International variation in quotation marks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Quotation mark, non-English usage)
Jump to: navigation, search
„ “
German quotation marks
” ” « » 「 」
Citation marks Guillemets CJK brackets
Punctuation
apostrophe   '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash   –  —  ―
ellipsis   ...  . . .
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
hyphen
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /  
Word dividers
interpunct ·
space     
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
bullet
caret ^
dagger † ‡
degree °
ditto mark
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
number sign, pound, hash, octothorpe #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
plus and minus + −
basis point
pilcrow
prime     
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
trademark
Uncommon typography
asterism
hedera
index, fist
interrobang
irony punctuation
lozenge
reference mark
tie
Related
In other scripts

Quotation marks, also called quotes, speech marks and inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character.[1]

They have a variety of forms in different languages and in different media, as can be seen in the table below. English usage is included for the purposes of comparison; for more detailed information on quotation marks in English, see the article Quotation mark.

Overview[edit]

For particular quote glyph information, see Quotation mark glyphs.
Language Standard Alternative Spacing Names, notes & references
Primary Secondary Primary Secondary
Afrikaans “…” ‘…’ „…” ‚…’ [a] Aanhalingstekens
Albanian „…“ ‘…’ Thonjëza
Arabic ”…“ ‏ or

«…»

"…" optional علامات تنصيص (ʻalāmāt tanṣīṣ, quotation marks)

The direction of text is right-to-left.

Armenian «...» չակերտներ (chakertner, quotation marks)
Azerbaijani «…» ‹…› “…” or

"…"

‘…’ or

'…'

0–1 pt Dırnaq işarəsi (fingernail mark)
Basque «…» ‹…› “…” ‘…’ Komatxoak
Belarusian «…» “…” [2] Двукоссе (double commas)
Лапкі (little paws)
Bulgarian „…“ ’…’ or

‘…’[b]

[3][c] «…»[b] ’…’ or

‘…’[b]

[3][c] Кавички

„…“ is often incorrectly replaced by "…" or “…”

’…’ and ‘…’ are sometimes incorrectly written as ‘…’ or ‛…’

Catalan «…» “…” [c][d] “…” ‘…’ [c] none «…» Cometes franceses (French quotation marks)
“…” Cometes angleses (English quotation marks)
‘…’ Cometes simples (Simple quotation marks)
Chinese, simplified “…” ‘…’ [4]



[4][e] Fullwidth form “…” 双引号 (pinyin: shuāngyǐnhào, double quotation mark)
‘…’ 单引号 (pinyin: dānyǐnhào, single quotation mark)
Chinese, traditional 「…」
(when writing from left to right) or



(when writing from top to bottom)
『…』 or


[5][6][f] [5] Fullwidth form 「」︰單引號 (Mandarin: dān yǐn hào, Jyutping: daan1 jan5 hou6, lit: "Single quotation mark")

『』︰雙引號 (Mandarin: shuāng yǐn hào, Jyutping: soeng1 jan5 hou6, lit: "Double quotation mark")

Note: No punctuation mark should be used when writing from right to left.

Croatian „…“ ‘…’ [7] »…« „…“ and »…« Navodnici
‘…’ Polunavodnici
»…« are used only in printed media
Czech „…“ ‚…‘ »…« ›…‹ Uvozovky (introduce)
Danish »…« „…“ or

“…”

[8] ›…‹ ‚…‘ [8] Citationstegn (citation marks)
Anførselstegn (quotes)
Gåseøjne (goose eyes)
Dutch ‘…’ “…” ‚…’ „…” Aanhalingstekens (citation marks)
English, UK ‘…’ “…” [9][g] “…” ‘…’ 1–2 pt Quotation marks, double quotes, quotes, inverted commas, speech marks

ITU-T: Diereses, quotation marks

English, US; English, Canada “…” ‘…’ [g]
Esperanto “…” ‘…’ [h] Citiloj
Estonian „…“ «…» Jutumärgid (speech marks)
Filipino “…” ‘…’ [10][g] [10] Panipi
Finnish ”…” ’…’ [11] »…» ’…’ [11] Lainausmerkit (citation marks)
French « … » « … » or

“…”[i]

[b][c] “ … ” ‘ … ’ [c] ¼ em Guillemets
French, Swiss[j] «…» ‹…›
Georgian „…“ “…” none ბრჭყალები (brč’q’alebi, claws)
German „…“ ‚…‘ »…« ›…‹ Anführungszeichen (quotation marks)
Gänsefüßchen (little goose feet)
Hochkommas, Hochkommata (high commas)
German, Swiss[j] «…» ‹…›
Greek «…» “…” [12][13] Εισαγωγικά (introductory marks).
Hebrew "…" '…' [14] „…” ‚…’ [14] מֵירְכָאוֹת (merkha'ot)

The direction of text is right-to-left, so low quotation marks are opening. Not to be confused with גֵּרְשַׁיִם gershayim.

