Péter was born in Budapest, Hungary, as Rózsa Politzer (Hungarian: Politzer Rózsa). She attended Eötvös Loránd University, where she received her PhD in 1935. After the passage of the Jewish Laws of 1939 in Hungary, she was forbidden to teach because of her Jewish origin. After the war she published her key work, Recursive Functions.
She taught at Eötvös Loránd University from 1955 until her retirement in 1975. She was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1973).
Her works include "Playing with Infinity: Mathematical Explorations and Excursions", New York, 2010, Dover Publications.
- Albers, Donald J.; Alexanderson, Gerald L.; Reid, Constance, eds. (1990), "Rozsa Peter 1905–1977", More Mathematical People, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, p. 149
- "Rózsa Péter", Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Rózsa Péter", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Rózsa Péter, Founder of Recursive Function Theory, Women in Science: A Selection of 16 Contributors, San Diego Supercomputer Center, 1997, accessed 2013-05-06.
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