Quinoline Yellow WS

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Quinoline Yellow WS[1]
Quinoline Yellow WS.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 8004-92-0 YesY,  [80583-08-0]
PubChem 24671
ChemSpider 23070 YesY
UNII 35SW5USQ3G YesY
EC number 305-897-5
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C18H13NO5/8/11S1/2/3Na1/2/3
Molar mass 477.38 g/mol
Appearance Greenish yellow powder
Melting point 150 °C (decomp.)
Solubility in water 4 g/100 mL
Acidity (pKa) 1.8
Hazards
R-phrases R22
S-phrases S24/25, S28, S37, S45
Main hazards Harmful (Xn)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Quinoline yellow, Quinoline Yellow WS, C.I. 47005, or Food Yellow 13, is a yellow food dye with a maximum absorption wavelength of 416 nm.[2]p. 119 Chemically it is a mixture of disulfonates (principally), monosulfonates and trisulfonates of 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione.

The color Quinoline Yellow SS (Spirit Soluble), which lacks the sulfonate groups, is a related form that is insoluble in water.

Uses[edit]

Quinoline Yellow is used as a greenish yellow food additive, designated in Europe as the E number E104.[3]

Health effects[edit]

A study commissioned by the UK's Food Standards Agency found that a mixture of food colors in combination with preservatives may increase observed symptoms of hyperactivity and may decrease levels of intelligence in children,[4][5] but it is unclear which component of the mixture may be responsible for the effects.[6] Quinoline yellow is one of the colors that the Hyperactive Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.

UK ministers have agreed that six colorings will be phased out by 2009.[7]

The EFSA decided on 23 September 2009 to tighten the allowed Acceptable Daily Intake for Quinoline Yellow WS from 10 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight per day. It has been reported to cause genotoxicity,[8] dermatitis,[9] urticaria and rhinitis.[citation needed] The color additive can also increase the intake of aluminium beyond the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 1 mg/kg/week. Therefore the limit for aluminium may become adjusted to accommodate for this. Also the EFSA panel noted that the JECFA limit for lead is ≤ 2 mg/kg whereas the European Commission limit is ≤ 10 mg/kg.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Entry at chemicalland21.com
  2. ^ Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1991). Guide to specifications for general notices: general analytical techniques, identification tests, test solutions, and other reference materials (Rev. 2 [= ed. 1991] ed.). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251029916. 
  3. ^ "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers", Food Standards Agency website, retrieved 15 Dec 2011
  4. ^ Myomancy, 7 September 2007
  5. ^ Artificial colourings as harmful as leaded petrol for children, Graham Tibbetts, Telegraph, 7 April 2008
  6. ^ Do food dyes affect kids' behavior?, Melinda Fulmer, Los Angeles Times, October 13, 2008.
  7. ^ BBC bbc.co.uk - Ministers agree food colour ban 12 November 2008
  8. ^ PubMed.gov - The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two commonly used food colors: Quinoline Yellow (E 104) and Brilliant Black BN (E 151) 2004
  9. ^ ChemicalLand - QUINOLINE YELLOW
  10. ^ "EFSA ::. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Quinoline Yellow (E 104) as a food additive".  091113 efsa.europa.eu

External links[edit]