Hungarian „…” »…« [c] "…" Macskaköröm (cat claws – incorrectly used)
„…” Idézőjel (quotation mark)
»…« Belső idézőjel, lúdláb (inner quotation mark, goose feet)
’…’ Félidézőjel (half quotation mark, tertiary quotation mark)
The three levels of Hungarian quotation: „…»…’…’…«…” [15]
Icelandic „…“ ‚…‘ Gæsalappir (goose feet)
Indonesian “…” ‘…’ Tanda kutip, tanda petik
Interlingua “…” ‘…’ [h] Virgulettas
Irish “…” ‘…’ 1–2 pt Liamóg (William)
Italian «…» “…” [c] “…” ‘…’ [c] 1–2 pt Virgolette
Italian, Swiss[j] «…» ‹…›
Japanese 「…」 or


『…』 or


[f] 「」: 鉤括弧 (kagi kakko, hook bracket)
『』: 二重鉤括弧 (nijū kagi kakko, double hook bracket)
Korean “…” ‘…’ 『…』 「…」 “”, ‘’: 따옴표 (ttaompyo, quotation mark)
「」: 낫표 (natpyo, scythe symbol)
『』: 겹낫표 (gyeomnatpyo, double scythe symbol)
Latvian «…» „…“ Pēdiņas
Lithuanian „…“ Kabutės
Lojban lu … li'u [g] "…" Lojban uses the words "lu … li'u" instead. Double quotes (unnamed in Lojban, but "lubu" suggested, following same pattern as alphabet) can also be used for aesthetic purposes.
Macedonian „…“ ’…‘ [16] [16] „…“ Наводници (double quote)
’…‘ Полунаводници (single quote)
Norwegian «…» ’…’ „…” ’…’ or ,…’ [k] Anførselstegn (quotation marks)
Gåseauge, gåseøyne (goose eyes)
Hermeteikn, hermetegn
Sittatteikn, sitattegn
Dobbeltfnutt
Persian «...» گیومه
Polish „…” «…» or

»…«

[b] «…» or

»…«

[l] Cudzysłów (someone else's word).
Portuguese, Brazil “…” ‘…’ [c] Aspas duplas, aspas simples
Portuguese, Portugal «…» “…” [17][c] “…” ‘…’ [17] Aspas, vírgulas dobradas
Romanian „…” «…» [18][c] «…» „…” [18][c] none Ghilimele (quotes)
Russian «…» „…“ [c] „…” none Кавычки (kavychki)
«…» Ёлочки (yolochki, little fir trees)
„…“ Лапки (lapki, little paws)
Serbian „…” ’…’ „…“ or

»…«

[m] Наводници, знаци навода, navodnici, znaci navoda
Slovak „…“ ‚…‘ »…« ›…‹ Úvodzovky (introduce)
Slovene „…“ ‚…‘ »…« ›…‹
Sorbian „…“ ‚…‘
Spanish «…» “…” [c] “…” ‘…’ [c][d] none «…» Comillas latinas, comillas angulares
“…” Comillas inglesas dobles
‘…’ Comillas inglesas simples
Swedish ”…” ’…’ [19] »…» or

»…«

’…’ [19] Citationstecken, anföringstecken
Citattecken (modernised term)
Dubbelfnutt (ASCII double quote)
Thai “…” ‘…’ อัญประกาศ (anyaprakat)
Turkish “…” ‘…’ «…» ‹…› 0–1 pt Tırnak işareti (fingernail mark)
Ukrainian «…» „…“ „…“ ‚…‘ none Лапки (lapky, little paws)
Vietnamese “…” [20] Dấu ngoặc kép (paired parentheses)
Dấu nháy kép (paired blinking marks)
Welsh ‘…’ “…” “…” ‘…’ 1–2 pt Dyfynodau

