Quran and miracles
Muslims consider the Quran, the holy book of Islam, as the word of God and a miracle. According to Islamic tradition, the Quran was revealed miraculously to Muhammad by Allah (God) through angel, Jibrīl (Gabriel), as a perfect, verbatim copy of what was written in heaven and that had existed there for all of eternity.
The Quran describes Muhammad as "ummi", which is traditionally interpreted as "illiterate," but the meaning is rather more complex. The medieval commentators such as Al-Tabari maintained that the term induced two meanings: first, the inability to read or write in general; second, the inexperience or ignorance of the previous books or scriptures (but they gave priority to the first meaning). Besides, Muhammad's illiteracy was taken as a sign of the genuineness of his prophethood. For example, according to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, if Muhammad had mastered writing and reading he possibly would have been suspected of having studied the books of the ancestors. Some scholars such as Watt prefer the second meaning. The suggestion is that since Muhammad had no previous knowledge of the content in the Quran, it was in fact composed of miracles. Some Muslims believe that the Quran is "a miracle of eloquence", rather than a source of scientific revelation, and consider scientific miracles as illusions from devils. However, the majority of modern Muslim thinkers accept the miracles found in the Quran and their compatibility with science. But, there still exists disagreement regarding the alleged miracles of the saints.
The definition of a miracle is "a marvellous event not ascribable to human power or the operation of any natural force and therefore attributed to supernatural, esp. divine, agency; esp. an act (e.g. of healing) showing control over nature and used as evidence that the agent is either divine or divinely favoured."
The commonly claimed miracles of the Quran can be classified into three categories: inimitability, scientific miracles, and prophecies.
Miracles that may relate to Muhammad
Several verses that appear in the Qur'an would suggest that certain miracles occurred just in relation to Muhammad: the splitting of the moon (Qur'an 54:2-1), assistance given to Muslims at the Battle of Badr (Qur'an 3:120F), and the night journey (Qur'an 17:1).
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The belief that Qur'an had prophesied scientific theories and discoveries has become widely popular in the contemporary Islamic world. These prophecies are often provided as a proof of the divine origin of the Qur'an. There are many examples of scientific facts mentioned in the Qur'an that were unsupported by the scientific knowledge and beliefs of the time, but have since proved accurate due to modern technology. Some examples are listed below.
The expansion of the universe The size of the universe has long been in question, but it was not until 1929 when Edwin Hubble, an astronomer at the California Institute of Technology, proposed that the universe was expanding. But the text of the Qur'an acknowledges this idea in the following verse: “And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it” (Qur'an 51:47).
Orbits German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is attributed with correctly identifying planetary motion. His laws of planetary motion concluded that planets move in almost-circular shaped orbits called ellipses. He published these laws in 1609 and 1619. However, the Qur'an mentions orbits in the following verses: "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit. " (Qur'an, 21:33). "By the sky full of paths and orbits" (Qur'an 51:7).
The Sky The sky serves very important functions for life on Earth. The greenhouse effect idea was popularized in the 1800s. It claims that energy radiated by the sun reaches Earth in the form of heat. Some of the heat is trapped due to gases in the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane. The atmosphere keeps the Earth at a temperature that sustains life. Without this protection, the Earth would be exposed to the below freezing temperatures of outer space. In addition, the ozone layer of the atmosphere protects the Earth and its living inhabitants from harmful radiation rays and meteors. The protective capabilities of the sky were only discovered in the 19th century, yet the Qur'an states the following: "We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs.." (Qur'an, 21:32).
Mountains The theory of continental drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener, a meteorologist, in 1915. He suggested that the world was originally composed of a single land mass or continent, and that the continents then separated and moved very slowly apart, forming the 7 continents today, and still in motion. The theory of plate tectonics which was developed from continental drift supports this idea and provides evidence of how the plates of the Earth move. The Qur'an says: "You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds" (Qur'an, 27:88).
Time German-born physicist Albert Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity in 1915. This theory is a highly successful model of gravitation and cosmology, which has so far passed many unambiguous observational and experimental tests. According to general relativity processes close to a massive body run more slowly than those farther away, an effect known as gravitational time dilation. Gravity has a direct effect on time. Although this theory was not formulated until the early 1900s, the Qur'an says the following:
"They ask you to hasten the punishment. God will not break His promise. A day with your Lord is equivalent to a thousand years in the way you count" (Qur'an, 22:47). "He directs the whole affair from heaven to earth. Then it will again ascend to Him on a Day whose length is a thousand years by the way you measure" (Qur'an, 32:5).
