Queens

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Queens
Queens, New York
Borough of New York City
Queens County
Clockwise from top-left: Unisphere, Rockaway Park beach, US Open's Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, Queensboro Bridge, Queens-bound 7 train, New York Mets—Citi Field.
Clockwise from top-left: Unisphere, Rockaway Park beach, US Open's Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, Queensboro Bridge, Queens-bound 7 train, New York MetsCiti Field.
Flag of Queens
Flag
Official seal of Queens
Seal
Location of Queens shown in orange, including its two airports and their boundaries.
Location of Queens shown in orange, including its two airports and their boundaries.
Coordinates: 40°45′N 73°52′W / 40.750°N 73.867°W / 40.750; -73.867Coordinates: 40°45′N 73°52′W / 40.750°N 73.867°W / 40.750; -73.867
Country  United States of America
State  New York
County Queens
City New York
Settled 1683
Government
 • Type Borough (New York City)
 • Borough President Melinda Katz (D)
(Borough of Queens)
 • District Attorney Richard Brown
(Queens County)
Area
 • Total 461.7 km2 (178.28 sq mi)
 • Land 282.9 km2 (109.24 sq mi)
 • Water 178.8 km2 (69.04 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 2,296,175[1]
 • Density 8,237/km2 (21,333/sq mi)
ZIP Code prefixes 110--, 111--, 113--, 114--, 116--
Area code(s) 718, 347, 917
Website Official Website of the Queens Borough President

Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City, the largest in area, and the second-largest in population. The borough of Queens has been coterminous with Queens County since 1899. The county is now the second most populous county in New York State (behind neighboring Kings County [the borough of Brooklyn]), as well as the fourth-most densely populated county in the United States. Queens (and Brooklyn) sit on the west end of geographic Long Island. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world[2] with a population of approximately 2.3 million,[1] 48% of whom are foreign-born,[3] representing over 100 different nations and speaking over 138 different languages.[4][5]

If each New York City borough were an independent city, Queens would be America's fourth most populous city, after Los Angeles, Chicago, and Brooklyn.[6] Queens has the second-largest and most diversified economy of all the five boroughs of New York City.[7]

The differing character in the neighborhoods of Queens is reflected by its diverse housing stock ranging from high-density apartment buildings, especially prominent in the more urban areas of central and western Queens, such as Astoria, Long Island City, and Ridgewood, to large free-standing single-family homes, common in the eastern part of the borough, in neighborhoods that have a more suburban layout like neighboring Nassau County, such as Little Neck, Douglaston, and Bayside.[8][9]

Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports (and both major airports in New York City proper), JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, causing the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. Attractions in Queens include Flushing Meadows Park—home to the New York Mets baseball team and the US Open tennis tournament—Kaufman Astoria Studios, Silvercup Studios, and Aqueduct Racetrack.

Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York and was named for the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705), who was at the time queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.[10][11] Queens became a borough of New York City in 1898. From 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County.

New York's five boroughs overview
Jurisdiction Population Land area
Borough County 1 July 2012
Estimates
square
miles
square
km
Manhattan New York 1,619,090 23 59
The Bronx Bronx 1,408,473 42 109
Brooklyn Kings 2,565,635 71 183
Queens Queens 2,272,771 109 283
Staten Island Richmond 470,728 58 151
8,336,697 303 786
19,570,261 47,214 122,284
Source: United States Census Bureau[12][13][14]

History[edit]

European colonization brought Dutch and English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642,[15] and Vlissingen (now Flushing) in 1643.[16] Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) and Jamaica. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island (Suffolk County) subject to Dutch law.[17] After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as Yorkshire.

The Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens.

Originally, Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County. It was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683.[18] It is believed that the county was named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time. The county was founded alongside Kings County (Brooklyn, which was named after her husband, King Charles II), and Richmond County (Staten Island, named after his illegitimate son, the 1st Duke of Richmond).[19][20][21] On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained North Brother Island, South Brother Island, and Huletts Island (today known as Rikers Island).[22] On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not already assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County (today's Bronx County).[23]

Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn where the Battle of Long Island was largely fought. Queens, like the rest of Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the war. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Even though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown. The quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.

From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.[24][25]

The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica,[26] but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks.[27] After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one.[40] In 1870, Long Island City split from the Town of Newtown, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the Village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the Town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola.[36][41][42][43]

On March 1, 1860, the eastern border between Queens County (later Nassau County) and Suffolk County was redefined with no discernible change.[44] On June 8, 1881, North Brother Island was transferred to New York County.[45] On May 8, 1884, Rikers Island was transferred to New York County.[46] In 1885, Lloyd Neck, which was part of the Town of Oyster Bay and was earlier known as Queens Village, seceded from Queens and became part of the Town of Huntington in Suffolk County.[47][48] On April 16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County.[49]

Borough of Queens[edit]

The New York City Borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the New York State Legislature after an 1894 referendum on consolidation.[50] The eastern 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899.[51]

Queens Borough was established on January 1, 1898.[52][53][54] Long Island City, the towns of Newtown, Flushing, and Jamaica, and the Rockaway Peninsula portion of the Town of Hempstead were merged to form the new borough, dissolving all former municipal governments (Long Island City, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough.[55] The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan,[42][56][57][58][59][60][61] consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899. At this point, the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby Kew Gardens also.[62]

The borough's administrative and court buildings are presently located in Kew Gardens and downtown Jamaica respectively, two neighborhoods that were villages of the former Town of Jamaica.

