R. L. Burnside

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Not to be confused with R. H. Burnside, stage director.

R. L. Burnside
Birth name Robert Lee Burnside
Born (1926-11-23)November 23, 1926
Harmontown, Lafayette County, Mississippi, United States
Origin Oxford, Mississippi, US
Died September 1, 2005(2005-09-01) (aged 78)
Memphis, Tennessee, US
Genres Blues, garage rock
Instruments Guitar, vocals
Years active 1960s–2005
Labels Fat Possum
Associated acts Calvin Jackson (drummer)
Jon Spencer

R. L. Burnside (November 23, 1926 – September 1, 2005) was an American blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist who lived much of his life in and around Holly Springs, Mississippi. He played music for much of his life, but did not receive much attention until the early 1990s.[1] In the latter half of the 1990s, Burnside recorded and toured with Jon Spencer, garnering crossover appeal and introducing his music to a new fan base within the punk and garage rock scene.

Life and career[edit]

Early life and career[edit]

Burnside was born in 1926[1] to Ernest Burnside and Josie Garden,[2] in Harmontown,[3] or College Hill,[4][5] or Blackwater Creek,[6] all in Lafayette County, Mississippi, United States. His first name is variously given as R. L., Rl, Robert Lee, Rural, Ruel or Rule.

Although he tried the harmonica, then dabbled in guitar playing ever since he was sixteen, Burnside has reported he first played in public at age 21 or 22.[7][8] He learned mostly from Mississippi Fred McDowell, who lived nearby since Burnside was a child, and eventually joined his gigs to play a late set.[9][8] Other local teachers were Ranie Burnette, Son Hibbler, Jesse Vortis, and Burnside's brother-in-law. Burnside cited Muddy Waters, Lightnin' Hopkins and John Lee Hooker as influences.[7][8]

In the late 1940s[10] he moved to Chicago, where his father has lived since he separated from his mother,[8] in the hope of finding better economic opportunities.[8] He did find jobs at metal and glass factories,[11][12] had the company of Muddy Waters (his cousin-in-law),[8] and enjoyed the modern blues scene at Maxwell Street.[10] But things did not turn out as he had hoped; within the span of one year his father, two brothers, and uncle were all murdered in the city.[13] Three years after he came,[10] Burnside went back to Mississippi, and married Alice Mae Taylor in 1949,[12] his second marriage.[7] Since he came back south he picked more local gigs.[14][10]

He spent the next 45 years in North Mississippi, working into the 1980s as a sharecropper and commercial fisherman in the Tallahatchie River, as well as playing guitar in juke joints and bars,[3] and his own open house parties. Burnside killed a man at a dice game, was convicted of murder and incarcerated in Parchman farm[15] in 1955. He would later relate that his boss at the time had arranged to release him after six months, as he needed Burnside's skills as a tractor driver; and about the incident, "I didn't mean to kill nobody. I just meant to shoot the sonofabitch in the head and two times in the chest. Him dying was between him and the Lord."[16]

His earliest recordings were made in 1967 by George Mitchell and released on Arhoolie Records. Another album of acoustic material was recorded in 1969 for Adelphi Records, not to be released until thirty years later; material from 1975 has had similar fate.[17][18] These featured Burnside playing acoustic guitar and singing, and a few tracks had harmonica accompanists, namely W.C. Veasey or Ulysse Red Ramsey. In 1969 at Montreal, he played for the first time out of the country, in one program with his models Lightnin' Hopkins and John Lee Hooker.[7][8] Three tours of his solo performances found enthusiastic audiences in several European countries.[19]

A 1979 recording for David Evans' record label, High Water, was the first to feature Burnside's Sound Machine, an accompaniment from family members on drums (Calvin Jackson, son-in-law), bass (Joseph, son) and guitar (Duwayne or Daniel Burnside, sons).[20] While an EP was released by Evans' label in the US, the full album was licensed for European release by Disques Vogue.[19] The band was active mostly in home settings, but went to Europe in 1983. When he recorded between 1980 and 1984 for Leo Bruin in Groningen, Netherlands, Burnside went back to play solo, or accompanied by harpist Johnny Woods.

In the following decade he retired from farm work and became more busy with the music. He worked with harpist Jon (Joni) Morris Neremberg (or Nuremberg),[20][21] and frequently appeared in New Orleans.[7] Recordings from that time wound up in two releases, both produced by M.C. Records and Louis X. Erlanger: a session from 1988 as Acoustic Stories, and a 2001 compilation of informal recordings provided by Morris, as Well, Well, Well.

