|Moves||1.Nf3 d5 2.c4|
|Origin||Réti–Rubinstein, Carlsbad, 1923|
|Named after||Richard Réti|
White plans to bring the d5-pawn under attack from the flank, or entice it to advance to d4 and undermine it later. White will couple this plan with a kingside fianchetto (g3 and Bg2) to create pressure on the light squares in the center.
The opening is named after Richard Réti (1889–1929), an untitled Grandmaster from Czechoslovakia. The opening is in the spirit of the hypermodernism movement that Réti championed, with the center being dominated from the wings rather than by direct occupation.
1.Nf3 develops the knight to a good square, prepares for quick castling, and prevents Black from occupying the center by 1...e5. White maintains flexibility by not committing to a particular central pawn structure, while waiting to see what Black will do. But the Réti should not be thought of as a single opening sequence, and certainly not a single opening move, but rather as an opening complex with many variations sharing common themes.
In the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO), Réti Opening is classified as codes A04–A09.
|This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.|
According to Réti the opening was introduced into master play in the early part of 1923. Réti used the opening most famously to defeat José Raúl Capablanca, the reigning World Chess Champion, in a game at the 1924 New York tournament. Alexander Alekhine played the Réti in the 1920s, but at that time almost any game that began with Nf3 and c4 by White was considered to be the Réti. Réti popularized these moves against all defenses in the spirit of hypermodernism, and as the opening developed it gained structure and a clearer distinction between it and other openings.
Hans Kmoch called the system of attack employed by Réti in the game Réti–Rubinstein, Carlsbad 1923, "the Réti Opening" or "the Réti System". Savielly Tartakower called the opening the "Réti–Zukertort Opening", and said of 1.Nf3: "An opening of the past, which became, towards 1923, the opening of the future."
Classic method: 2.c4
After 2.c4 (ECO code A09), Black's choices are:
- 2...e6 or 2...c6 (holding the d5-point)
- 2...dxc4 (giving up the d5-point)
- 2...d4 (pushing the pawn)
If Black takes the pawn, then in the same manner as the QGA, 3.e3 or 3.e4 regain the pawn with a slight advantage to White—Black being left somewhat undeveloped. 3.Na3 and 3.Qa4+ are also good, and commonly played. This variety of White options limits the popularity of 2...dxc4.
Transpositions after 1.Nf3
According to ChessBase, out of the twenty possible opening moves, 1.Nf3 ranks third in popularity. 1.Nf3 is rife with transpositional possibilities, so it is incorrect to infer that any game starting with that move is an example of the Réti Opening. For example:
- 1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.d4 Nf6 4.Nc3 is the Queen's Gambit Declined.
- An early d4 by White can also transpose to the Catalan Opening or Neo-Grünfeld Defence. Or to a Queen's Pawn opening or 1.d4 opening such as the King's Indian (where White has forgone the option of playing Nge2, ruling out the possibility, for example, of playing the Sämisch system against the King's Indian).
- 2.g3 (A07) has become increasing popular in recent years and is referred to as the modern method, with White aiming for an early fianchetto of the kingside bishop, although this often transposes into a King's Indian Attack (A08).
- An early c4 by White may also bring about the English Opening.
- Even the Sicilian Defence may be reached if the game continues 1...c5 2.e4.
Perhaps the most common reply recently is the symmetrical 1...Nf6, after which transpositions to other openings abound.
- Schiller, Eric (1988). How to Play the Réti. Coraopolis, Pennsylvania: Chess Enterprises, Inc. ISBN 978-0-931462-78-8.
- Richard Reti vs Jose Raul Capablanca, New York 1924
- Richard Reti vs Akiba Rubinstein, Karlsbad 1923
- Tartakower, Savielly; du Mont, Julius (1975). 500 Master Games of Chess (1952). Dover Publications. p. 636. ISBN 0-486-23208-5.
- Modern Chess Openings, 15th edition, by Nick de Firmian, ISBN 978-0-8129-3682-7, p. 718
|The Wikibook Chess Opening Theory has a page on the topic of: Réti Opening|