Specific language features[edit]

Dutch[edit]

The standard form in the preceding table is taught in schools and used in handwriting. Several large newspapers have kept these „low-high” quotation marks, but otherwise the alternative form with single or double “English-style” quotes is now almost the only form seen in printed matter. Neutral quotation marks (" and ') are used widely, especially in texts typed on computers and on websites.[21]

Although not generally common in Dutch any more, double angle quotation marks are still sometimes used. Examples include Dutch government publications[citation needed], and the Metro newspaper in Brussels.[22]

German (Germany and Austria)[edit]

What the “left quote” is in English is used as the right quote in Germany and Austria, and a different “low 9 quote” is used for the left instead. Some fonts, e.g. Verdana, were designed not bearing in mind the automatic use of the English left quote as the German right quote and are therefore typographically incompatible with German.

Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
‚O‘ U+201A (8218), U+2018 (8216) ‚ ‘ German single quotes (left and right)
„O“ U+201E (8222), U+201C (8220) „ “ German double quotes (left and right)

Double quotes are standard for denoting speech in German.

Andreas fragte mich: „Hast du den Artikel ‚EU-Erweiterung‘ gelesen?“ (Andreas asked me: 'Have you read the "EU-Expansion" article?')

This style of quoting is also used in Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Georgian, Icelandic, Russian, Slovak, Slovene and in Ukrainian. In Bulgarian, Icelandic, Russian and Ukrainian single quotation marks are not used. The double-quote style was also used in the Netherlands, but is now out of fashion—it is still frequently found on older shop signs, however and is used by some newspapers.

Sometimes, especially in books, the angle quotation marks (see below) are used in Germany and Austria, albeit in reversed order: »O«. In Switzerland, however, the same quotation marks as in French are used: «O».

Double-angle quotation marks without spaces are the standard for German printed texts in Switzerland:

Andreas fragte mich: «Hast du den Artikel ‹EU-Erweiterung› gelesen?»
Andreas asked me: ‘Have you read the “EU Expansion” article?’

Angle quotation marks are also often used in German publications from Germany and Austria, especially in novels, but then exactly reversed and without spacing:

Andreas fragte mich: »Hast du den Artikel ›EU-Erweiterung‹ gelesen?«
Andreas asked me: ‘Have you read the “EU Expansion” article?’

Finnish and Swedish[edit]

In Finnish and Swedish, right quotes called citation marks, ”...”, are used to mark both the beginning and the end of a quote. Double right-pointing angular quotes, »…», can also be used.

Alternatively, an en-dash followed by a (non-breaking) space can be used to denote the beginning of quoted speech, in which case the end of the quotation is not specifically denoted (see section Quotation dash below). A line-break should not be allowed between the en-dash and the first word of the quotation.

Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
’O’ U+2019 (8217) ’ Secondary level quotation
”O” U+201D (8221) ” Primary level quotation
»O» U+00BB (187) » Alternative primary level quotation
– O U+2013 (8211) – Alternative denotation at the beginning of quoted speech

French[edit]

French language uses angle quotation marks (guillemets, or duck-foot quotes), adding a quarter-em space (officially) (U+2005 four-per-em space (HTML:  )) within the quotes. However, many people now use the non-breaking space, because the difference between a non-breaking space and a four-per-em is virtually imperceptible (but also because the Unicode quarter-em space is breakable), and the quarter-em is virtually always omitted in non-Unicode fonts. Even more commonly, people just put a normal (breaking) space between the quotation marks because the non-breaking space is often not easily accessible from the keyboard.

« Voulez-vous un sandwich, Henri ? »
“Would you like a sandwich, Henri?”

Sometimes, for instance on several French news sites such as Libération, Les Échos or Le Figaro, no space is used around the quotation marks. This parallels normal usage in other languages, e.g. Catalan, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, or in German, French and Italian as written in Switzerland:

«Dies ist ein Zitat.» [Swiss German]
«To jest cytat.»
«Это цитата».
“This is a quote.”
Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
« O » U+00AB (171), U+00BB (187) « » French double angle quotes (left and right), most usual (approximative) form used today on the web, with normal (half-em) non-breaking spaces.
« O » French double angle quotes (left and right), more exact form used by typographers, with narrow (quarter-em) non-breaking spaces.
«O» non-French double angle quotes (left and right) without space (not recommended)
‹ O › U+2039 (8249), U+203A (8250) ‹ › French single angle quotes (left and right), alternate form for embedded quotations, used on the web with normal non-breaking spaces.
‹ O › French single angle quotes (left and right), alternate form for embedded quotations, preferably used by typographers with narrow non-breaking spaces.

