|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
|Nickname(s): Prince of Arabian sea|
|• Mayor||Prasanna Ernest|
|• City Police Commissioner||Debesh Kumar Behera IPS|
|• City||58.18 km2 (22.46 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|• Density||5,936/km2 (15,370/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||Kollam, Kottarakkara, Paravur: 91 (0)474, Punalur: 91 (0)475, Karunagappally: 91 (0)476|
|Vehicle registration||Kollam, Paravur: KL-02, Karunagappally: KL-23, Kottarakkara: KL-24, Punalur: KL-25, Kunnathur: KL-61|
|Sex ratio||1077 ♂/♀|
Kollam or Quilon, an old sea port and town on the Laccadive Sea coast in Kerala, India, on the Ashtamudi Lake. Kollam, once called Desinganadu, had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and the Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was regarded by Ibn Battuta, as one of the five ports which he had seen in the course of his travels during twenty four years, in the 14th century.
- 1 General Information
- 2 History
- 3 Major Characteristics
- 4 Toponymy
- 5 History
- 6 Geography
- 7 Climate
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Civic administration
- 10 Transport
- 11 Industries
- 12 Notable events
- 13 Places of worship
- 14 Notable people
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Kollam is a coastal city on the banks of the Ashtamudi lake that took on the title God's Own Country without much demur. The braids of Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres (44 mi) north of the state capital, Thiruvananthapuram. The city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent city of trade for the state.
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An ancient trading town – trading with Romans, Chinese, Arabs and other Orientals – with historical citations of trade dating back to Biblical history to Red Sea ports of the Arabian Sea and the reign of Solomon (supported with a find of ancient Roman coins). Internal trade occurred through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The overland trade by bullock cart of its produce pepper and the trade over the waterways connecting Allepey and Cochin ensured trade linakges that grew into shaping it as a town playing host to one of the earliest industrial townships. The rail links established to Tamil Nadu supported firmer trade links. The marine exports processing factories and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts took the produce of these shores across the globe.
Kollam is the fourth-largest city after Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode, (The new population is taken as city agglomeration) in Kerala on the basis of population and the fifth-largest city on the basis of area after Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Thrissur. It is known for cashew processing and coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered to be the southern gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam. The Kollam urban area comprises suburban towns such as Kottiyam in the south, Kundara in the east, and Chavara in the north of the city. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kannanalore and Anchalumoodu. Karunagapally, Paravur and Kottarakkara are major towns within a distance of 25 km from Kollam city centre towards north, south, and east respectively.
Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandeville's Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth. During the later stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the focal point of trade and politics. Kollam continues to be a major business and commercial centre in the central Travancore region of Kerala.
The Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city in 825 CE. The present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the founding of the town. Having been rebuilt after it was razed down, apparently by a fire. The name Kollam is believed to have been derived from the Sanskrit word Kollam, meaning pepper.
Kollam was a flourishing port of the Chera Dynasty until the formation of the Venad kingdom, when it became the capital of the independent Venad kingdom. Before that, Kollam was considered one of the four early entrepots in the global sea trade around the thirteenth century, along with Alexandria and Cairo in Egypt, the Chinese city of Quanzhou, and Malacca in the Malaysian archipelago
Kollam had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and Ancient Rome. Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) mentions Greek ships anchored at Muziris and Nelcynda. There was also a land route over the Western Ghats. Spices, pearls, diamonds, and silk were exported to Egypt and Rome from these ports. Pearls and diamonds came to Chera Kingdom from Ceylon and the southeastern coast of India, then known as the Pandyan Kingdom.
Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek Nestorian sailor, in his book the Christian Topography who visited the Malabar coast in 550 AD, mentions an enclave of Christian believers in Male (Chera Kingdom). He wrote, "In the island of Tabropane (Ceylon), there is a church of Christians, and clerics and faithful. Likewise at Male, where the pepper grows and in the farming community of Kalliana (Kalliankal at Nillackal) there is also a bishop concecrated in Persia in accordance with the Nicea sunnahadose of 325 AD." The Nestorian Patriarch Jesujabus, who died in 660 CE, mentions Kollam in his letter to Simon, Metropolitan of Persia.
In 825 AD, the Nestorian monks Mar Sabor (Abo) and Mar Proth arrived in Kollam on the invitation of the ruler of the Venad-a feudatory under the Chera kingdom. The two monks received a Royal sanction called "Tarsish-a-palli" near "Korukenikollam" from Chera ruler Rajashekara varman Ayyanadikal Thiruvadikal, as described on the Tharisapalli plates. Special privileges were given to the Ezhavas in the Tarisapalli sasanam. The two monks were instrumental in founding Christian churches with Syrian liturgy as Reference in the Malabar coast area distinct from ancient Vedic Shiv-ism propounded by Adi Shankara in the early 9th century AD among the Nampoothiri Vaishnavites & Nair Sub Castes as Malayalam was not accepted as a liturgical language till the early 18th century AD. Mar Abo lived his last years at Thevalakkara, and his remains were buried there in the Martha Mariam Orthodox Church.
