  28. ^ a b c d e Banister & Berechman 2003, p. 65.
  29. ^ Fautley & Garon 2004, p. 263.
  30. ^ a b UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  31. ^ a b Moate, Roger (6 February 1984). "Dartford Tunnel Bill". Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  32. ^ "Dartford Tunnel : Proposed Increase In Tolls". London Gazette. 16 September 1977. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  33. ^ Carmichael, Neil (7 July 1975). "Dartford Tunnel". Hansard. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  34. ^ Heseltine, Michael (20 November 1970). "Dartford Tunnel and North Orbital Road". Hansard. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  35. ^ Page, Graham (28 April 1971). "Second Dartford tunnel". Hansard. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  36. ^ Dell, Edmund (8 April 1975). "European Investment Bank Grants (London)". Hansard. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  37. ^ "The M25 - Statistics". Chartered Institute of Highway Technicians. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  38. ^ Chalker, Lynda (19 June 1984). "Dartford Tunnel". Hansard. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  39. ^ Townsend, Cyril; Bonsor, Nicholas; Chalker, Lynda (21 October 1985). "Dartford Tunnel". Hansard. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  40. ^ H.M. Stationery Office 1989, p. 30.
  41. ^ House of Lords: Select Committee on Economic Affairs 2010, p. 9.
  42. ^ The Institution 1992, p. 10.
  43. ^ ITF 2013, p. 42.
  44. ^ Miller Lessard, p. 177.
  45. ^ a b Hodge, Greve & Boardman 2010, p. 529.
  46. ^ a b c d e "Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing Charging Scheme : Account 2012–2013". Highways Agency. January 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  47. ^ "About the Crossing". Highways Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  48. ^ a b "Queen Elizabeth II Bridge". Engineering Timelines. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  49. ^ a b Pattison, Jo (28 October 2011). "The man who helped build the Dartford bridge". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  50. ^ O'Neill, Bill (26 October 1991). "Bridge design stretched to the limits: Cable-stayed bridges are a type of suspended crossing. Spare but functional, they exploit a form of bridge engineering that is bringing down the cost of progressively longer crossings". New Scientist (1792). Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  51. ^ Bailey, Alan. "The Dartford Crossing - Forerunner of the Private Finance Initiative". Chartered Institute of Highways Engineers. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  52. ^ "Europe imposes road toll VAT". 12 September 2000. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  53. ^ "Motorists 'let down' by toll u-turn". BBC News (BBC). 1 April 2003. Retrieved 27 February 2008. "From [1 April 2003] motorists should have been able to cross for free but the government's change of mind means car drivers still have to pay the £1 charge. The AA Motoring Trust, a new charity linked to the AA said the government had broken its promise to scrap the toll. In 1996, the consortium behind the bridge proposed building a second bridge at no extra cost to the Treasury, on condition that the concession period was increased to allow them to recover their costs and generate a profit." 
  54. ^ Stratton, Allegra (12 October 2009). "Gordon Brown's fire sale of public assets to raise £16bn". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 11 July 2010. "Not all of the assets are surprising, with chancellor Alistair Darling announcing last month that the government intended to sell off the Dartford crossing as part of its attempt to meet the £16bn target." 
  55. ^ "Dartford Crossing future in doubt". BBC News. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  56. ^ "DARTFORD: New MP vows to fight Dartford Crossing sale and tolls". News Shopper. 16 May 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  57. ^ "Dartford Crossing toll charge to be increased". BBC News. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  58. ^ "The A282 Trunk Road (Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Charging Scheme) Order 2008". Highways Agency. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  59. ^ "Dartford Crossing toll charges set to rise". BBC News. 22 May 2012. 
  60. ^ "Businesses want Dartford Crossing toll booth removal speeded-up". BBC News. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  61. ^ Penning, Mike (22 May 2012). "Revised charges at Dartford Crossing". Department for Transport. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  62. ^ "Dartford Crossing fines up to £105 when barriers removed". BBC News. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  63. ^ "Dartford free-flow crossing work begins". BBC News. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  64. ^ "Dartford Crossing to lose '£6m a year in unpaid tolls'". BBC News. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  65. ^ "Dartford - Thurrock River Crossing : Traffic flow". Highways Agency. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  66. ^ Heather, Chris (21 November 2013). "The ill-fated cycle bus". The National Archives. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  67. ^ "Thames Trader - Country Bus". Country Bus. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  68. ^ "ADR Tunnel Codes explained". Road Haulers' Association. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  69. ^ ADR Classifications : Part 2 (Report). United Nations. p. 103. http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/adr/adr2011/English/Part2.pdf. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  70. ^ Walton, Christopher (3 August 2010). "Tunnel troubles: hauliers get to grips with ADR codes". Commercial Motor. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  71. ^ "Tunnels shut for safety exercise". BBC News. 10 June 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  72. ^ "Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Act 1988 (section 28)". National Archives. Ministry of Transport. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  73. ^ "Thousands caught speeding on Dartford Crossing". BBC News. 7 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  74. ^ Woodman, Peter (22 May 2012). "Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing toll charges to rise". The Independent. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  75. ^ "Dartford Crossing celebrates golden milestone". Sevenoaks Chronicle. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  76. ^ Couchman, James (9 July 1987). "Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Bill". Hansard. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  77. ^ "QE2 Bridge at Dartford Crossing reopens after closure". BBC News. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  78. ^ "30mph speed restriction on QEII bridge at Dartford crossing". Kent Echo. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  79. ^ Champion 1995, pp. 91–92.
  80. ^ "Most stress at Dartford crossing". BBC News. 8 March 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  81. ^ "Dartford's crossing misery is official!". Kent Messenger. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]