Initially, the French guillemet characters were not angle shaped but also used the comma (6/9) shape. They were different from English quotes because they were standing (like today's guillemets) on the baseline (like lowercase letters), and not above it (like apostrophes and English quotation marks) or hanging down from it (like commas). At the beginning of the 19th century, this shape evolved to look like (( small parentheses )). The angle shape appeared later to increase the distinction and avoid confusions with apostrophes, commas and parentheses in handwritten manuscripts submitted to publishers. Unicode currently does not provide alternate codes for these 6/9 guillemets on the baseline, which are still considered as form variants implemented in older French typography (such as the Didot font design). Also there was not necessarily any distinction of shape between the opening and closing guillemets, with both types pointing to the right (like today's French closing guillemets).

They must be used with non-breaking spaces (preferably narrow, if available, i.e. U+202F NNBSP which is missing in most computer fonts but that renderers should be able to render using the same glyph as the breaking "French" thin space U+2009, handling the non-breaking property internally in the text renderer / layout engine, because line-breaking properties are never defined in fonts themselves; such renderers should also be able to infer a half-width space from the glyph assigned to the normal half-em non-breaking space, if the thin space itself is not mapped).

Unlike English, French does not set off unquoted material within a quotation mark by using a second set of quotes. Compare:

« C’est une belle journée pour les Montréalais, soutient le ministre. Ces investissements stimuleront la croissance économique. »
“This is a great day for Montrealers”, the minister upholds. “These investments will stimulate economic growth.”

In many printed books, when quotations are spanning multiple lines of text (including multiple paragraphs), an additional closing quotation sign is traditionally used at the beginning of each line continuing a quotation ; any right-pointing guillemet at the beginning of a line does not close the current quotation; this convention has been consistently used since the beginning of the 19th century by most book printers (and is still in use today). Note that such insertion of continuation quotation marks will also occur if there's a word hyphenation break. There is still no support for automatic insertion of these continuation guillemets in HTML/CSS and in many word-processors, so these have to be inserted by manual typesetting:

« C’est une belle journée pour les Montréalais, soutient
» le ministre. Ces investissements stimuleront la crois-
» sance économique. »

For clarity, some newspapers put the quoted material in italics:

« C’est une belle journée pour les Montréalais, soutient le ministre. Ces investissements stimuleront la croissance économique. »

The French Imprimerie nationale (cf. Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l'Imprimerie nationale, presses de l'Imprimerie nationale, Paris, 2002), though, does not use different quotation marks for nesting:

« Son « explication » n’est qu’un mensonge », s’indigna le député.
“His ‘explanation’ is just a lie”, the deputy protested.

In this case, when there should be two adjacent opening or closing marks, only one is written:

Il répondit : « Ce n’est qu’un « gadget ! ».
He answered: “It's only a ‘gizmo’”.

The use of English quotation marks is increasing in French and usually follows English rules, for instance when the keyboard or the software context doesn't allow the utilisation of guillemets. The French news site L'Humanité uses straight quotation marks.

English quotes are also used sometimes for nested quotations:

« Son “explication” n’est qu’un mensonge », s’indigna le député.
“His ‘explanation’ is just a lie”, the deputy protested.

But the most frequent convention used in printed books for nested quotations is to style them in italics (single quotation marks are much more rarely used, and multiple levels of quotations using the same marks is often considered confusing for readers):

« Son explication n’est qu’un mensonge », s’indigna le député.
Il répondit : « Ce n’est qu’un gadget ! ».

Further, running speech does not use quotation marks beyond the first sentence, as changes in speaker are indicated by a dash, as opposed to the English use of closing and re-opening the quotation. (For other languages employing dashes, see section Quotation dash below.) The dashes may be used entirely without quotation marks as well. In general, quotation marks are extended to encompass as much speech as possible, including not just non-spoken text such as "he said" (as previously noted), but also as long as the conversion extends. The quotation marks end at the last spoken text however, not extending to the end of paragraphs when the final part is not spoken.