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Kollam sea port was founded by Mar Abo with sanction from Udayamarthandavarma the Tamil king from Venad otherwise called Ay kingdom in 825 AD instead of re opening the inland sea port(kore-ke-ni kollam) near Backare (Thevalakara) also known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and The Greeks and Thondi to the Taamils and is also the foundation of the new city. It is also believed that Mar Abo actually volunteered to the Chera king to create a new sea port town near at Kollam instead of his request for renewing the almost vanishing Tyndis or Nelcynda inland sea port( kore-ke-ni) at Kollam, lying idle without trade for a few centuries because of the Cheras being overrun by Pallavas in the 6th century AD ending the spice trade from Malabar coast. This allowed Mar Abo to stay for many decades in Chera kingdom and streamline Christian faith among the Nampoothiri Vaishnavites &Nair sub castes in the St. Thomas tradition with Syrian liturgy as Reference for the Doctrine of Trinity without replacing the Sanskrit and Vedic prayers.
Capital of Venad (9th to 12th centuries)
The Malayalam Era began in 825 AD; it is named 'Kolla Varsham' after Kollam, because of the importance of Kollam in the 9th century AD. Ayyanadikal Thiruvadikal granted the Tharisapalli plates copper plate grants in 825 AD to Nestorian Monk Mar S(abo)r Iso whom he invited to Kollam, transferring to the Tarsish Church and the community in the St. Thomas tradition of Quilon.
A merchant, Soleyman of Siraf of Persia, visited Malabar in the 9th century and found Quilon to be the only port in India used by the huge Chinese ships as their Transhipment hub for their goods on their way from China to the Persian Gulf. The rulers of Kollam (formerly called 'Desinganadu') had trade relations with China and exchanged embassies. According to the records of the Tang Dynasty (618 AD to 913 AD), Quilon was their chief port of call before the 7th century AD. The Chinese trade decreased about 600 AD and was again revived in the 13th century.
Portuguese, Dutch and British conquests (16th to 18th centuries)
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The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a trading center in Tangasseri, Kollam in 1502, which became the centre of trade in pepper. In the wars with the Moors/Arabs that followed, the ancient church (Temple) of St Thomas Tradition at Thevalakara was destroyed. In 1517, the Portuguese built the St. Thomas Fort in Thangasseri, which was destroyed in the subsequent wars with the Dutch. In 1661, the Dutch took possession of the city. The remnants of the old Portuguese Fort later renovated by the Dutch can be found at Thangasseri. In the 18th century, Travancore conquered Kollam, followed by the British in 1795. Thangasseri remains today as an Anglo-Indian settlement, though few Anglo-Indians remain. The Infant Jesus Church in Thangasseri, an old Portuguese-built church, remains as a memento of the Portuguese rule of the area.
Kollam city is bordered by the panchayaths of Neendakara and Thrikkadavoor to the north, Mayyanad to the south, Thrikkovilvattom and Kottamkara to the east and Laccadive Sea to the west. Ashtamudi lake is in the heart of the city. The city is about 63 km away from Pathanamthitta, 82 km from Alappuzha, 71 km from Thiruvananthapuram, 142 km from Kochi, 350 km from Kozhikode and 226 km from Thrissur.
Two major rivers in the district are Kallada and Ithikkara. Kallada River empties into Ashtamudi lake while Ithikkara River to Paravur Kayal. Jadayuppara, Palaruvi waterfalls are also important geographical attractions of the kollam district.
|Climate data for Kollam|
|Average high °C (°F)||31
|Average low °C (°F)||23
|Precipitation mm (inches)||18
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1||2||4||8||11||21||19||16||12||12||8||3||117|
As of 2011[update] India census, Kollam city has a population of 349,033 and a population density of 5900 persons per square kilometre. The sex ratio (the number of females per 1000 males) is 1112 during the census year of 2011. The district of Kollam ranks seventh with respect to the population in the state. District wise poulation in India-2011 census. The city of Kollam ranks fourth in terms of population in Kerala. Kollam has an average literacy rate of 93.77%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 95.83%, and female literacy is 91.95% (district wise male female literacy rates in India-2011 census). In Kollam, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Malayalam is the most spoken language. Hindi, English and Tamil are also widely understood in the city.
