Quorn is the leading brand of faux meat mycoprotein in the United Kingdom. The mycoprotein used to produce Quorn is extracted from the fungus Fusarium venenatum. The product was developed by Rank Hovis McDougall and Imperial Chemical Industries, and launched commercially as the Quorn brand as a joint venture of the two companies under the operating name of Marlow Foods. The brand has been owned by Exponent Private Equity and Intermediate Capital Group since 2011.
Quorn is produced as both a cooking ingredient and a range of ready meals. It is sold (largely in Europe, but also in other parts of the world) as a health food and an alternative to meat; after changing production methods to ensure that only free-range eggs were used, the Vegetarian Society gave the product a seal of approval.
When Quorn was introduced into the United States in 2002, the Center for Science in the Public Interest expressed multiple concerns over the product. Much of the concern from CSPI and others was over the original labeling of Quorn as a "mushroom based" product.
Microbial biomass is produced commercially as single cell protein (SCP) for human food or animal feed and as viable yeast cells for the baking industry. The industrial production of bakers’ yeast started in the early 1900s and yeast biomass was used as human food in Germany during WWI. The development of large-scale processes for the production of microbial biomass as a source of commercial protein began in earnest in the late 1960s. Several of the processes investigated did not come to fruition owing to political and economic problems but the establishment of the ICI Pruteen process for the production of bacterial SCP for animal feed was a milestone in the development of the fermentation industry. This process utilized continuous culture on an enormous scale (1500 m3) and is an example of the application of good engineering to the design of a microbiological process. The economics of the production of SCP as animal feed were marginal, which eventually led to the discontinuation of the Pruteen process. The technical expertise gained from the Pruteen process assisted ICI in collaborating with Rank Hovis McDougall on a process for the production of fungal biomass for human food. A continuous fermentation process for the production of Fusarium venenatum biomass (marketed as Quorn@) was developed utilizing a 40 m3 air-lift fermenter. This process was based on sound economics and has proved to be a major economic success.
During the 1960s, it was predicted that by the 1980s there would be a shortage of protein-rich foods. In response to this, research programmes were undertaken to use single-cell biomass as an animal feed. Contrary to the trend, J. Arthur Rank instructed the Rank Hovis McDougall (RHM) Research Centre to investigate converting starch (the waste product of cereal manufacturing undertaken by RHM) into a protein-rich food for human consumption.
The filamentous fungus, or more precisely the mould, Fusarium venenatum, was discovered in 1967. After an extensive screening process, it was isolated as the best candidate. In 1985, RHM was given permission to sell mycoprotein for human consumption after a ten-year evaluation programme.
Retail history 
Quorn as a retail product was first produced in 1985 by Marlow Foods – named after Rank Hovis McDougall's headquarters in Marlow, Buckinghamshire – a joint venture between RHM and Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), who provided a fermenter left vacant from their abandoned single-cell feed programme. The product was named after the Leicestershire village of Quorn. The two partners invested patents for growing and processing the fungus and other intellectual properties in the brand. Although the food sold well in the initial test market of the RHM staff canteen, the large supermarket chains were unconvinced until Lord Sainsbury, finance director of the UK's Sainsbury's supermarket chain, agreed to stock the brand.
Quorn entered distribution in the UK in 1994, and was introduced to other parts of Europe in the 1990s, and to the US in 2002. The initial advertising campaign for Quorn featured sports personalities, including footballer Ryan Giggs, rugby player Will Carling, and runner Sally Gunnell.
Quorn brand mycoprotein is sold in ready-to-cook forms, such as cubes and a form resembling minced meat; and later introduced a range of chilled vegetarian meals, including pizzas, lasagna, cottage pie, and products resembling sliced meat, hot dogs, and burgers. As of 2006[update], it is available in stores in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, the US, Switzerland and Ireland. Since June 2010, it has been available in Australia. In May 2012 Quorn Foods opened the German website quorn.de to launch Quorn in Germany. By 2005 Quorn enjoyed around 60% of the meat-replacement food market in the UK, with annual sales of around £95 million.
In 2004, McDonald's introduced a Quorn-branded burger bearing the seal of approval of the Vegetarian Society, an endorsement criticised by the Vegan Society. As of 2009, the quorn burgers were no longer available at any McDonalds restaurant in the UK. In 2011 Quorn Foods launched a 'vegan burger' into the USA market - the binder being potato protein, replacing egg albumen, to confer vegan status. According to Quorn's website, by 2013 a number of gourmet Quorn items were available in U.S. markets, most of which are vegetarian but not vegan, contain milk or cheese and egg white or albumin. In addition, some contain wheat, gluten and/or soy. Mycoprotein is defined simply as a "natural protein."
Ownership history 
When ICI spun off its biological products divisions from the core chemical business in 1993, Marlow Foods became part of the Astra Zeneca group, one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. In 2003, Astra Zeneca sold Marlow, the Quorn business, and associated trademarks and patents, to a private equity firm for £70 million. Two years later, food giant Premier Foods bought Marlow for £172 million.