« Je ne vous parle pas, monsieur, dit-il.
— Mais je vous parle, moi ! » s’écria le jeune homme exaspéré de ce mélange d’insolence et de bonnes manières, de convenances et de dédains. (Dumas, Les trois mousquetaires)
“I am not speaking to you, sir”, he said.
“But I am speaking to you!” cried the young man, exasperated by this combination of insolence and good manners, of protocol and disdain.

Greek[edit]

Greek uses angled quotation marks (εισαγωγικάeisagogiká):

«Μιλάει σοβαρά;» ρώτησε την Μαρία.
«Ναι, σίγουρα», αποκρίθηκε.

and the quotation dash (παύλαpávla):

― Μιλάει σοβαρά; ρώτησε την Μαρία.
― Ναι, σίγουρα, αποκρίθηκε.

which translate to:

"Is he serious?" he asked Maria.
"Yes, certainly", she replied.
Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
«O» U+00AB (0171), U+00BB (0187) « » Greek first level double quotes (εισαγωγικά)
― O U+2015 (8213) ― Greek direct quotation em-dash

A closing quotation mark (») is added to the beginning of each new quoted paragraph. When quotations are nested in more levels than inner and outer, single quotation marks are used (i.e. «…“…‘…’…”…»).

Hungarian[edit]

Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
„O” U+201E (8222), U+201d (8221) „ ” Hungarian first level double quotes (left and right)
»O« U+00AB (0187), U+00BB (0171) » « Hungarian second level double quotes (left and right)
’O’ U+2019 (8217) ’ Hungarian unpaired quotes signifying "meaning"

According to current recommendation by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences the main Hungarian quotation marks are comma-shaped double quotation marks set on the base-line at the beginning of the quote and at apostrophe-height at the end of it for first level, inversed »French quotes« without space (the German tradition) for the second level, so the following nested quotation pattern emerges:

  • „Quote »inside« quote”

… and with third level:

  • „Quote »inside ’inside of inside’ inside« quote”

In Hungarian linguistic tradition the meaning of a word is signified by uniform (unpaired) apostrophe-shaped quotation marks:

  • die Biene ’méh’

A quotation dash is also used, and is predominant in belletristic literature.

  • – Merre jártál? – kérdezte a köpcös.

Polish[edit]

Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
‚O’ U+201A (8218), U+2019 (8217) ‚ ’ Polish single quotes (left and right)
„O” U+201E (8222), U+201d (8221) „ ” Polish double quotes (left and right)
― O U+2015 (8213) ― Polish direct quotation em-dash
– O U+2013 (8211) – Polish direct quotation en-dash

According to current PN-83/P-55366 standard from 1983 (but not dictionaries, see below), Typesetting rules for composing Polish text (Zasady składania tekstów w języku polskim) one can use either „ordinary Polish quotes” or «French quotes» (without space) for first level, and ‚single Polish quotes’ or «French quotes» for second level, which gives three styles of nested quotes:

  1. „Quote ‚inside’ quote”
  2. „Quote «inside» quote”
  3. «Quote ‚inside’ quote»

There is no space on the internal side of quote marks, with the exception of ¼ firet (~ ¼ em) space between two quotation marks when there are no other characters between them (e.g. ,„ and ”).

The above rules have not changed since at least the previous BN-76/7440-02 standard from 1976 and are probably much older.

These rules, however, conflict with the Polish punctuation standard as given by dictionaries, including the Wielki Słownik Ortograficzny PWN recommended by the Polish Language Council, which state:

Guillemet marks pointing inwards are used for highlights and in case a quotation occurs inside a quotation. Guillemet marks pointing outwards are used for definitions (mainly in scientific publications and dictionaries), as well as for enclosing spoken lines and indirect speech, especially in poetic texts.[23]

In Polish books and publications, this style (also known as »German quotes«) is used almost exclusively. In addition to being standard for second level quotes, guillemot quotes are sometimes used as first level quotes in headings and titles but almost never in ordinary text in paragraphs.

Another style of quoting is to use an em-dash to open a quote; this is used almost exclusively to quote dialogues, and is virtually the only convention used in works of fiction.