From 1905 to 1908 the Long Island Rail Road in Queens became electrified. Transportation to and from Manhattan, previously by ferry or via bridges in Brooklyn, opened up with the Queensboro Bridge finished in 1909, and with railway tunnels under the East River in 1910. From 1915 onward, much of Queens was connected to the New York City subway system.[63][64] With the 1915 construction of the Steinway Tunnel carrying the IRT Flushing Line between Queens and Manhattan, and the emergent expansion of the use of the automobile, the population of Queens more than doubled in the 1920s, from 469,042 in 1920 to 1,079,129 in 1930.[65] Queens was the site of the 1939 New York World's Fair and the 1964 New York World's Fair. LaGuardia Airport, in northern Queens, opened in 1939. Idlewild Airport, in southern Queens and now called JFK Airport, opened in 1948. American Airlines Flight 587 took off from the latter airport on November 12, 2001, but ended up crashing in Queens' Belle Harbor area, killing 265 people.

In late-October, 2012, much of Queens' Breezy Point area was destroyed by a massive six-alarm fire caused by Hurricane Sandy.

Geography[edit]

NASA Landsat satellite image of Long Island and surrounding areas.

Queens is on the far west section of geographic Long Island and includes a few smaller islands, most of which are in Jamaica Bay forming part of the Gateway National Recreation Area which in turn is one of the National Parks of New York Harbor.[66]

Brooklyn, the only other New York City borough on geographic Long Island, lies just south and west of Queens, with Newtown Creek, an estuary that flows into the East River, forming part of the border. To the west and north is the East River, across which is Manhattan to the west and The Bronx to the north. Nassau County is east of Queens on Long Island. Staten Island is southwest of Brooklyn, and shares only a 3-mile-long water border (in the Outer Bay) with Queens.

The Rockaway Peninsula, the most southernly part of all of Long Island, sits between Jamaica Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, featuring the most prominent public beaches in Queens.[67][68] Flushing Bay and the Flushing River are in the north, connecting to the East River. The East River opens into Long Island Sound. The midsection of Queens is crossed by the Long Island straddling terminal moraine created by the Wisconsin Glacier.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has an area of 178.3 square miles (462 km2); 109.2 square miles (283 km2) of this is land, and 38.7% is water.

Climate[edit]

Queens and the rest of New York City has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with partial shielding from the Appalachian Mountains and moderating influences from the Atlantic Ocean. Queens receives plentiful rainfall all year round with 44.8 inches yearly. Extremes are from 107 °F (41.6 °C) to -3 °F (-19.4 °C). Winters are relatively mild compared to other areas of New York State and snow is common and blizzards occur about every 4–6 years. Springs are unpredictable and can be chilly to very warm. Summers are hot, humid and wet. Fall is very similar to spring and snowfall begins in December.



Adjacent counties[edit]

Neighborhoods[edit]

A typical residential street in Jackson Heights.
Long Island City is a neighborhood in western Queens
Row houses are prominent in many Queens neighborhoods, including Ridgewood (seen here)

Four United States Postal Service post offices serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City (ZIP codes starting with 111), Jamaica (114), Flushing (113), and Far Rockaway (116). In addition the Floral Park post office (110), based in Nassau County, serves a small part of northeastern Queens. Each of these main post offices have neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters. These ZIP codes do not always reflect traditional neighborhood names and boundaries; "East Elmhurst", for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community. Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap.

Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity:

Demographics[edit]

Queens, New York
Census Pop.
1790 6,159
1800 6,642 7.8%
1810 7,444 12.1%
1820 8,246 10.8%
1830 9,049 9.7%
1840 14,480 60.0%
1850 18,593 28.4%
1860 32,903 77.0%
1870 45,468 38.2%
1880 56,559 24.4%
1890 87,050 53.9%
1900 152,999 75.8%
1910 284,041 85.6%
1920 469,042 65.1%
1930 1,079,129 130.1%
1940 1,297,634 20.2%
1950 1,550,849 19.5%
1960 1,809,578 16.7%
1970 1,986,473 9.8%
1980 1,891,325 −4.8%
1990 1,951,598 3.2%
2000 2,229,379 14.2%
2010 2,230,722 0.1%
Est. 2013 2,296,175 2.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[73]
2013 Estimate[1]
The Elmhurst Chinatown (艾姆赫斯特 唐人街) at the corner of Broadway and Dongan Avenue.
Street scene in Astoria, a largely Greek-American neighborhood.