Later life and career[edit]

R. L. Burnside at the Liri Blues Festival, Italy, in 1992

Burnside began recording for the Oxford, Mississippi label, Fat Possum Records in 1991.[1] Founded by Living Blues magazine editor Peter Redvers-Lee and Matthew Johnson, the label was dedicated to recording aging North Mississippi bluesmen such as Burnside and Junior Kimbrough.[15] Burnside remained with Fat Possum from that time until his death, and he usually performed with drummer Cedric Burnside, his grandson, and with his friend and understudy, the slide guitarist Kenny Brown, whom he began tutoring in 1971 and claimed as his "adopted son."

Burnside featured in the 1992 documentary Deep Blues. In a New York concert around the film's release, Burnside attracted the attention of Jon Spencer, the leader of the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion. He started touring with this group in 1995, both as an opening act and sitting in, gaining a new audience. The 1996 album A Ass Pocket of Whiskey was recorded with Jon Spencer' band and was marketed for their audience, but was credited to Burnside.[22] It gained critical acclaim and praise from Bono and Iggy Pop; while Billboard wrote "it sound like no other blues album ever released,"[22] Living Blues opined it is "perhaps the worst blues album ever made."[23] During this time he also provided entertainment at private events such as Richard Gere's birthday party.

After the death of Kimbrough and the burning of Kimbrough's juke joint in Chulahoma, Mississippi, Burnside quit recording studio material for Fat Possum, though he did continue to tour. The label produced a series of albums in which previously recorded materials were remixed, with an eye to techno, downtempo and hip-hop listeners. Notably, Come On In (1998), Wish I Was In Heaven Sitting Down (2000) and A Bothered Mind (2004), the first of which includes collaborations with Kid Rock and Lyrics Born. These albums received mixed reviews, some describing the results as "unnatural"[24] while others lauded the playful spirit,[25] or "the way it yokes authentic blues feeling to new technology".[26] Commercially, the remixes were successful; all three entered Billboard's Top Blues Albums chart, staying there for 12–18 weeks' periods,[27] and two tracks from Come On In were included in The Sopranos‍ '​ soundtrack. In between, Fat Possum released more traditional albums, drawing from previously unreleased material, both of their own sessions and from before their time. After a heart attack in 2001, Burnside's doctor advised him to stop drinking; Burnside did, but he reported that change left him unable to play.[16] He continued as guest singer on such occasions as Bonnaroo Music Festival, 2004, his last public appearance.[28]

Burnside at the Double Door Inn in Charlotte, N.C. in 1998

Death and legacy[edit]

Burnside had been in declining health since heart surgery in 1999.[1] He died at St. Francis Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee on September 1, 2005 at the age of 78.[1][29] Services were held at Rust College in Holly Springs, with burial in the Free Springs Cemetery in Harmontown. Around the time of his death, he resided in Byhalia, Mississippi and his immediate survivors included:

  • His wife: Alice Mae Taylor Burnside (1932-2008),[30] married 1949;[12][15]
  • Daughters: Mildred Jean Burnside (1949-2010),[31] Linda Jackson, Brenda Kay Brooks, and Pamela Denise Burnside;
  • Sons: Melvin Burnside, R.L. Burnside Jr. (1954-2010),[32] Calvin Burnside, Joseph Burnside, Daniel Burnside, Duwayne Burnside, Dexter Burnside, Garry Burnside, and Rodger Harmon
  • Sisters: Lucille Burnside, Verelan Burnside, and Mat Burnside
  • Brother: Jesse Monia
  • 35 grandchildren
  • 32 great-grandchildren[29]

Members of his large extended family continue to play blues in the Holly Springs area or in wider circles. Son Duwayne Burnside has played guitar with the North Mississippi Allstars (Polaris; Hill Country Revue with R. L. Burnside). Grandson Cedric Burnside has released six albums with four musical partners, and toured with Kenny Brown and others. Son Garry Burnside used to play bass guitar with Junior Kimbrough, North Mississippi Allstars, and Hill Country Revue; in 2006 he released an album with Cedric. Son in law Calvin Jackson recorded with blues musicians of Burnside's generation and younger. Grandson Kent is a musician, as was Cody (died 2012). In 2013, Duwayne Burnside and business partner Adrian Pinson opened up Alice Mae's café, named after Alice Mae Burnside on the square in Holly Springs, where the Burnside and Kimbrough sons perform when they are not touring.

Burnside won one W. C. Handy Award in 2000 (Traditional Blues Male Artist of The Year),[33] two in 2002 (Traditional Blues Male Artist of The Year; Traditional Blues Album of The Year: Burnside on Burnside),[34][35] and one in 2003 (Traditional Blues Male Artist of The Year);[36] he had 11 unsuccessful nominations in 8 years, starting in 1982.[37] Several of the Mississippi Blues Trail markers, which have been erected since 2006, mention him. In 2014 he was induced to the Blues Hall of Fame in Memphis.