Mag skłonił się. Biały kot śpiący obok paleniska ocknął się nagle i spojrzał na niego badawczo.
— Jak się nazywa ta wieś, panie? — zapytał przybysz. Kowal wzruszył ramionami.
— Głupi Osioł.
— Głupi…?
— Osioł — powtórzył kowal takim tonem, jakby wyzywał gościa, żeby spróbował sobie z niego zażartować. Mag zamyślił się.
— Ta nazwa ma pewnie swoją historię — stwierdził w końcu. — W innych okolicznościach chętnie bym jej wysłuchał. Ale chciałbym porozmawiać z tobą, kowalu, o twoim synu.
The wizard bowed. A white cat that had been sleeping by the furnace woke up and watched him carefully.
“What is the name of this place, sir?” said the wizard.
The blacksmith shrugged.
“Bad Ass,” he said.
“Bad—?”
“Ass,” repeated the blacksmith, his tone defying anyone to make something of it.
The wizard considered this.
“A name with a story behind it,” he said at last, “which were circumstances otherwise I would be pleased to hear. But I would like to speak to you, smith, about your son.”
(Terry Pratchett, Equal Rites)

An en-dash is sometimes used in place of the em-dash, especially so in newspaper texts.

Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Latvian[edit]

In Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Latvian, angled quotation marks are used without spaces. In case of quoted material inside a quotation, rules[24] and most noted style manuals prescribe the use of different kinds of quotation marks. However, some of them[25] allow to use the same quotation marks for quoted material inside a quotation, and if inner and outer quotation marks fall together, then one of them should be omitted.

Right:

Пушкин писал Дельвигу: «Жду „Цыганов“ и тотчас тисну».
(Pushkin wrote to Delvig: “Waiting for ‘Gypsies’, and publish at once”.)

Permissible, when it is technically impossible to use different quotation marks:

«Цыганы» мои не продаются вовсе», — сетовал Пушкин.
(“My ‘Gypsies’ are not selling at all”, Pushkin complained.)

It is common to use quotation dashes for dialogue, as well as within quotations for the reporting clause. For more details, see the Russian Wikipedia article on this topic.

— Кто там?
— Это я, почтальон Печкин, — последовал ответ. — Принёс заметку про вашего мальчика.
"Who's there?"
"It's me, postman Pechkin," was the reply. "I've brought news about your boy."

Spanish[edit]

Spanish uses angled quotation marks (comillas latinas or angulares) as well, but always without the spaces.

«Esto es un ejemplo de cómo se suele hacer una cita literal en español».
“This is an example of how a literal quotation is usually written in Spanish.”

And, when quotations are nested in more levels than inner and outer quotation, the system is:[26]

«Antonio me dijo: “Vaya ‘cacharro’ que se ha comprado Julián”».

As in French, the use of English quotation marks is increasing in Spanish, and the El País style guide, which is widely followed in Spain, recommends them. Latin Americans often use them due to influence from the United States.

Chinese, Japanese and Korean quotation marks[edit]

Corner brackets are well-suited for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages which are written in both vertical and horizontal orientations. China, South Korea, and Japan all use corner brackets when writing vertically, however usages differ when writing horizontally:

  • In Japan, corner brackets are used.
  • In South Korea and Mainland China, English-style quotes are used.
  • In North Korea, angle quotes are used.
  • In Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, where Traditional Chinese is used, corner brackets are prevalent, although English-style quotes are also used.
  • In the Chinese language, double angle brackets are used around titles of books, documents, musical pieces, cinema films, TV programmes, newspapers, magazines, laws, etc. With some exceptions, this usage overlaps italics in English. When nested, single angle brackets are used inside double angle brackets.
    “你看过《三国演义》吗?”,他问我。
    "Have you read Romance of the Three Kingdoms?", he asks me.

White corner brackets are used to mark quote-within-quote segments.

Samples Unicode (decimal) Description Usage
「文字」 U+300C (12300), U+300D (12301) Corner brackets
Traditional Chinese: 單引號 (dān yǐn hào)
Simplified Chinese: 单引号
Japanese: 鉤括弧 (kagikakko)
Korean: 낫표 (natpyo)
Japanese,
Korean,
Traditional Chinese



U+FE41 (65089), U+FE42 (65090)[n] For vertical writing:
Japanese,
Korean,
Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese
『文字』 U+300E (12302), U+300F (12303) White corner brackets
Traditional Chinese: 雙引號 (shuāng yǐn hào)
Simplified Chinese: 双引号
Japanese: 二重鉤括弧 (nijū kagikakko)
Korean: 겹낫표 (gyeopnatpyo)
Japanese,
Korean (book titles),
Traditional Chinese