There is reason to question Census totals for Queens. The New York City Department of City Planning was alarmed by the negligible reported increase in population between 2000 and 2010. Areas with high proportions of immigrants and undocumented aliens are traditionally undercounted for a variety of reasons. New housing and transit statistics suggest otherwise but corrective formulas were not applied. The racial breakdown of the population is similarly suspect. Foreign born people frequently do not interpret racial definitions as the Census suggests.[74]

According to 2012 Census Estimates, 27.2% of the population was White,[75] 20.9% Black or African American, 24.8% Asian, 12.9% from some other race, and 2.7% of two or more races. 27.9% of Queens's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race).[76] (Data from US Census)

Among the Asian population, people of Chinese ethnicity make up the largest ethnic group at 9.0% of Queens' population, with about 200,205 people; the other East and Southeast Asian groups are: Koreans (2.9%), Filipinos (1.7%), Japanese (0.3%), Thais (0.2%), Vietnamese (0.2%), and Indonesians and Burmese both make up 0.1% of the population.[76]

People of South Asian descent make up 7.8% of Queens' population: Indians (5.3%), Bangladeshi (1.5%), Pakistanis (0.7%), and Nepali (0.2%).[76]

Among the Hispanic population, Puerto Ricans make up the largest ethnic group at 4.6%, next to Mexicans, who make up 4.2% of the population, and Dominicans at 3.9%. Central Americans make up 2.4%,Mostly Salvadorans and South Americans constitute 9.6% of Queens's population, mainly of Ecuadorian (4.4%) and Colombian descent (3.2%).[76]

Approximately 47.8% of the population is foreign-born. Roughly 2.1% of the population was born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or abroad to American parents. In addition, 51.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 44.2% of the population over 5 years of age speak English at home; 23.8% speak Spanish at home. Also, 16.8% of the populace speak other Indo-European languages at home. Another 13.5% speak an Asian language at home.[77]

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,229,379 people, 782,664 households, and 537,690 families residing in the county. The population density was 20,409.0 inhabitants per square mile (7,879.6/km²). There were 817,250 housing units at an average density of 7,481.6 per square mile (2,888.5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 44.08% White, 20.01% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 17.56% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 11.68% from other races, and 6.11% from two or more races. 24.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Some main European ancestries in Queens, 2000

In Queens, 48.5% of the population are foreign-born. Of that, 49.5% were born in Latin America, 33.5% in Asia, 14.8% in Europe, 1.8% in Africa, and 0.4% in North America. The Hispanic or Latino population increased by 61% to 597,773 between 1990 and 2006 and now accounts for 26.5% of the borough's population.

Queens has the largest Colombian population in NYC, accounting for 76.6% of the city's total Colombian population, for a total of 80,116.

  • Queens has the largest Ecuadorian population in NYC, accounting for 62.2% of the city's total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339.
  • Queens has the largest Peruvian population in NYC, accounting for 69.9% of the city's total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825
  • The Mexican population in Queens has increased 457% to 71,283, the second highest in NYC, after Brooklyn.[78]
  • Queens has the largest Salvadorans population in NYC, accounting for 50.7% of the city's for a total population of 25,235

Queens is home to 49.6% of NYC's Asian population. Among the five boroughs, Queens has the largest population of Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino, Bangladeshi and Pakistani Americans. Queens has the largest Asian American population by county outside the Western United States: According to the 2006 American Community Survey, Queens ranks 5th among US counties with 477,772 (21.18%) Asian Americans, behind Los Angeles County, California, Honolulu County, Hawaii, Santa Clara County, California, and Orange County, California. The 2000 census showed that the borough is home to the largest concentration of Indian Americans in the nation, with a total population of 129,715 (5.79% of the borough population),[79] as well as Pakistani Americans, who number at 15,604.[80] Queens has the second largest Sikh population in the nation after California.[citation needed]

  • Chinese: 173,123; 39.8% of the city's total Chinese population.
  • Indian: 147,525; 64% Asian Indian population.
  • Korean: 65,131; 66.4% of the city's total Korean population.
  • Filipino: 41,784; 61.3% of the city's total Filipino population.
  • Bangladeshi: 18,310; 66% of the city's total Bangladeshi population.
  • Pakistani: 10,884; 39.5% of the city's total Pakistani population.

According to author Mordecai Plaut, a 2002 UJA/Federation of New York study found that Queens was home to 186,000 Jewish Americans at the time.[81][verification needed]

There were 782,664 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.3% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.39.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,439, and the median income for a family was $42,608. Males had a median income of $30,576 versus $26,628 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,222. About 16.9% of families and 24.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. In Queens, the black population earns more than whites on average.[82] Many of these African Americans live in quiet, middle class suburban neighborhoods near the Nassau County border, such as Laurelton and Cambria Heights which have large black populations whose family income is higher than average. Those areas are known for their well kept homes, suburban feel, and low crime rate. The migration of European Americans from parts of Queens has been long ongoing with departures from Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Park, and Flushing, etc. (most of the outgoing population has been replaced with Asian Americans). Neighborhoods such as Whitestone, College Point, North Flushing, Auburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, Little Neck, and Douglaston have not had a substantial exodus of white residents, but have seen an increase of Asian population (mostly Korean). Queens has recently experienced a real estate boom making most of its neighborhoods very desirable for people who want to reside near Manhattan in a less urban setting. According to a 2001 Claritas study, Queens is the most diverse county in the United States among counties of 100,000+ population.[83]

Languages[edit]

There are 138 languages spoken in the borough.[84] As of 2010, 43.84% (905,890) of Queens residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 23.88% (493,462) spoke Spanish, 8.06% (166,570) Chinese, 3.44% (71,054) various Indic languages, 2.74% (56,701) Korean, 1.67% (34,596) Russian, 1.56% (32,268) Italian, 1.54% (31,922) Tagalog, 1.53% (31,651) Greek, 1.32% (27,345) French Creole, 1.17% (24,118) Polish, 0.96% (19,868) Hindi, 0.93% (19,262) Urdu, 0.92% (18,931) other Asian languages, 0.80% (16,435) other Indo-European languages, 0.71% (14,685) French, 0.61% (12,505) Arabic, 0.48% (10,008) Serbo-Croatian, and Hebrew was spoken as a main language by 0.46% (9,410) of the population over the age of five. In total, 56.16% (1,160,483) of Queens's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[85]