Kollam City is a Municipal Corporation with elected Councillors from its 55 divisions. The Mayor elected from among the councillors generally represents the political party holding a majority. The Corporation Secretary heads the office of the Corporation. The present Mayor of Kollam Corporation is Prasanna Earnest of the CPI(M). The police administration of the city falls under the City Police Commissioner from the IPS (Indian Police Service)cadre and he reports to the Inspector General of Police (IGP) Thiruvananthapuram Range. The police administration comes under the State Home Department of the Government of Kerala. Kollam City is divided into three sub divisions namely Karunagappally, Kollam and Chathannoor, each come under an Assistant Commissioner of Police.
Kollam Junction Railway Station is the second largest railway station in Kerala in terms of area after Shornur Junction with a total of 6 platforms. Kollam also boasts the longest railway platform in Kerala(second longest in India): which is more than 1 km long.Though the total length of Kollam Junction's PF-3&4 combined is around 1180 meters which is more than the length of the existing longest platform in the world (Kharagpur – 1072.5 meters), but the PF-3 side length is about 900m while the PF-4 side length is about 880m. In a single stretch the total length is 1180ms. The metre gauge track from Kollam to Punalur was converted to broad gauge under project Unigauge and was inaugurated by the Hon. Minister for State for Railways, E. Ahmed, on 12 May 2010. The Thiruvananthapuram – Ernakulam (via Kottayam and Alappuzha) line passes through Kollam. Kollam has completely electrified railway tracks. Two railway lines passing through Kottarakkara (Chengannur -Kottarakkara – Thiruvananthapuram) and Punalur (Erumeli – Punalur – Thiruvananthapuram) have been proposed and are awaiting survey.
Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit (MEMU) services have started from Kollam to Ernakulam via: Alappuzha and Kottayam from the 2nd week of January 2012. A MEMU maintenance shed along with an upcoming Service building will change the face of Kollam Junction Railway Station.
There is a long standing demand for the "Kollam Town Railway Station" in the Kollam-Perinad stretch and "S.N College Railway Station" in the Kollam-Iravipuram stretch.
The city is connected to other parts of Kerala and India through the National Highways – NH 66 (Earlier NH 47), NH 183 (Earlier NH 220), NH 744 (Earlier NH 208) and other state PWD Roads and also by the Indian Railway Network. Road transport is provided by State owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) and private transport bus operators. Road transport is also supported by private taxis and autorickshaws, also called autos.
The State Water Transport Department operates boat services to West Kallada, Munroe Island and Alappuzha. Double decker luxury boats run between Kollam and Allepey daily. Luxury boats, operated by Government and private owners, operate from the main boat jetty during the tourist season. The West coast canal system, which starts from Thiruvananthapuram in the south and ends at Hosdurg in the north, passes through Paravur, the city of Kollam and Karunagappally taluk. The Thiruvananthapuram-Shornur canal, which forms a part of the Thiruvananthapuram-Hosdurg system, runs a distance of about 62 km. The other canal systems include the Paravur Kayal, Kollam canal and Chavara canal.
The Kollam Port (Thankasseri Port) is the second largest port in Kerala after Cochin Port Trust, as of 2010. The port is undergoing infrastructural development. The port is located near the city of Kollam. Neendakara and Shakthikulangara are twin fishing harbours in Kollam. Neendakara is one of the busiest fishing harbours in South Kerala. Some port operations are carried out through Neendakara as well.
Kollam, like other districts in the state, is moderately industrialised. Some of the major employers in the public sector are Indian Rare Earths Limited (IRE) at Chavara, Kerala Metals and Minerals Limited at Chavara, Kerala Primo pipe factory at Chavara (closed 3 decades ago); United Electrical Industries (popularly known as the Meter Company) and Parvathi Spinning at Kollam.
Cashew industry and board
Cashew processing and coir production are the two most important sources of employment in the private sector. Cashew processing and sorting employs a large share of women workers who manually shell, peel and sort cashews into different categories by size.The Headquarters of Cashew Export Promotion Council of India(CEPCI) is at Mundakkal, Kollam. The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Limited (KSCDC), Kollam, a Government Company, has 30 cashew factories and employs 20,000 people amongst which 95% is women from poverty sector. It is expected that a Cashew Board will be set up at Kollam by the Government of India for the development of Cashew field.
Kollam Pooram, part of the Ashramam Sree Krishnaswamy Temple Festival, is usually held on 15 April, and occasionally on 16 April. The pooram is held at the Ashramam maidan.
Paravur Puttingal Meenabharani Maholsavam is a Temple Festival usually held on the 2nd day of the 2nd month(Meenam) of Malayalam Calendar(March-April). This temple is very famous for the fireworks competition (Malsara Kambam) which is usually held on the final day of festival.