U+FE43 (65091), U+FE44 (65092)[n] For vertical writing:
Japanese,
Korean,
Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese
“한” U+201C (8220), U+201D (8221) Double quotes
Korean: 큰따옴표 (keunttaompyo),
Simplified Chinese: 双引号 (shuāng yǐn hào)
Korean (South Korea),
Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese (acceptable but less common, happened in Hong Kong mainly as a result of influence from mainland China)
‘한’ U+2018 (8216), U+2019 (8217) Single quotes
Korean: 작은따옴표 (jageunttaompyo),
Simplified Chinese: 单引号 (dān yǐn hào)
Korean (South Korea),
Simplified Chinese (for quote-within-quote segments)
《한》 U+00AB (171), U+00BB (187) Double angle quotes
Simplified Chinese: 书名号 (shū míng hào)
Traditional Chinese: 書名號
Korean (North Korea),
Chinese (used for titles of books, documents, musical pieces, cinema films, TV programmes, newspapers, magazines, laws, etc. )

Quotation dash[edit]

Another typographical style is to omit quotation marks for lines of dialogue, replacing them with an initial dash:

―Oh saints above! Miss Douce said, sighed above her jumping rose. I wished I hadn't laughed so much. I feel all wet
―Oh Miss Douce! Miss Kennedy protested. You horrid thing![27]

This style is particularly common in Bulgarian, Esperanto, French, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese.[20] James Joyce always insisted on this style, although his publishers did not always respect his preference. Alan Paton used this style in Cry, the Beloved Country (and no quotation marks at all in some of his later work). Charles Frazier used this style for his novel Cold Mountain as well. Details for individual languages are given above.

The dash is often combined with ordinary quotation marks. For example, in French, a guillemet may be used to initiate running speech, with each change in speaker indicated by a dash, and a closing guillemet to mark the end of the quotation.

Dashes are also used in many modern English novels, especially those written in non-standard dialects. Some examples include:

In Italian, Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Lithuanian and Hungarian the reporting clause in the middle of a quotation is separated with two additional dashes:

― Ай, ай, ай! ― вскрикнул Левин. ― Я ведь, кажется, уже лет девять не говел. Я и не подумал.
― Хорош! ― смеясь, сказал Степан Аркадевич, ― а меня же называешь нигилистом! Однако ведь это нельзя. Тебе надо говеть.
“Oh dear!” exclaimed Levin. “I think it is nine years since I went to communion! I haven’t thought about it.”
“You are a good one!” remarked Oblonsky, laughing. “And you call me a Nihilist! But it won’t do, you know; you must confess and receive the sacrament.”
from Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (Louise and Aylmer Maude translation)

In Finnish, on the other hand, a second dash is added when the quote continues after a reporting clause:[28]

— Et sinä ole paljon minkään näköinen, sanoi Korkala melkein surullisesti, — mutta ei auta.
“You don't seem to be anything special,” said Korkala almost sadly, “but there's no help to it.”
— Frakki, älähti Huikari. — Missä on frakki?
— Räätälissä, sanoi Joonas rauhallisesti.
“Tailcoat”, yelped Huikari. “Where is the tailcoat?”
“At the tailor's”, said Joonas calmly.

According to the Unicode standard, U+2015 horizontal bar should be used as a quotation dash. In general it is the same length as an em-dash, and so this is often used instead. The main difference between them is that at least some software will insert a line break after an em dash, but not after a quotation dash. Both are displayed in the following table.

Samples Unicode (decimal) HTML Description
― O U+2015 (8213) ― Quotation dash, also known as horizontal bar
— O U+2014 (8212) — Em-dash, an alternative to the quotation dash

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Traditional
  2. ^ a b c d e Rare
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Quotation dash preferred for dialogue
  4. ^ a b A closing quotation mark is added to the beginning of each new paragraph.
  5. ^ This is only used when text is written vertically.
  6. ^ a b These forms are rotated for use in horizontal text; they were originally written ﹁…﹂ and ﹃…﹄ in vertical text
  7. ^ a b c d Within a quotation, the opening quotation mark is repeated at the beginning of each new paragraph.
  8. ^ a b Usage may vary, depending on the native language of the author and publisher.
  9. ^ First version according to the French Imprimerie nationale. English quotes are more common, though.
  10. ^ a b c In Switzerland the same style is used for all languages.
  11. ^ Handwriting and older texts
  12. ^ May substitute for either the opening or closing mark
  13. ^ Obsolete as of 2010, in compliance with section 168 of the official Orthography of the Serbian Language
  14. ^ a b These codes for vertical-writing characters are for presentation forms in the Unicode CJK compatibility forms section. Typical documents use normative character codes which are shown for the horizontal writing in this table, and applications are usually responsible to render correct forms depending on the writing direction used.

