Quibdó

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Quibdó
Municipality and town
Flag of Quibdó
Flag
Official seal of Quibdó
Seal
Location of Quibdó
Coordinates: 5°41′32″N 76°39′29″W / 5.69222°N 76.65806°W / 5.69222; -76.65806Coordinates: 5°41′32″N 76°39′29″W / 5.69222°N 76.65806°W / 5.69222; -76.65806
Country  Colombia
Region Pacific Region
Department Chocó Department
Founded 1648
Government
 • Mayor Zulia María Mena García (Radical Change)
Area
 • Total 3,337.5 km2 (1,288.6 sq mi)
Elevation 43 m (141 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 126,384
 • Density 38/km2 (98/sq mi)
Time zone Colombia Standard Time (UTC-05)
Area code(s) 57 + 4
Website Official website (Spanish)

Quibdó (Spanish pronunciation: [kiβˈðo]) is the capital city of Chocó Department, in western Colombia, on the Atrato River. The municipality of Quibdó has an area of 3,337.5 km² and a population of 100,000[1] mainly consisting of Afro Colombians and Zambo Colombians. [2]

History[edit]

In prehistoric times the Chocó rainforest served as a major barrier isolating the Mesoamerican and Andean civilisations, and the extremely humid climate also failed to attract the Spanish colonists. The region was eventually granted by the Emberá Indians to the Franciscan order in 1648, but subsequent attacks by hostile tribes meant attempts at settlement were abandoned,[3] only to be established again six years later.

It was not until the nineteenth century when there was interest in finding a shipping route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to avoid traveling via the Straits of Magellan that the Chocó region again became of significant interest to European colonial powers, as the Atrato River Valley was thought the best possibility for this purpose by the explorer Alexander von Humboldt;[4] however it was eventually shelved in favour of the Panama Canal. At the same time research on using the Chocó to connect the Pacific and Atlantic was being carried out, gold and platinum were discovered in the Atrato Valley[4] and this ensured Quibdó’s growth and status as the chief town in the region.

Another crucial development at this time was the movement of freed black slaves into the Chocó, primarily engaging in shifting cultivation to cope with the extreme leaching from the super-humid climate, though fishing and the collection of forest products also helped these groups maintain their livelihood;[5] 1853 watercolors by Manuel María Paz document two mestizo or European men with an Afro-Colombian street vendor, and depict the dress of Afro-Colombian and European women in the town square.[6][7] These black communities established trade with highland cities such as Medellín via rough mule trails that lasted until the 1950s,[8] after which a combination of population growth and declining values for the region’s natural resources gradually led to an economic downturn for the region and especially Quibdó.

Climate[edit]

Quibdó has an extremely wet and cloudy tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) without noticeable seasons and by a large margin the heaviest rainfall in South America and of any city of its size or greater—the wettest city of larger size, Monrovia in Liberia, receives 3 metres (120 in) less than Quibdó. The extreme rainfall is due to the fact that the Andes to the east of the city block the westerly winds driven by the Intertropical Convergence Zone which throughout the year, owing to the Humboldt Current off the west coast of South America, remains centred in the north of the continent at Quibdó’s longitudes. The result is that the extremely unstable ascending air from the Intertropical Convergence Zone is consistently forced to rise over the Chocó plain and as it cools it gives up enormous quantities of moisture.

Rain falls almost every day in intense thunderstorms, and sunny periods seldom last more than a few hours after sunrise.

Climate data for Quibdó (Aeropuerto El Caraño)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.6
(97.9)
35.0
(95)
35.4
(95.7)
37.0
(98.6)
35.0
(95)
38.0
(100.4)
36.8
(98.2)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95)
34.8
(94.6)
35.4
(95.7)
35.6
(96.1)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.1
(88)
31.0
(87.8)
30.7
(87.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
29.6
(85.3)
30.56
(87.02)
Average low °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
22.8
(73)
22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73)
23.0
(73.4)
22.99
(73.38)
Record low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
20.0
(68)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.6
(67.3)
20.0
(68)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68)
20.0
(68)
18.0
(64.4)
Rainfall mm (inches) 579.3
(22.807)
505.4
(19.898)
526.1
(20.713)
654.6
(25.772)
776.2
(30.559)
761.6
(29.984)
802.6
(31.598)
851.7
(33.531)
702.4
(27.654)
654.0
(25.748)
728.1
(28.665)
588.5
(23.169)
8,130.5
(320.098)
Avg. rainy days 24 21 22 25 27 26 26 27 27 27 26 26 304
 % humidity 88 86 86 88 87 87 86 87 87 88 88 89 87.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 90.5 83.4 85.6 92.9 112.5 114 135.1 132.7 112.7 116.7 112.2 88.1 1,276.4
Source: INSTITUTO DE HIDROLOGIA METEOROLOGIA Y ESTUDIOS AMBIENTALES[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Colombia: Departments, Municipalities, Cities, Localities & Metropolitan Areas - Statistics & Maps on City Population". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  2. ^ http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/otraszonas/ARTICULO-WEB-NEW_NOTA_INTERIOR-10398947.html
  3. ^ Colombia History - History of Quibdó
  4. ^ a b Kelley, Frederick M.; Kennish, William and Serrell, Edward Wellman; The Practicability and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with a History of the Enterprise; published 1855 By George F. Nisbett
  5. ^ Asher, Kiran; Black and Green: Afro-Colombians, development and Nature in the Pacific Lowlands; p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8223-4483-4
  6. ^ Paz, Manuel María. "View of a Street in Quibdó, Chocó Province". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  7. ^ Paz, Manuel María. "The Square of Quibdó, Chocó". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  8. ^ Zarsky, Lyuba; Human Rights and the Environment: Conflicts and Norms in a Globalizing World; pp. 177-178. ISBN 1-85383-815-2
  9. ^ Clima: Climatografía de la principales ciudades