Culture[edit]

5 Pointz graffiti exhibit in Long Island City

While Queens has not been the center of any major artistic movements, it has been the home of such notable artists as Francis Ford Coppola, Paul Simon, and Robert Mapplethorpe. The current poet laureate of Queens is Paolo Javier.[86]

Queens has notably fostered African-American culture, with establishments such as The Afrikan Poetry Theatre[87] and the Black Spectrum Theater Company[88] catering specifically to African-Americans in Queens. In the 1940s, Queens was an important center of jazz; such jazz luminaries as Louis Armstrong, Charlie Parker, and Ella Fitzgerald took up residence in Queens, seeking refuge from the segregation they found elsewhere in New York.[89] Additionally, many notable hip-hop acts hail from Queens, including Nas, Run-D.M.C., Kool G Rap, A Tribe Called Quest, LL Cool J, Mobb Deep, 50 Cent, Nicki Minaj, and Heems of Das Racist.

Queens hosts various museums and cultural institutions that serve its diverse communities. They range from the historical (such as the John Bowne House) to the scientific (such as the New York Hall of Science), from conventional art galleries (such as the Noguchi Museum) to unique graffiti exhibits (such as 5 Pointz). Queens's cultural institutions include, but are not limited to:

Government[edit]

Party affiliation of Queens registered voters
Party 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996
Democratic 62.94% 62.52 62.85 62.79 62.99 62.52 62.30 62.27 62.28 62.33
Republican 14.60% 14.66 14.97 15.04 15.28 15.69 16.47 16.74 16.93 17.20
Other 3.88% 3.93 3.94 3.86 3.37 3.30 3.10 3.20 3.02 2.78
No affiliation 18.58% 18.89 18.24 18.31 18.36 18.49 18.13 17.79 17.77 17.69
Queens County Courthouse

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Queens has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a strong mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Queens.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause following the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[90]

Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens' Borough President is Melinda Katz, elected in November 2013 as a Democrat with 80.3% of the vote . Queens Borough Hall is the seat of government and is located in Kew Gardens.

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Sixty-three percent of registered Queens voters are Democrats. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include development, noise, and the cost of housing.

Presidential election results
Year Republican Democratic
2012 19.9% 118,589 79.1% 470,732
2008 24.4% 145,898 74.9% 447,906
2004 27.4% 165,954 71.7% 433,835
2000 22.0% 122,052 75.0% 416,967
1996 21.1% 107,650 72.9% 372,925
1992 28.3% 157,561 62.9% 349,520
1988 39.7% 217,049 59.5% 325,147
1984 46.4% 285,477 53.3% 328,379
1980 44.8% 251,333 48.0% 269,147
1976 38.9% 244,396 60.5% 379,907
1972 56.3% 426,015 43.4% 328,316
1968 40.0% 306,620 53.6% 410,546
1964 33.6% 274,351 66.3% 541,418
1960 45.1% 367,688 54.7% 446,348
1956 59.9% 471,223 40.1% 315,898

As of 2012[dated info], there were four Democrats and one Republican representing Queens in the U.S. Congress:

Each of the city's five counties has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard A. Brown, who ran on both the Republican and Democratic Party tickets, has been the District Attorney of Queens County since 1991.[91] Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second largest number among the five boroughs. It is divided into 14 community districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents.

Although it is heavily Democratic, Queens is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and current Mayor Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New York George Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin.

Queens has not voted for a Republican candidate in a presidential election since 1972, when Queens voters chose Richard Nixon over George McGovern. Since the 1996 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidates have received over 70% of the popular vote in Queens.

Economy[edit]

Queens has the second-largest economy of New York City's five boroughs, second only to Manhattan. In 2004, Queens had 15.2% (440,310) of all private sector jobs in New York City and 8.8% of private sector wages. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs, with evenly spread jobs across the health care, retail trade, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and film and television production sectors. No single sector is overwhelmingly dominant.[7]

The diversification in Queens' economy is reflected in the large amount of employment in the export-oriented portions of its economy—such as transportation, manufacturing, and business services—that serve customers outside the region. This accounts for more than 27% of all Queens jobs and offers an average salary of $43,727, 14% greater than that of jobs in the locally oriented sector.

The borough's largest employment sector—trade, transportation, and utilities—accounted for nearly 30% of all jobs in 2004. Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, leading the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. This airline industry is particularly important to the economy of Queens, providing almost one quarter of the sector's employment and more than 30% of the sector's wages.

Education and health services is the next largest sector in Queens and comprised almost 24% of the borough's jobs in 2004. The manufacturing and construction industries in Queens are the largest of the City and account for nearly 17% of the borough's private sector jobs. Comprising almost 17% of the jobs in Queens is the information, financial activities, and business and professional services sectors.

As of 2003, Queens had almost 40,000 business establishments. Small businesses act as an important part of the borough's economic vitality with two thirds of all business employing between one to four people.