References[edit]

This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.
  1. ^ http://www.daube.ch/docu/glossary/quotation_marks.html
  2. ^ Нацыянальны цэнтр прававой інфармацыі Рэспублікі Беларусь (2010). Правілы беларускай арфаграфіі і пунктуацыі (in Belarusian). Minsk: Нацыянальны цэнтр прававой інфармацыі Рэспублікі Беларусь. 
  3. ^ a b Institute for the Bulgarian Language (2002). Principles and Rules of Spelling Orthography and Punctuation in the Bulgarian Language (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. 
  4. ^ a b GB/T standard 15834:1995
  5. ^ a b 國語文教育叢書第三
  6. ^ 香港教育局 標點符號的用法
  7. ^ Hrvatski pravopis: inačica za javnu raspravu, Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje, 2013, 43–44.
  8. ^ a b "Retskrivningsregler: § 58. Anførselstegn" [Rules of orthography: § 58. Quotation marks]. dsn.dk (in Danish). Dansk Sprognævn. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  9. ^ "Punctuation in direct speech". Oxford Dictionaries: Language Matters. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Commission on the Filipino Language (2009). Gabay sa Ortograpiyang Filipino (in Filipino). Manila: Commission on the Filipino Language. ISBN 978-971-8705-97-1. 
  11. ^ a b Regulated by the standard SFS 4175:2006, “Typing of numbers, marks and signs”. Released by the National standards organization of Finland.
  12. ^ Δημήτρης Ν. Μαρωνίτης, «Το Εγκόλπιο της Ορθής Γραφής» (1998)
  13. ^ Source: Διοργανικό εγχειρίδιο σύνταξης κειμένων
  14. ^ a b Punctuation rules, §28, The Academy of the Hebrew Language.
  15. ^ Hungarian Wikipedia article about quotation marks
  16. ^ a b pp. 141-143, Правопис на македонскиот литературен јазик, Б. Видеоски etal., Просветно Дело-Скопје (2007)
  17. ^ a b Bergström, Magnus, & Neves Reis 2004. Prontuário Ortográfico e Guia da Língua Portuguesa. Editorial Notícias, Lisboa.
  18. ^ a b Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică „Iorgu Iordan”, Îndreptar ortografic, ortoepic şi de punctuaţie, ediţia a V-a, Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti, 1995
  19. ^ a b [1] Språknämnden, questions and answers (in Swedish)
  20. ^ a b Trung tâm Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn Quốc gia, ed. (2002). "Các dấu câu trong tiếng Việt" [Punctuation marks in Vietnamese]. Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt [Vietnamese grammar] (in Vietnamese). Social Sciences Publishing House. pp. 287–292. 
  21. ^ Dutch Consortium Our Language, page on quotes Aanhalingstekens hoog of laag
  22. ^ http://www.metroclub.be/nl/metrotime/
  23. ^ "Zasady pisowni i interpunkcji". Wielki Słownik Ortograficzny (online edition). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  24. ^ Лев Чешко, ed. (1956), "§200", Правила русской орфографии и пунктуации, Москва: Государственное учебно-педагогическое издательство Министерства Просвещения РСФСР 
  25. ^ Мильчин, А.Э.; Чельцова, Л.К. (2003), Справочник издателя и автора. Редакционно-издательское оформление издания. (2-е изд., испр. и доп. ed.), Москва: Олма-Пресс, ISBN 5-224-04565-7 
  26. ^ This system follows the rules laid down in section 5.10 of the orthography guide Ortografía de la lengua española published by the Real Academia Española (RAE).
  27. ^ Joyce, James (1922). Ulysses. London: The Bodley Head. p. 335 lines 7–11. 
  28. ^ Itkonen, Terho (1997). Kieliopas. Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä. p. 22. ISBN 951-26-4299-9. 

External links[edit]