Réti Opening

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Réti Opening
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
d5 black pawn
c4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Moves 1.Nf3 d5 2.c4
ECO A04–A09
Origin Réti–Rubinstein, Carlsbad, 1923
Named after Richard Réti
Parent Flank opening
Synonym(s) Réti System
Réti–Zukertort Opening

The Réti Opening is a hypermodern chess opening whose traditional or classic method begins with the moves:

1. Nf3 d5
2. c4

White plans to bring the d5-pawn under attack from the flank, or entice it to advance to d4 and undermine it later. White will couple this plan with a kingside fianchetto (g3 and Bg2) to create pressure on the light squares in the center.

The opening is named after Richard Réti (1889–1929), an untitled Grandmaster from Czechoslovakia. The opening is in the spirit of the hypermodernism movement that Réti championed, with the center being dominated from the wings rather than by direct occupation.

1.Nf3 develops the knight to a good square, prepares for quick castling, and prevents Black from occupying the center by 1...e5. White maintains flexibility by not committing to a particular central pawn structure, while waiting to see what Black will do. But the Réti should not be thought of as a single opening sequence, and certainly not a single opening move, but rather as an opening complex with many variations sharing common themes.

In the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO), Réti Opening is classified as codes A04–A09.


History[edit]

Scoresheet of Réti–Capablanca, New York 1924

According to Réti the opening was introduced into master play in the early part of 1923.[1] Réti used the opening most famously to defeat José Raúl Capablanca, the reigning World Chess Champion, in a game at the 1924 New York tournament.[2] Alexander Alekhine played the Réti in the 1920s, but at that time almost any game that began with Nf3 and c4 by White was considered to be the Réti. Réti popularized these moves against all defenses in the spirit of hypermodernism, and as the opening developed it gained structure and a clearer distinction between it and other openings.

Hans Kmoch called the system of attack employed by Réti in the game Réti–Rubinstein, Carlsbad 1923,[3] "the Réti Opening" or "the Réti System". Savielly Tartakower called the opening the "Réti–Zukertort Opening", and said of 1.Nf3: "An opening of the past, which became, towards 1923, the opening of the future."[4]

Classic method: 2.c4[edit]

In modern times the Réti refers only to the configuration Nf3 and c4 by White with ...d5 by Black, where White fianchettos at least one bishop and does not play an early d4.[5]

After 2.c4 (ECO code A09), Black's choices are:

  • 2...e6 or 2...c6 (holding the d5-point)
  • 2...dxc4 (giving up the d5-point)
  • 2...d4 (pushing the pawn)

If Black takes the pawn, then in the same manner as the QGA, 3.e3 or 3.e4 regain the pawn with a slight advantage to White—Black being left somewhat undeveloped. 3.Na3 and 3.Qa4+ are also good, and commonly played. This variety of White options limits the popularity of 2...dxc4.

Transpositions[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
e6 black pawn
d5 black pawn
c4 white pawn
d4 white circle
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
e6 black pawn
f6 black knight
d5 black pawn
c4 white pawn
d4 white circle
f3 white knight
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white bishop
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.g3 Nf6 4.Bg2 Be7 5.O-O O-O

After 2.c4 e6, White can play 3.d4 for the Queen's Gambit Declined.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.d4 to
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3

3.g3 Nf6 is the Neo-Catalan Opening, also under English (e.g. 1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.g3 d5). Here White can play 4.d4.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.g3 Nf6 4.d4 to
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.g3

After 4.Bg2, Black may play ...Be7 or ...dxc4. With move 4...Be7, White can then play 5.d4.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.g3 Nf6 4.Bg2 Be7 5.d4 to
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.g3 Be7 5.Bg2

This goes to the Closed Catalan, avoiding Open Catalan (except classical line).[5] Or else White can castle, then Black probably castles as well.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 e6 3.g3 Nf6 4.Bg2 Be7 5.O-O O-O 6.d4 to
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.g3 Be7 5.Bg2 O-O 6.O-O

With 4...dxc4 to 4.Bg2, White's most common move is 5.Qa4+, and this will not correspond to a 1.d4 line.

After 2.c4 c6, White can play 3.d4 for the Slav Defense.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 c6 3.d4 to
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3

After 2.c4 c6 3.e3 Nf6, White can play 4.d4 for the Slav Defense.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 Nf6 4.d4 to
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3

After 2.c4 c6 3.e3 Nf6 4.Nc3 e6, White can play 5.d4 for the Semi-Slav Defense.

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 Nf6 4.Nc3 e6 5.d4 to
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.Nc3 c6 5.e3

However, White can play 5.b3 instead.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schiller, Eric (1988). How to Play the Réti. Coraopolis, Pennsylvania: Chess Enterprises, Inc. ISBN 978-0-931462-78-8.
  2. ^ Richard Reti vs Jose Raul Capablanca, New York 1924
  3. ^ Richard Reti vs Akiba Rubinstein, Karlsbad 1923
  4. ^ Tartakower, Savielly; du Mont, Julius (1975). 500 Master Games of Chess (1952). Dover Publications. p. 636. ISBN 0-486-23208-5. 
  5. ^ a b Modern Chess Openings, 15th edition, by Nick de Firmian, ISBN 978-0-8129-3682-7, p. 718

Further reading[edit]