R. L. Burnside performing at the Crystal Ballroom in Portland, Oregon in January 2004

Burnside had a powerful, expressive voice and played both electric and acoustic guitar, with and without a slide. His drone-heavy style was more characteristic of North Mississippi hill country blues than Delta blues. Like other country blues musicians, he did not always adhere to strict 12- or 16-bar blues patterns, often adding extra beats to a measure as he saw fit. He referred to this rhythmic eccentricity as "Burnside style" and recommended that backing musicians familiarize themselves with his style before playing along.

As was the case with his first role model John Lee Hooker, Burnside's earliest recordings sound quite similar to one another, even repetitive, in vocal and instrumental styling. Many of these songs eschew traditional chord changes in favor of a single chord or a simple bassline pattern that repeats throughout. Burnside played the guitar fingerstyle—without a pick—and often in open-G tuning. His vocal style is characterized by a tendency to "break" briefly into falsetto, usually at the end of long notes.

Like his contemporary T-Model Ford, Burnside favored a stripped-down approach to the blues, marked by a quality of rawness. He and his later managers and reviewers maintained his persona as a hard-working man leading a life of struggle,[38] a heavy drinker, latent criminal singing songs of swagger and rebellion.

His work with Jon Spencer gained the attention of the alternative rock audience and was later cited as an influence by Hillstomp[1] and covered on record by The Immortal Lee County Killers. Burnside's fellow Fat Possum musicians The Black Keys also credit him as an influence and interpolated his "Skinny Woman" into their track "Busted".

Burnside knew many toasts—African American narrative folk poems such as "Signifying monkey" and "Tojo Told Hitler"—and fondly recited them between songs at his concerts and on recordings.

Selected albums[edit]

In Knoxville, Tenn, 1982
  • First Recordings (recorded in 1967 by George Mitchell; re-released by Fat Possum Records in 2003)
  • Plays and Sings the Mississippi Delta Blues (released 1981 by Swingmaster) (Live 1980 in the Netherlands)
  • Mississippi Hill Country Blues (released 1984 by Swingmaster)
  • Bad Luck City (1992)
  • Too Bad Jim (1994, produced by Robert Palmer)
  • Well, Well, Well (songs and interviews from 1986–1993, released in 2001 on MC Records)
  • A Ass Pocket of Whiskey (1996, featuring the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion)
  • Mr. Wizard (1997) (recorded 1994-6, including two tracks with Jon Spencer)[39]
  • Acoustic Stories (1997, recorded 1988)
  • Sound Machine Groove (1997) (recordings from 1979-1980)
  • Mississippi Blues (1997) (live recordings from 1983-1984)
  • Going Down South (1998) (split album with Johnny Woods and Ranie Burnette, recordings from 1988)
  • My Black Name A-Ringin‍ '​ (1999) (recordings from 1969)
  • Burnside on Burnside (a critically acclaimed 2001 live album recorded in the Crystal Ballroom on Portland, Oregon's Burnside Street)
  • Come On In (1998) (remixed material)
  • Wish I Was in Heaven Sitting Down (2000) (remixed material)
  • Burnside's Darker Blues (2003) (remixed material)
  • No Monkeys on This Train (2003) (compilation of songs from Sound Machine Groove, live material and stories)
  • A Bothered Mind (2004) (remixed material)
  • Raw Electric (2005) (Posthumous compilation of recordings from 1979-1980)
  • The King of Hill Country Blues: Rollin' & Tumblin (2010) (Posthumous compilation of recordings from 1975, 1989 and 1991)

Extended guest appearances[edit]


  • Deep Blues: A Musical Pilgrimage to the Crossroads (1991). Directed by Robert Mugge
  • The Land Where the Blues Began (1978) Restored original version, DVD contains two additional R.L. Burnside performances
  • American Patchwork: Songs and Stories of America, part 3: "The Land Where the Blues Began" (1990). Written, directed, and produced by Alan Lomax; developed by the Association for Cultural Equity at Columbia University and Hunter College. North Carolina Public TV; A Dibb Direction production for Channel Four. This is a lightly re-edited version of "The Land Where the Blues Began" (1978) made by Alan Lomax, John Bishop, and Worth Long in Association with Mississippi Authority for Educational Television
  • You See Me Laughin': The Last of the Hill Country Bluesmen (2003; released by Fat Possum Records in 2005). Produced and directed by Mandy Stein. Oxford, Mississippi: Plain Jane Productions, Inc; Fat Possum Records.
  • Richard Johnston: Hill Country Troubadour (2005) Directed by Max Shores, Alabama PBS, featuring interview with Burnside and information about the Holly Springs music community.
  • Big Bad Love (2001), Directed by Arliss Howard. Soundtrack songs by R.L. Burnside plus a cameo in the film performing live. MGM/IFC Films.