These are just a sample of the many statements in the Qur'an that can be considered to predict scientific discoveries. Muhammad was an illiterate man who would have been incapable of writing the Qur'an, which leads believers to claim that it must have been revealed to him through God.
Islamic scholar Zaghloul El-Naggar believes that the verse, "A time is fixed for every prophecy; you will come to know in time",[Quran 6:67] refers to statements in the Qur'an that predict scientific discoveries made centuries later
In the Muslim world some believe that scientific discoveries were predicted, while others do not. saying that the Qur'an is not a book of science. Al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical period, assigned to the Qur'an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur'an "does not interfere in the business of science, nor does it infringe on the realm of science." These scholars maintain the possibility of multiple scientific explanations of natural phenomena and do not subordinate the Qur'an to an ever-changing science.
Scientific Inaccuracies in the Qur'an
Creation of Earth
The Qur'an has made the mistake regarding the amount of time needed to create the earth, as is seen in the following verse:
And verily We created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in six Days, and naught of weariness touched Us. (Qur'an 50:38)
The Qur'an says that a day for Allah and the angels is similar to 50,000 years (Qur'an 70:4). In citing this verse, Muslims try to say the Earth was completed in 300,000 ( 6 x 50,000 ) years. It does not agree with modern science, which states that it took several billion years for the Earth to reach this stage. Billions of years passed before there were trees, or forests, or animals.
Theories of the formation of a child inside the womb was put forth by Aristotle nearly 1,000 years before the Qur'an was written. In fact Aristotle correctly described the function of the umbilical cord, something not mentioned in the Qur'an, showing that earlier philosophers were aware of such things mentioned by Muhammad and more.
We placed him as sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; Then We made the sperm into a clot of blood; then of that blood clot We made a lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be God, the best to create! (Quran 23:13-14)
The Qur'an stated that the blood clot was turned to bone and then God "clothed the bones with flesh" (Quran 23:13-14). It is scientific fact that living tissue forms first, and then bones grow at a later time, and continue to gain strength (by building calcium) for many years after birth. Therefore, this is not correct.
He is created from a drop (of sperm) emitted-- Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs. (Qur'an 86:6-7)
This verse is incorrect. First of all, for sperm to originate between the back and the ribs would mean that it comes from the kidneys! We now know that semen is produced in the testicles, but people in Muhammad's time did not know this. Eleven centuries before Muhammad, the Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that sperm passed through the kidneys into the penis. For centuries this was an accepted (and incorrect) belief of the origins of sperm.
Other Scientific Inaccuracies in the Qur'an
The Qur'an has a story of a woman who has never had sexual intercourse (a virgin) that becomes pregnant and gives birth (Qur'an 19:16-21).
The Qur'an mentions clouds that can speak. Allah said to the clouds "come willingly or unwillingly" and they said "we come willingly" (Qur'an 41:11).
Stories of non-living matter (rocks, etc) acting similar to living organisms is also found in the Qur'an. There are stories of mountains that have fear (Qur'an 33:72).
And he followed a road; Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. We said: O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! Either punish or show them kindness. (Qur'an 18:85-86)
Modern science says that the earth revolves around the sun. The above excerpt from the Qur'an state that it is the sun that moves, as well as sets on earth!
According to the Qur'an there was a man who could understand the speech of animals (Qur'an 27:18-19). While zoologists have formed methods of communicating with apes and chimps, no human being has ever been able to understand the "language" of species different from our own. The ability to speak like a human is formed by advanced brains with complex thought patterns, something most animals do not have. The verses cited have this man hearing the speech of ants! It is a scientific fact that ants have no speech patterns. They communicate through chemical trails, and other forms of odor. In otherwords they communicate via smell, not sound!
The Qur'an states that Allah created the sky in layers. He created seven heavens, and decked the lowest heaven with lamps (Qur'an 67:3-5) and adorned it with the beauty of the stars (Qur'an 37:6). The Qur'an also states that the moon is within these seven heavens (Qur'an 71:15-16). If the stars (lamps) are in the lowest heaven, they are either closer to the earth than the moon, or are at an equal distance from the earth as the moon. Either way this is scientifically inaccurate. It is a known fact that the stars are much farther away than the moon.