Edakkidom Shivarathri Edakkidom Thettikkunil Sree Mahadevi Temple Festival, is one of the biggest cultural celebrations in Kollam.
Irupathiettam onam is a Temple Festival celebrated on the 28th day of Onam.
President's Trophy Boat Race (PTBR) The PTBR is annual regatta held in Ashtamudi Lake in Kollam. The event was inaugurated by the then President Prathibha Patil in September 2011. The event has been rescheduled from 2012. The second edition will be held on 1 November every year.
Places of worship
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There are a number of temples, ashrams and holy sites in the city, including Sree Subramanya Swami Kshethram Poojappura, in Keralapuram near Kundara.
Other temples in the city include Puthiyakkavu Devi Temple, Thamarakulam Mahaganapathy temple, Kottarakulam Mahaganapathy temple, Mulamkadakom Devi temple, Rameswaram temple, Mahavishnu temple at Thirumullavaram, Ammachiveedu temple,Varattuchra Devi Temple keralapuram, Ashtamudi Veerabhadraswami temple, Pattathanam Ammannada temple, Dharmasastha temple at Kadappakkada, Peroor sree meenakshi temple at Punthalathazham,Mangalathu temple at Punthalathazham, Puttingal temple at Paravur, Edavanadu Bhagavathi Temple, Thrikkadavoor Mahadeva Temple, Kolloorvila Bharanikkavu Devi temple is located in Madannada, Pallimon Mahadeva Kshetram (temple), Pattazhy Devi Kshetram(temple), Unnikkicham Veedu Sree Krishna Swamy Temple,Ananthavalleeswaram Temple, Sree Dharma Shastha Temple at Nedumoncavu, Sree Veera Bhadraswamy Temple at Nedumoncavu, and Edakkidom Thettikkunil Sree Mahadevi Temple.
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There are a number of mosques in Kollam, including Kottukadu juma masjid chavara, Ochira juma masjid, Shaik masjid karunagapally Valiyapalli at Jonakappuram, Chinnakada juma Masjid, Juma-'Ath Palli at Kollurvila, Juma-'Ath Palli at Thattamala, Muslim Juma-'Ath Palli at Karuva, Kalamala Palli at Kalamala, Muthirapparambu Palli at Muthirapparambu and Siyavathummodu Palli at Kilikolloor
The 300-year-old Juma-'Ath Palli at Karuva houses the mortal remains of a Sufi saint-Syed Abdur Rahman Jifri in its premises.
The Karbala Maidan and the adjacent Makani mosque serves as the Eid gah for the city's. Muthirapparambu Palli is the most important masjid in Kollam District. This masjid is situated in Vellaitambalam. The Maqbara of Muthirapparambu Uppa is famous in this masjid. Many people, Muslims and non-Muslims, are visiting this maqbara. Other important places are Asthamudi, Thirumullavaram, Mamootilkadavu and Thoppilkadavu, which are located near this masjid.
- Jayan, film actor and naval officer
- Suresh Gopi, film actor
- Mukesh, Malayalam film actor
- Gopakumar R P, contemporary artist and collector
- K. C. Kesava Pillai, Malayalam poet
- Paravur Devarajan, Malayalam music director
- MMNSS College Kottiyam
- Fatima Mata National College
- Kollam District
- Educational institutions in Kollam district
- Census March 1, 2001 (via archive.org)
- Mandeville, John. The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. Accessed 24 September 2011.
- Kohanski, Tamarah & Benson, C. David (Eds.) The Book of John Mandeville. Medieval Institute Publications (Kalamazoo), 2007. Op. cit. "Indexed Glossary of Proper Names". Accessed 24 September 2011.
- ending with the Royal sanction of Tarissapalli copper plates to Assyrian Monks by Vaishnaite chera King Rajashekara Varma in the backdrop of a shivite Revival led by Adi Shankara among the Nampoothiri communities Kerala government website
- et al], Robert Tignor [et (2010). Worlds together, worlds apart : a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present (3rd ed. ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 365. ISBN 9780393934922.
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- Roger Pearse. "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography (1897) pp. 358–373. Book 11". Ccel.org. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
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- Travancore Manual, page 244
- "Kollam District". www.kollam.nic.in. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Official Website of". Kollam Corporation. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
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- "Kerala / Thiruvananthapuram News : MEMU services figure in timetable". The Hindu. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ":: Cashew Export Promotion Coucil of India ::".
- ":: The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Ltd ::". Cashewcorporation.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Pib.nic.in. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "presidents trophy boat race". Presidentstrophy.gov.in. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "私がよく見てるバストアップのサイトは・・・". Mangalathutemple.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Puttingal Devi Temple | South Paravur | Kollam | Kerala". Puttingaltemple.org. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
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