Répertoire International des Sources Musicales
|Focus||Musical sources to ca. 1800|
|Method||Working groups around the world|
|Klaus Keil, Director; Dr. Harald Heckmann, Honorary President; Dr. Wolf-Dieter Seiffert, President|
|8 at the Central Editorial Office|
|Slogan||Knowing what exists and where it is kept|
|Mission||To locate and document extant musical sources worldwide|
The Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM, English International Inventory of Musical Sources, German Internationales Quellenlexikon der Musik) is an international non-profit organisation, founded in Paris in 1952, with the aim of comprehensively documenting extant sources of music all over the world. It is the largest organisation of its kind and the only entity operating globally to document written musical sources. Shortly after its founding, A.H. King called RISM "one of the boldest pieces of long-term planning ever undertaken for the source material of any subject in the humanistic field."
The musical sources recorded are manuscripts or printed music, writings about music and libretti. They are stored in libraries, archives, monasteries, schools and private collections. RISM establishes what exists and where it is kept. RISM is recognised among experts as the key place for documenting music sources all over the world.
The work of RISM in compiling a comprehensive index fulfills a twofold purpose: for one, music documents are protected from loss, and for another, they are made available to scholars and performing musicians.
One or several RISM working groups in each of 36 countries take part in the project. Around 100 individuals from those working groups catalogue the musical sources preserved in their countries. They pass their results on to the RISM Zentralredaktion (Central Editorial Office) in Frankfurt am Main, where the entries are edited and published.
RISM working groups are currently active in the following countries and cities:
- Australia: Adelaide
- Austria: Innsbruck, Salzburg and Vienna
- Belarus: Minsk
- Belgium: Brussels and Louvain
- Brazil: Bahia, Brasília, Campinas, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo
- Canada: London (Ontario)
- Croatia: Zagreb
- Czech Republic: Prague
- Denmark: Copenhagen
- Estonia: Tallinn
- Finland: Åbo/Turku
- France: Paris
- Germany: Dresden and Munich
- Greece: Thessaloniki
- Hungary: Budapest
- Ireland: Waterford
- Italy: Milan and Rome
- Japan: Tokyo
- Latvia: Riga
- Lituania: Vilnius
- Netherlands: The Hague
- Norway: Trondheim
- Poland: Gdansk, Lublin, Warsaw, Wrocław
- Portugal: Lisbon
- Romania: Bucharest
- Russia: Moscow and St Petersburg
- Slovakia: Bratislava
- Slovenia: Ljubljana
- Spain: Barcelona
- South Korea: Seoul
- Sweden: Stockholm
- Switzerland: Bern
- Ukraine: Kiev and Lviv
- United Kingdom: London
- United States: Cambridge (Massachusetts)
- Turkey: Istanbul
The RISM Zentralredaktion and the working groups in Germany are projects of the Academy of Sciences and Literature in Mainz. The other working groups receive independent funding in their own countries.
RISM publications are divided into the following series:
- Series A, arranged by composer
- Series B, arranged by topic
- Series C, index of music libraries
In addition to these, working groups conduct projects to document libretti surviving in their respective countries.
RISM Series A/I – Printed Music
RISM Series A/I Individual Prints before 1800 is a catalogue of printed music from about 1500 to 1800. Over 78,000 printed editions by 7,616 composers from 2,178 libraries are documented in the nine volumes of the series (published 1971–1981). Four supplementary volumes appeared between 1986 and 1999, and in 2003 an index volume followed listing publishers, printers, engravers and places of publication. All volumes of RISM series A/I were published by Bärenreiter in Kassel. The catalogue is arranged alphabetically by composer and contains only individual prints, meaning printed music of works by a single composer. Collected prints (anthologies of works by various composers) are published in RISM series B.