Quorn is made from the soil mould Fusarium venenatum strain PTA-2684 (previously misidentified as the parasitic mould Fusarium graminearum). The fungus is grown in continually oxygenated water in large, otherwise sterile fermentation tanks. Glucose is added as a food for the fungus, as are vitamins and minerals to improve the food value of the product. The resulting mycoprotein is then extracted and heat-treated to remove excess levels of RNA. Previous attempts to produce such fermented protein foodstuffs were thwarted by excessive levels of DNA or RNA; without the heat treatment, purine, found in nucleic acids, is metabolised by humans, producing uric acid, which can lead to gout. However two recent studies have found dietary factors once believed to be associated to gout are in fact not, including the intake of purine-rich vegetables and total protein. The Mayo Clinic, meanwhile, advises gout sufferers to avoid some foods that are high in purines.
The product is dried and mixed with egg albumen, which acts as a binder. It is then textured, giving it some of the grained character of meat, and pressed either into a mince resembling ground beef; forms resembling chicken breasts, meatballs, and turkey roasts; or chunks resembling diced chicken breast. In these forms, Quorn has a varying colour and a mild flavour resembling the imitated meat product, and is suitable for use as a replacement for meat in many dishes, such as stews and casseroles. The final Quorn product is high in protein and dietary fibre and is low in saturated fat and salt. It contains less dietary iron than do most meats.
Quorn's 2002 debut in the US was more problematic than its European introduction. The sale of Quorn was contested by The American Mushroom Institute, rival Gardenburger, and the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). They filed complaints with advertising and trading-standards watchdogs in Europe and the US, claiming the labelling of Quorn as "mushroom based" was deceptive. The CSPI observed that while a mushroom is a fungus, Fusarium is not a mushroom, and stated, "Quorn's fungus is as closely related to mushrooms as humans are to jellyfish."
CSPI also claimed that Quorn could cause allergic reactions and should be removed from stores. Calling the product "fungus food", CSPI claimed in 2003 that it "sickens 4.5% of eaters". The manufacturer (Marlow Foods) disputes the figure, claiming that only 0.0007% (1 in 146,000) suffer adverse reactions and that the strain of fungus it uses does not produce toxins. The CSPI's claims were also described by Leslie Bonci, professor of nutrition at the University of Pittsburgh, as "overblown". Steven Milloy, writing for the American Fox News channel, said "CSPI appears to have an unsavory relationship with Quorn competitor, Gardenburger" and called the CSPI's complaints "unscrupulous shrieking". Gardenburger in turn denied this, saying Milloy's "unsavory relationship" claim was "untrue and groundless". Wendy Preiser, Gardenburger's vice president of marketing, supported the Gardenburger position on the grounds that the company was afraid that Quorn's labels would cause people to be suspicious about all meat-free products.
The UK's Advertising Standards Authority also had concerns over Marlow's practice of marketing Quorn as "mushroom in origin", saying it had been "misleading consumers". The ASA noted "despite the advertiser’s explanation that they used the term because customers were unfamiliar with the main ingredient, mycoprotein, the ASA considered that the claim implied that Quorn was made from mushroom. Marlow Foods were asked either to delete the claim or give in the same font size a statement of the mycoprotein origin of the product or the fungal origin of the product."
Quorn's acceptance in the vegetarian market was hampered by the use of battery eggs in its production process, a practice opposed on ethical grounds by many. For this reason, the Vegetarian Society initially did not approve these products. Working with the Vegetarian Society, Marlow began phasing out battery eggs in 2000, and by 2004 all Quorn products sold in the UK were produced without battery eggs, earning the Vegetarian Society's seal of approval.
An asthma attack in 2003 was linked to Quorn, which the patient had eaten an hour earlier. Scientists' tests showed Quorn to be the only food to which the patient had an allergic reaction. A spokesperson for the Food Standards Agency stated that an allergy was not surprising because of the high protein content. Former FSA director Jon Bell responded in defence of Quorn stating that several commonly consumed foods and food ingredients have a much higher intolerance level than Quorn, such as soya.
Mycoprotein patent 
In the European Union, all patents expire after 25 years. The retail product was produced in 1985, so the mycoprotein patent expired in 2010 in all EU countries. Now anyone can produce mycoprotein products, but using other brands, because Marlow Foods maintains the Quorn brand. On 14 March 2011, CEO Kevin Brennan said in an interview: “Some patents surrounding the core technology have expired, but the product uses a peculiar fermentation method, and we have 30-plus years experience in perfecting this on site to produce the product better and at a lower cost. Huge related costs include £30m cost for a fermentation tower and related equipment, so you can’t simply look at a patent and say ‘there you go’.” Cangzhou East Feed Additive has launched mycoprotein foods for pigs.
Vegan range 
In late 2011, Quorn released their first vegan product, called the Quorn Vegan Burger, available initially only in the US. Following strong sales of the product and increasing demand from the UK market, Quorn Foods UK Marketing Director Chris Wragg announced that they are now developing & testing a line of vegan products for the UK market. Quorn are also actively reducing its use of eggs overall, using 3.5 million fewer eggs since 2010.
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