Several large companies have their headquarters in Queens, including watchmaker Bulova, based in East Elmhurst; internationally renowned piano manufacturer Steinway & Sons in Astoria; Glacéau, the makers of Vitamin Water, headquartered in Whitestone; and JetBlue Airways, an airline based in Long Island City.

Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back office center. Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while Jamaica is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough.

Sports[edit]

Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets, 2010
Shea Stadium and vicinity, with Manhattan in the background, 1981

Citi Field, home ballpark of the New York Mets of Major League Baseball is located in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Shea Stadium, the former home of the Mets and the New York Jets of the National Football League, as well as the temporary home of the New York Yankees and the New York Giants Football Team stood where Citi Field's parking lot is now located. The US Open tennis tournament is played at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, located just south of Citi Field. Arthur Ashe Stadium is the biggest tennis stadium in the world. The US Open was formerly played at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills. Queens is also the home of Aqueduct Racetrack, located in Ozone Park. Extreme Championship Wrestling has been held at an Elks lodge in Elmhurst.

Landmarks of Queens[edit]

Food[edit]

The cuisine available in Queens reflects its vast cultural diversity.[92] The cuisine of a particular neighborhood often represents its demographics; for example, Astoria hosts many Greek restaurants, in keeping with its traditionally Greek population.[93]

Transportation[edit]

Queens has crucial importance in international and interstate air traffic. Two of the New York metropolitan area's three major airports are located there; LaGuardia Airport is in northern Queens, while John F. Kennedy International Airport is to the south on the shores of Jamaica Bay. AirTrain JFK provides a rail link between JFK and local rail lines.

Twelve New York City Subway routes traverse Queens, serving 81 stations on seven main lines. The A, G, J and Z routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F, N, Q and R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E, 7 and 7d trains connect Queens to Manhattan only. M trains travel through Queens twice in the same trip.

A commuter train system, the Long Island Rail Road, operates 22 stations in Queens with service to Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Long Island. Jamaica station is a hub station where all the lines in the system but one (the Port Washington Branch) converge. It is the busiest commuter rail hub in the United States. Sunnyside Yard is used as a staging area by Amtrak and New Jersey Transit for intercity and commuter trains from Penn Station in Manhattan. 61st Street – Woodside acts as one of the many LIRR connections to the New York City Subway.

About 100 local bus routes move people around within Queens, and another 15 express routes shuttle commuters between Queens and Manhattan, under the MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus brands.

Queens is traversed by three trunk east-west highways. The Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495) runs from the Queens Midtown Tunnel on the west through the borough to Nassau County on the east. The Grand Central Parkway, whose western terminus is the Triborough Bridge, extends east to the Queens/Nassau border, where its name changes to the Northern State Parkway. The Belt Parkway begins at the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, and extends east into Queens, past Aqueduct Racetrack and JFK Airport. On its eastern end at the Queens/Nassau border, it splits into the Southern State Parkway which continues east, and the Cross Island Parkway which turns north.

There are also several major north-south highways in Queens, including the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278), the Van Wyck Expressway (Interstate 678), the Clearview Expressway (Interstate 295), and the Cross Island Parkway.

Streets[edit]

Standard cross-street signs in Queens.

The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented north-south are "Streets", while east-west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and in the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place and 72nd Lane, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often causing confusion for non-residents. In addition, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street).

The structure of a Queens address was designed to provide convenience in locating the address itself; the first half of a number in a Queens address refers to the nearest cross street, the second half refers to the house or lot number from where the street begins from that cross street, followed by the name of the street itself. For example, to find an address in Queens, 14-01 120th Street, one could ascertain from the address structure itself that the listed address is at the intersection of 14th Avenue and 120th Street, and that the address must be closest to 14th Avenue rather than 15th Avenue, as it is the first lot on the block. This structure doesn't stop when a street is named either, assuming that there is an existing numbered cross-street. For example, Queens College is situated at 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, and is so named because the cross-street closest to the entrance is 65th Avenue.

This confusion stems from the fact that many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. Subway stations were only partly renamed, thus now share dual names after the original street names. On the IRT Flushing Line in Sunnyside, there are 33rd – Rawson St., 40th – Lowery St., 46th – Bliss St., 52nd St. – Lincoln Ave. and so forth. Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare.

A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries (especially major thoroughfares such as Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways".

The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Another deviation from the norm is Broad Channel; it maintains the north-south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road," as well as the prefixes "West" and "East," depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood's major through street.

The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick. The grid runs east-west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branch right-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north-south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up with the Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.

According to the 2000 Census, 37.7% of all Queens households did not own a car. The citywide rate is 55%.[94]

In 2012, some numbered streets in the Douglaston Hill historic district of Queens were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street.[95]

Waterways[edit]

Newtown Creek with the Midtown Manhattan skyline in the background.

Queens is connected to the Bronx by the Bronx Whitestone Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge and the Hell Gate Bridge. Queens is connected to Manhattan by the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge, the Queensboro Bridge, and the Queens Midtown Tunnel; and to Roosevelt Island by the Roosevelt Island Bridge.

While most of the Queens/Brooklyn border is on land, the Kosciuszko Bridge crosses the Newtown Creek connecting Maspeth to Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The Pulaski Bridge connects McGuinness Boulevard in Greenpoint to 11th Street, Jackson Avenue, and Hunters Point Avenue in Long Island City. The J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge (a.k.a. Greenpoint Avenue Bridge) connects Greenpoint and Long Island City avenues of the same name, which, east of Queens Boulevard (NY-25), becomes Roosevelt Avenue. A lesser bridge connects Grand Avenue in Queens to Grand Street in Brooklyn.

The Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge traverses Jamaica Bay to connect the Rockaway Peninsula to the rest of Queens. Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge links the western part of the Peninsula with Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn's longest thoroughfare. Both crossings were built and continue to be operated by what is now known as MTA Bridges and Tunnels. The IND Rockaway Line parallels the Cross Bay, has a mid-bay station at Broad Channel which is just a short walk from the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, now part of Gateway National Recreation Area and a major stop on the Atlantic Flyway.

One year-round scheduled ferry service connects Queens and Manhattan. New York Water Taxi operates service across the East River from Hunters Point in Long Island City to Manhattan at 34th Street and south to Pier 11 at Wall Street. In 2007, limited weekday service was begun between Breezy Point, the westernmost point in the Rockaways, to Pier 11 via the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Summertime weekend service provides service from Lower Manhattan and southwest Brooklyn to the peninsula's Gateway beaches.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, which caused massive infrastructure damage to the IND Rockaway Line (A train) south of the station at Howard Beach – JFK Airport (IND Rockaway Line), severing all direct subway connections between the Rockaway Peninsula and Broad Channel, Queens and the Queens mainland for many months, ferry operator SeaStreak began running a city-subsidized ferry service between a makeshift ferry slip at Beach 108th Street and Beach Channel Drive in Rockaway Park, Queens and Pier 11/Wall Street, then continuing on to the East 34th Street Ferry Landing. In August 2013, a stop was added at Brooklyn Army Terminal.[96] Originally intended as just a stopgap alternative transportation measure until subway service was restored to the Rockaways, the ferry proved to be popular with both commuters and tourists and was extended several times, most recently in late January. It is now scheduled to run through early May, and city officials will at that time consider a further three-month extension, until August 1, to provide time to evaluate the ridership numbers and to determine whether to establish the service on a permanent basis. The fare would be raised to $3.50 per ride during the extension period from $2 previously. Since its inception, the service has carried close to 200,000 riders, city officials said.[97]

Education[edit]

Elementary and secondary education[edit]

Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Most private schools are affiliated to or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or Jewish religious communities.

Postsecondary institutions[edit]

  • Queens College is one of the elite colleges in the CUNY system. Established in 1937 to offer a strong liberal arts education to the residents of the borough, Queens College has over 16,000 students including more than 12,000 undergraduates and over 4,000 graduate students. Students from 120 different countries speaking 66 different languages are enrolled at the school, which is located in Flushing. Queens College is also the host of CUNY's law school. The Queens College Campus is also the home of Townsend Harris High School and the Queens College School for Math, Science, and Technology (PS/IS 499).
  • St. John's University is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university founded in 1870 by the Vincentian Fathers. With over 19,000 students, St. John's is known for its pharmacy, business and law programs as well as its men's basketball and soccer teams.
  • Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private, cutting edge, degree granting institution located across the Grand Central Parkway from LaGuardia Airport. Its presence underscores the importance of aviation to the Queens economy.
  • York College is one of CUNY's leading general-purpose liberal arts colleges, granting bachelor's degrees in more than 40 fields, as well as a combined BS/MS degree in Occupational Therapy. Noted for its Health Sciences Programs York College is also home to the Northeast Regional Office of the Food and Drug Administration.

Public Library[edit]

The Queens Borough Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Borough Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. First in circulation in New York State since 1985, the Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.

Notable people[edit]

Various public figures have grown up or lived in Queens such as business magnate and television personality Donald Trump.[99] Musicians who have lived in the borough include singer Nadia Ali,[100] rappers Nas Ja Rule 50 Cent Nicki Minaj, and Simon & Garfunkel[101] and Johnny Ramone.[102] Actors such as Adrien Brody,[103] and Lucy Liu[104] grew up in the borough. Actress and singer Idina Menzel[105] was born in Queens. Porn star Ron Jeremy[106] was born in Queens and attended Queens College. Other actors such as Mae West have also lived in Queens.[107] Physician Joshua Prager[108] was born in Whitestone and attended Flushing High School. Mafia Boss John Gotti lived in Queens for many years.[109]