Each individual entry contains the following information:
- Name of composer
- An opus or catalogue number if there is one
- Title of the print
- Format – e.g. score, parts or piano reduction
- Place of publication
- Year of publication, if possible
- List of libraries where is the item preserved
A CD-ROM of RISM series A/I was published by Bärenreiter-Verlag at the end of 2012. Apart from the stated intention of opening the way to the primary source for researchers and performers, this sort of catalogue provides attractive possibilities for other areas of interest and inquiry as well. For example, one can gain insight into many different topics while researching the reception of a piece. One way could be to find out how the music of a composer was regarded after his death; to find this out, it would be important to know how many and which of his works were reissued.
RISM Series A/II – Music Manuscripts
RISM series A/II Music Manuscripts after 1600 lists only handwritten music. They are described in detail according to a uniform scheme containing more than 100 fields. There are currently more than 870,000 entries on pieces by around 27,000 composers available (as of June 2014, and the number is constantly increasing). The total number of music manuscripts extant worldwide is many times that large.
The entries are currently from more than 900 libraries in 37 countries: Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Uruguay, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Venezuela. This makes RISM’s database by far the most extensive accessible set of records in the field.
The RISM database has been available free of charge online since June 2010. Access to this online catalog is through the Internet via the RISM online catalog or the RISM website. The catalogue was made possible through cooperation between RISM, the Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek) and the Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin). The CD-ROM version of the accumulated database produced and published by K. G. Saur in Munich was discontinued in 2008. The subscription database hosted by EBSCO (formerly by NISC) is still available.
The catalogue entries describe each piece in detail. Included are, among other things, information about the composer (including dates of birth and death), title, performing forces, as well as references to musicological literature. The manuscripts themselves are described in detail with respect to copyist, place and time of origin, librettist, previous owners, and dedicatees. In addition, many works can also be identified by means of a music incipit, that is, the opening notes or measures from important movements or sections of a piece.
A variety of search boxes enables browsing and discovery through any of these fields. Specific questions can be answered by combining specific indexes. For example, it is possible to immediately access all the information stored by RISM about masses by Joseph Haydn. A search by means of a musical incipit is a valuable research tool when trying to identify an anonymous piece or a fragment of a piece. To make use of this tool, the researcher keys in the first few notes of the work.
The database provides information not only about the dissemination of works by composers who are still well known today, but also a wealth of knowledge about those many creative musicians who were highly regarded in their day but are currently either little known or even forgotten. This makes the database invaluable for music historians and also makes it possible for performing musicians to “excavate” and rediscover many things.
RISM Series B
RISM series B comprises a systematic series which documents a self-contained group of sources. The following volumes have been published by G. Henle of Munich (an English translation of the title appears in parentheses where necessary):
- B/I and B/II: Recueils imprimés XVIe–XVIIIe siècles (2 Volumes). (Printed Anthologies from the 16th to the 18th Century).
- B/III: The Theory of Music from the Carolingian Era up to c. 1500. Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts (6 volumes).
- B/IV: Handschriften mit mehrstimmiger Musik des 11. bis 16. Jahrhunderts (5 volumes, 1 supplementary volume). (Manuscripts with Polyphonic Music from the 11th to 16th Century)
- B/V: Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften. (Manuscripts of Tropes and Sequences)
- B/VI: Écrits imprimés concernant la musique (2 volumes). (Printed Writings about Music)
- B/VII: Handschriftlich überlieferte Lauten- und Gitarrentabulaturen des 15. bis 18. Jahrhunderts. (Manuscripts of Lute and Guitar Tablature from 15th to 18th Century)
- B/VIII: Das Deutsche Kirchenlied (2 volumes, Kassel: Bärenreiter). (German Ecclesiastical Song)
- B/IX: Hebrew Sources (2 volumes).
- B/X: The Theory of Music in Arabic Writings c. 900–1900 (2 volumes).
- B/XI: Ancient Greek Music Theory. A Catalogue Raisonné of Manuscripts.