Further reading[edit]

  • Matthieu Dessier. The real deal: experiencing authenticity in the music of R.L. Burnside. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Mississippi, 2006. OCLC 82143665
  • The Oxford American book of great music writing. Smirnoff, Marc, editor. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, 2008.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Skelly, Richard. "R.L. Burnside". Allmusic. Retrieved December 30, 2011. 
  2. ^ Leo Bruin. Liner Notes, R. L. Burnside plays ans sings the Mississippi Delta Blues. 1981. scan
  3. ^ a b "Blues Veteran R.L. Burnside Dies". Billboard.com. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  4. ^ David Michael Miller. Birthplaces of Mississippi Blues Artists (Map). 
  5. ^ "Oxford Blues". Mississippi Blues Trail. 
  6. ^ Bob L. Eagle; Eric S. LeBlanc (2013). Blues: A Regional Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-313-34424-4. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Connie Atkinson, ed. (1985-08). "A Bluesman Lives the Life". Wavelength: New Orleans Music Magazine (58) (Nauman S. Scott). pp. 23–24.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Mabe, Ed (November 1999). "R. L. Burnside: One Badass Bluesman: interview and photos by Ed Mabe". Perfect Sound Forever. 
  9. ^ Filmed interview. You See Me Laughin‍ '​ (see filmography), minutes 25-30.
  10. ^ a b c d Ray M. Stiles (1998-08-01). "Interview with R.L. Burnside & Kenny Brown". Blues on Stage. 
  11. ^ Leigh, Spencer (2005-09-03). "R. L. Burnside". Obituaries. The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-20. 
  12. ^ a b c "R. L. Burnside". Contemporary Black Biography. Gale Group. 2006. Retrieved 2015-05-23. 
  13. ^ Burnside would later draw upon in his work, particularly in his interpretation of Skip James's "Hard Time Killing Floor" and the talking blues "R.L.'s Story", the opening and closing tracks on Burnside's 2000 album, Wish I Was In Heaven Sitting Down.
  14. ^ Ronnie Lankford, Jr., ed. (2002). "R. L. Burnside". Contemporary Musicians. Gale Group. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  15. ^ a b c McInerney, Jay. "White Man at the Door: One Man's Mission to Record the 'Dirty Blues' - before Everyone Dies." The New Yorker (February 4, 2002): page 55
  16. ^ a b Grant, Richard (2003-11-16). "Delta Force". Observer Music Monthly. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  17. ^ Wolf LP 120.917 leaflet (scan)
  18. ^ "The King Of Hill Country Blues: Rollin' & Tumblin'". Discogs.com. 
  19. ^ a b David Evans, notes to High Water 410 EP, 1980 (scan), and to Sound Machine Groove, 1981/1997 (scan).
  20. ^ a b "A memoriam to bluesman R.L. Burnside, part 2". The South Reporter. 2005-09-29. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  21. ^ Gérard Herzhaft (1992). "R. L Burnside". Encyclopedia of the Blues (second ed.). University of Arkansas Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-61075-139-1. 
  22. ^ a b Chris Morris (22 June 1996). "R.L. Burnside Brews Blues on Matador". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media). pp. 10, 95. ISSN 00062510. 
  23. ^ Cited in Dan DeLuca (1996-12-08). "This Is A Blues Band Of Another Color Purist? Not The Jon Spencer Blues Explosion. Spencer Calls Its Music "white Suburban Punk."". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  24. ^ Wish I Was in Heaven Sitting Down, review by Alex Henderson
  25. ^ A Bothered Mind, review by Steve Leggett
  26. ^ Andy Gill (2004-10-08). "Album: RL Burnside". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  27. ^ "R.L. Burnside - Chart history". Billboard. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  28. ^ Jason Rewald (2009-06-18). "Hill Country Revue and Blues Evolution". TheDeltaBlues. Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  29. ^ a b "Obituaries, R.L. Burnside". The South Reporter. September 15, 2005. Archived from the original on 2014-04-16. 
  30. ^ "Obituaries". The Southern Reporter. 
  31. ^ "Obituaries October 8, 2010". djournal, Northeast Mississippi daily journal. 
  32. ^ "Memphis-area obituaries: December 9, 2010". The Commercial Appeal, Memphis. 
  33. ^ . PastBlues http://www.pastblues.com/view-action-122.html?itId=130.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ . PastBlues http://www.pastblues.com/view-action-122.html?itId=128.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ "Buddy Guy Wins Three W.C. Handy Honors". Billboard. May 24, 2002. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  36. ^ . PastBlues http://www.pastblues.com/view-action-122.html?itId=127.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  37. ^ . PastBlues http://www.pastblues.com/view-action-122.html?itId=107.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ Ross Haenfler (8 October 2013). "Who are the "authentic" participants and who are the "poseurs"?". Subcultures: The Basics. Routledge. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-134-54763-0. 
  39. ^ OCLC 36765619

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