The mythical beings known in Islam as Jinn, could stand on top of each other's shoulders all the way up to heaven, and listen to what is being discussed. The Qur'an says that the stars were created to defend heaven from such eavesdroppers (Qur'an 37:6-8), as well as saying that the stars are used as missiles (projectiles) to drive them away (Qur'an 67:5). As stars are essentially stationary, this myth seems to confuse shooting stars with stars.
||This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Scientific foreknowledge in sacred texts. (May 2014)|
Throughout the Qur'an, claims or predictions are made concerning future events. Many of the prophecies are viewed as having metaphoric meanings, while others are taken more literally. Because Muslims believe that the Qur'an contains the exact words of God which were revealed to the prophet Muhammad in Arabic and later transcribed, the meaning of the Qur'an has a great effect on Muslim beliefs and understandings. The sheer number of prophecies which Muslims believe to have been fulfilled bolster faith and conviction, generally serving as proof that the Qur'an is indeed of a divine origin. Some prophecies are debated more than others as to whether or not they were actually fulfilled or how the Qur'anic text should be interpreted.
One of the more general prophecies is that the Qur'an predicts its own preservation and endurance. The Qur'an states that the book itself will survive as a valid source and that the religion of Islam will last, even dominate, because of this. Muslim scholars argue that today's Qur'an is the same Qur'an originally compiled by Prophet Muhammad. The following passages from the Qur'an state these prophecies:
“We have, without doubt, Sent down the Message; And We will assuredly Guard it (from corruption)” (15:9).
“It is He Who has sent His Apostle with Guidance And the Religion of Truth, That he may proclaim it Over all religion, Even though the Pagans May detest (it)” (61:9).
Another interpretation of the Qur'an is that it predicted the defeat of the Persians by the Romans. Before the prophecy, at the Battle of Antioch, in 613 C.E., the Persians defeated the Romans. Muslims were upset by this defeat because they felt more connected to Rome, a Christian empire, than to Persia, a Zoroastrian one. A few years afterwards, the following verse was revealed in the Qur'an: "The Roman Empire Has been defeated – In a land close by; But they, (even) after (This) defeat of theirs, Will soon be victorious – Within a few years. With God is the Decision, In the Past And in the Future: On that Day shall The Believers rejoice” (30:2-4). By 627 C.E., the Romans had successfully defeated the Persians, resulting in much celebration by Muslims and fulfilling the prophecy of the Qur'an.
Another prophecy of the Qur'an that Muslims might argue has been fulfilled is the ease with which the book can be memorized. Because this is not a factual prophecy but based, rather, on opinion, it cannot truly be proven. However, Muslims do consider reciting or reading the Qur'an to be holy and a way to receive blessings, so it is extremely common for Muslims to memorize a large number of Qur'anic verses. The fact that this is possible and has been done by scholars and children alike, does suggest a certain quality of the Qur'an that makes it easily memorable. The Qur'an’s “rhythmic style and eloquent expression” have been cited as aids in verbatim memorization. The following verse from the Qur'an is one example of the prophecy that the Qur'an will be easily memorized by future readers: “And We have indeed Made the Qur-an easy to understand and remember: Then is there any that Will receive admonition?” (54:17) 
Another prophecy, according to the Qur'an, may have predicted the preservation of the Pharaoh of the Exodus's body. In the Qur'an, God says to the Pharaoh: "This day shall We save thee In thy body, that thou Mayest be a Sign to those Who come after thee! But verily, many among mankind Are heedless of Our Signs!"  The body of the Pharaoh, who was argued to be either Ramesses II or his son Merneptah, was thought to be lost at sea until the mummies of both were discovered in the 19th century. They are on display today in Cairo's Egyptian Museum; thus, it is argued that the prophecy was fulfilled.
Countless other prophecies are claimed to have been fulfilled. Some of the predictions may seem vague and easily fulfilled by a wide variety of events, causing debate and analysis, but, regardless, many Muslims believe that the Qur'an prophesies at least some future events, though perhaps not all those listed in this article. Nevertheless, the following include some of the other potentially fulfilled claims made by the Qur'an.
The development of using fingerprints for identification of criminals: "At length, when they reach The (Fire), their hearing, Their sight, and their skins Will bear witness against them, As to (all) their deeds." (41:20) 
The problem of environmental pollution as caused by human inventions: "Mischief has appeared On land and sea because Of (the meed) that the hands Of men have earned, That (God) may give them A taste of some of their Deeds: in order that they May turn back (from Evil)" (30:41); "Then watch thou For the Day That the sky will Bring forth a kind Of smoke (or mist) plainly visible, Enveloping the people: This will be a Penalty Grievous" (44:10-11).
New modes of transportation created by humans: "And (He has created) horses, Mules, and donkeys, for you To ride and use for show; And He has created (other) things Of which ye have no knowledge" (16:8).
- Islam and science
- Scientific foreknowledge in sacred texts
- Prophetic medicine
- Islamic view of miracles
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- Scientific Errors in the Qur'an
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