- B/XII: Manuscrits persans concernant la musique. (Persian Manuscripts about Music)
- B/XIII: Hymnologica Slavica. Hymnologica Bohemica, Slavica (HBS), Polonica (HP), Sorabica (HS). Notendrucke des 16. bis 18. Jahrhunderts (Printed music of the 16th to the 18th centuries in Bohemia, Slovakia, Poland, and Sorbia)
- B/XIV: Les manuscrits du processionnal (2 volumes). (Manuscripts about the Processional)
- B/XV: Mehrstimmige Messen in Quellen aus Spanien, Portugal und Lateinamerika, ca. 1490–1630. (Polyphonic Masses in Sources from Spain, Portugal and Latin America, from around 1490–1630)
RISM Series C
Entitled Directory of Music Research Libraries, RISM series C lists in five volumes all the music libraries, archives and private collections which house historical musical materials. This index of music libraries is produced in cooperation with the Publication Committee of the International Association of Music Libraries (IAML). The special volume RISM-Bibliothekssigel. Gesamtverzeichnis (RISM Library Sigla: Complete Index), which appeared in 1999, has been available in a regularly updated version on the RISM website since 2006 and in a searchable online database since 2011.
RISM uses a series of abbreviations to identify different libraries and conservatories where manuscripts are located. For example "I-MOe" means "Italy-Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, Modena."
People who use the RISM publications
- Musicologists looking for sources connected with their field of research find a basis for exploring catalogues of works and modern editions;
- Performers, who discover a vast wealth of little-known pieces for concerts off the beaten musical path;
- Librarians, who can explore sources that complement the holdings of their own libraries;
- Students who need to consult primary sources for an assignment or term paper;
- Music antiquarians, who can look up information about other copies of pieces they are offering.
- Brook, Barry S. and Richard J. Viano. "The Thematic Catalogue in Music: Further Reflections on its Past, Present and Future." In Foundations in Music Bibliography, edited by Richard D. Green, 27-46. New York: Haworth Press, 1993.
- Falletta, Martina, Renate Hüsken and Klaus Keil, eds. RISM: Wissenschaftliche und technische Herausforderung musikhistorischer Quellenforschung im internationalen Rahmen. Academic and Technical Challenges of Musicological Source Research in an International Framework. Studien und Materialien zur Musikwissenschaft 58. Hildesheim: Olms, 2010. ISBN 978-3-487-14431-3
- Heckmann, Harald. "Das Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM) in Geschichte, Gegenwart und Zukunft," in Wege und Spuren. Verbindungen zwischen Bildung, Wissenschaft, Kultur, Geschichte und Politik. Festschrift für Joachim-Felix Leonhard, ed. Kelmut Knüppel et al. (Berlin: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg GmbH, 2007): 597-605.
- Jaenecke, Joachim. "RISM: Eine Fundgrube für verschollen geglaubte Musikdrucke aus Deutschland" ("RISM: A Treasure Trove of German Music Prints Thought to be Gone"). In Im Dienste der Quellen zur Musik. Festschrift Getraut Haberkamp. Ed. Paul Mai, 3-11. Bischöflichen Zentralbibliothek Regensburg: Tutzing, 2002.
- Keil, Klaus. "Report 2010." Acta Musicologica LXXXIII (2011), 161-168. Also available online.
- Rita Benton, "Répertoire International des Sources Musicales," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition, 2002, vol. 21, p. 194. ISBN 1-56159-239-0
- Alec Hyatt King, "The Music Librarian, his tasks, national and international," Fontes Artis Musicae 6 (1959): 54; quoted in Benton, 195.
- International Association of Music Libraries (IAML): Joint projects and assisted publications
- Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz (in German)
- For a detailed list of publications, see the RISM List of Publications
- RISM Zentralredaktion, announcement 29 November 2011 and Birgit Grün, trans. Keith Harris, Forum Musikbibliothek 27 (2006/4), p. 331ff. Background information about the sigla
- "The present writer is grateful to record again a debt to RISM for directing him to four early tablatures for guitar and cittern, lying unrecognized in a small Swiss library--a discovery that marks one of the most substantial additions to the 16th-century instrumental repertory in many years." Daniel Heartz, "The Répertoire International des Sources Musicales," Journal of the American Musicological Society 14 (1961): 271.
- "2010 - RISM". Rism.info. Retrieved 2012-10-19.