Queens has also been home to athletes such as professional basketball player Rafer Alston[110] Basketball Players Kareem Abdul-Jabbar[111][112] and Metta World Peace[113][114] were both born in Queens. Olympic Athlete Bob Beamon.[115] Tennis star John McEnroe[116] was born in Douglaston.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Queens County (Queens Borough), New York State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  2. ^ "The NYC Experience: Queens". The City of New York. Retrieved 2013-05-13. [dead link]
  3. ^ "State & County QuickFacts:Queens County, New York". Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  4. ^ "Queens - The NYC Experience". Nyc.gov. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2012-03-28. [dead link]
  5. ^ Schenkler, Michael. "We Are A Nation Of Immigrants". Queens Tribune. Retrieved 2012-03-28. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Is Queens a Suburb of New York or Part of the City?". Queens.about.com. 2009-11-03. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  7. ^ a b "Queens: Economic Development and the State of the Borough Economy. Report 3-2007". Office of the State Comptroller. June 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  8. ^ Shaman, Diana (2004-02-08). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ Hughes, C. J. (2011-11-17). "Posting – Queens — More Rentals Planned in Long Island City". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ "Queens Almanac". Queens.about.com. 2009-11-03. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  11. ^ "NY.com". NY.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  12. ^ 2011 borough population estimates are taken from the annual database of county population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, specifically this Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for New York state's counties, Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties of New York: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, retrieved on May 13, 2012
  13. ^ County and City Data Book:2007 (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
  14. ^ American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
  15. ^ "A Virtual Tour of New Netherland". 
  16. ^ Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books. p. 54. 
  17. ^ Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6
  18. ^ New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke's Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assembly #107, 1894. five Volumes. Albany, New York; 1894–1896; Chapter 4; Section 1; Page 122.
  19. ^ Room, Adrian. 2006. Placenames of the world: origins and meanings of the names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. P.308
  20. ^ Antos, Jason D. 2009. Queens. P.12
  21. ^ Mushabac, Jane, Angela Wigan and Museum of the City of New York. 1999. A short and remarkable history of New York City. P.19
  22. ^ New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke's Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assembly #107, 1894. five Volumes. Albany, New York; 1894–1896; Chapter 17; Section 1; Page 268.
  23. ^ New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke's Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assembly #107, 1894. five volumes. Albany, New York; 1894–1896; Chapter 1376; Section 4; page 1063.
  24. ^ Walter Greenspan. "Geographic History of Queens County". Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  25. ^ J. H. French, LL.D. (1860). "Towns in Queens County, NY; From: Gazetteer of the State of New York". Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  26. ^ "Early Five Borough's History". Retrieved 2007-12-30. "When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead." 
  27. ^ "History of Queens County". 
  28. ^ "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View". Official History Page of the Queens Borough President's Office. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "From the final withdrawal of the British in November, 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. Population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming."  Jon A. Peterson and Vincent Seyfried, ed. (1983). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens and Its Neighborhood.  Peterson, Jon A., ed. (1987). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens, New York City. New York: Queens College, City University of New York. 
  29. ^ "New York – Queens County – History". Retrieved 2007-12-29.  "History of New York State 1523–1927". The Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York.  Sullivan, Dr. James (1927). History of New York State 1523–1927. New York, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. 
  30. ^ "New York State History". Genealogy Inc. 1999. Retrieved 2007-12-28. "Under the Reorganization Act of March 7, 1788, New York was divided into 120 towns (not townships), many of which were already in existence." 
  31. ^ "State of New York; Local Government Handbook; 5th Edition" (PDF). January 2000. pp. Ch 4, p 13; Ch 5 p 2. "The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities...The basic composition of the counties was set in 1788 when the State Legislature divided all of the counties then existing into towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier origin, but in that year they acquired a new legal status as components of the counties." 
  32. ^ "History Mysteries: Shelter Island Ferry/Mineola Building". Retrieved 2008-04-01. "The building shown below "is one of the most important buildings in the history of Mineola," wrote Jack Hehman, president of the Mineola Historical Society. Built in 1787 and known as the "old brig," it was the first Queens County courthouse and later a home for the mentally ill. The building was at Jericho Turnpike and Herricks Road until 1910, when it burned to the ground." [dead link]
  33. ^ "The Mineola Asylum; Witnesses who testified that it is and has been a model institution.". New York Times. August 29, 1882. Retrieved 2008-04-01. "The investigation of the charges made against the Superintendent and keepers of the Mineola Asylum for the Insane, which was begun last Tuesday, was continued yesterday by the standing Committee on Insane Asylums of the Queens County Board of Supervisors-- Messrs. Whitney, Brinckerhoff, and Powell. The committee were shown through the asylum, which is the old building of the Queens County Court-house over 100 years old" 
  34. ^ David Roberts. "Nassau County Post Offices 1794–1879". Retrieved 2008-04-01.  John L. Kay & Chester M. Smith, Jr. (1982). New York Postal History: The Post Offices & First Postmasters from 1775 to 1980. American Philatelic Society. "There was only one post office established in present Nassau County when the Long Island post road to Sag Harbor was established September 25, 1794. It appears that the mail from New York went to Jamaica. This was the only post office in the present day Boroughs of Queens or Brooklyn before 1803. From Jamaica the mail went east along the Jericho Turnpike/Middle Country Road route and ended at Sag Harbor. The only post office on this route between Jamaica and Suffolk County was QUEENS established the same date as the others on this route 9/25/1794. This post office was officially Queens, but I have seen the area called "Queens Court House" and was located approximately in the Mineola-Westbury area. The courthouse was used until the 1870s when the county court was moved to Long Island City. Later it served as the Queens County Insane Asylum and still later as an early courthouse for the new Nassau County, during construction of the present "old" Nassau County Courthouse in Mineola. It was demolished shortly after 1900 ... after about 120 years of service of one type or the other." 
  35. ^ "The Queens County Court-House Question A New Building to be Erected at Mineola.". The New York Times. February 25, 1872. Retrieved 2008-04-01. "For forty years the Supervisors of Queens County have been quarreling over a site for a Court-house. The incommodious building used" 
  36. ^ a b Rhoda Amon (Staff Writer). "Mineola: First Farmers, Then Lawyers". Newsday. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2012-11-11. "That was the year when the "Old Brig" courthouse was vacated after 90 years of housing lawbreakers. The county court moved from Mineola to Long Island City." 
  37. ^ "1873 map of North Hempstead". Retrieved 2007-12-31. "bottom right by spur road off Jericho Tpk – location is now known as Garden City Park. Clowesville was the name of the nearest station on the LIRR, approximately at the location of the present Merillon Avenue station. The courthouse (photo at Newsday.com[dead link] ) was north of the station." 
  38. ^ The former county courthouse was located northeast of the intersection of Jericho Turnpike (NY Route 25) and the aptly named County Courthouse Road in an unincorporated area of the Town of North Hempstead, variously referred to in the present day as Garden City Park or New Hyde Park. The site is now a shopping center anchored by a supermarket and is located in the New Hyde Park 11040 Zip Code. A stone marker located on the north side of Jericho Turnpike (NY Route 25), between Marcus Avenue and Herricks Road, identifies the site.
  39. ^ Weidman, Bette S.; Martin, Linda B. (1981). Nassau County, Long Island, in early photographs, 1869–1940. Courier Dover. p. 55. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  40. ^ "The Queens County Court-House Question". New York Times. Feb 25, 1872. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  41. ^ "A Queens Timeline". The Queens Tribune. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "1874 – Queens County Courthouse and seat of county government moved from Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) to Long Island City." [dead link]
  42. ^ a b Geoffrey Mohan (Staff Writer) (2007). "Nassau's Difficult Birth; Eastern factions of Queens win the fight to separate after six decades of wrangling". Newsday. Archived from the original on 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2012-11-11. "North Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Hempstead were excluded from the vote." 
  43. ^ "The New Queens County Court-House". New York Times. Feb 9, 1874. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  44. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1860, 83rd Session, Chapter 530, pages 1074—1076.
  45. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1881, 104th Session, Chapter 478; Section 1, Page 649.
  46. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1884, 107th Session, Chapter 262, page 328.
  47. ^ Beers' Atlas of Long Island (1873)
  48. ^ "Lloyd Harbor – A Brief History". Incorporated Village of Lloyd Harbor, Suffolk County, NY. Retrieved 2009-04-09. [dead link]
  49. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1964, 187th Session, Chapter 578, page 1606.
  50. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1897, 120th Session, Chapter 378; Section 2; Page 2.
  51. ^ New York. Laws of New York; 1899, 121st Session, Chapter 588; Section 1; Page 1336.
  52. ^ "Inventing Gotham". Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  53. ^ "Official Announcement of the Results of the Election" (PDF). New York Times. December 15, 1894. Retrieved 2007-12-28. "The area included a radius of twenty miles (32 km), with the city hall in New York as a center to circumscribe it" 
  54. ^ Holice, Deb & Pam. "The History of New York State". Archived from the original on 2007-08-22. Retrieved 2007-12-28.  Dr. James Sullivan (editor). The History of New York State. Book II, Chapter IV Part VIII. 
  55. ^ "Before the Five-Borough City: Queens".  This map shows the boundaries of the former towns and the former city within the present Borough of Queens.
  56. ^ "Of Interest to Politicians.". The New York Times. September 13, 1894 (before vote). p. 9. Retrieved 2007-12-28. "The question of the Greater New-York, which is also to be submitted to the people at this coming election, involves the proposition to unite in one city the following cities, counties, and towns: New-York City, Long Island City, in Queens County; the County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the County of Richmond, (S.I.;) the towns of Flushing, Newtown, Jamaica, in Queens County; the town of Westchester, in Westchester County, and all that portion of the towns of East Chester and Pelham which lies south of a straight line drawn from a point where the northerly line of the City of New-York meets the centre line of the Bronx River, to the middle of the channel between Hunter's and Glen Islands, in Long Island Sound, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in Queens County, which is westerly of a straight line drawn from the south-easterly point of the town of Flushing in a straight line to the Atlantic Ocean." 
  57. ^ "Vote for Greater New York". The New York Times. October 16, 1894 (before election). Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  58. ^ "New-York's place in danger; Consolidation defeated, she must yield to Chicago.". The New York Times. November 4, 1894 (before election). Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  59. ^ "Greater New-York in doubt; The city vote is for it and Brooklyn is uncertain.". New York Times. November 8, 1894 (before results of Queens vote known). Retrieved 2007-12-28. "The increase in area and population that New-York will acquire if consolidation becomes a fact will become evident by a glance at the following table... Flushing... *Part of the town of Hempstead... Jamaica... Long Island City ... Newtown... The townships in Queens County that are to be included in the Greater New-York have not been heard from yet..." 
  60. ^ "Report favors consolidation.; An Argument Against the Claims of the Resubmissionists.". The New York Times. February 22, 1896. pp. Page 1, 5318 words. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
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  63. ^ Vincent F. Seyfried and Jon A. Peterson, History Department, Queens College/CUNY. "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View". Official History Page of the Queens Borough President's Office. Retrieved 2007-12-31. "Even more crucial to future development was the opening of the Queensboro Bridge in 1909. This span ended the isolation of the borough's road system at precisely the time when mass use of the automobile was getting underway in the United States." 
  64. ^ Vincent F. Seyfried (2004). "A Walk Through Queens with David Hartman and Historian Barry Lewis". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "The most momentous event in the history of Queens occurred in 1909 when the long planned Queensboro Bridge was finally opened. This ended the century old isolation of the county and dependence on ferries." 
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