R10 (New York City Subway car)
|R10 (New York City Subway car)|
|Manufacturer||American Car & Foundry|
|Fleet numbers||1948–1970: 1803–1852 and 3000–3349
1970–1989: 2950–2974, 3000–3049, 3100–3224 (WH); 2975–2999, 3050–3099, 3225–3349 (GE)
|Operator||NYC Board of Transportation
New York City Transit Authority
|Car body construction||LAHT Carbon steel|
|Car length||60.3 ft (18.38 m)|
|Width||10 ft (3.05 m)|
|Height||12.2 ft (3.72 m)|
|Platform height||3.76 ft (1.15 m)|
|Maximum speed||55 mph (89 km/h)|
|Weight||81,200 lb (36,832 kg)|
|Traction system||General Electric cars: GE PCM type 17KG116A switch group, with 17KC76A1 master controller, using GE 1240-A3 motors (100 hp or 75 kW each). All four axles motorized.
Westinghouse cars: WH ABS type UP-631-A switch group, with XM-179 master controller, using Westinghouse 1447-A motors (100 hp (75 kW) each). All four axles motorized.
|Power output||100 hp (75 kW) per traction motor|
|Acceleration||2.5 mph/s (4.0 km/(h·s))|
|Auxiliaries||Edison B4H (32 Volt) battery with 24 cells.|
|Electric system(s)||600 V DC Third rail|
|Current collection method||Top running Contact shoe|
|Braking system(s)||WABCO SMEE Braking System|
|Coupling system||WABCO H2C|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
The R10 was the first post-war New York City Subway car class built by the American Car and Foundry Company in 1948 and 1949. The cars were nicknamed Thunderbirds. The R10s were mainly assigned to the IND Eighth Avenue Line.
The R10 cars were numbered 1803–1852 (later renumbered 2950–2999 in 1970) and 3000–3349. They first ran in service on the A service on November 20, 1948. They were initially assigned to the Eighth Avenue Express A train where they remained for 29 years and became synonymous with that route. Thirty cars were transferred to the BMT Eastern Division in late 1954 to familiarize crews with SMEE equipment in anticipation of the arrival of the R16 units.
While they may have been considered the second worst operating revenue service car during the 1980s based on MDBF (Mean Distance Between Failures), doing better than the R46 based on MDBF, many R10s outlasted the newer R16s as well as a number of R27s and R30s. There was a light overhaul program between December 1984 and February 1986 which was an interim measure to get the entire fleet in a non-graffiti state. The rehabilitation of the 110 R10s was done in-house at a budgeted cost of $65,000 per car.
The R10 introduced many innovations, including "SMEE" schedule braking, which introduced dynamic braking. Dynamic braking reduced wear and tear on brake shoes, reducing maintenance costs. Improved propulsion, in the form of four 100 horsepower (75 kW) traction motors instead of the traditional two 190 hp (140 kW) motors (the setup used in the Arnines) improved acceleration from 1.75 mph per second to the current 2.5 mph/s. R10s were also the last subway cars ordered with air-operated door engines. Although they could operate in mixed consists of later SMEE cars, the R10s for the most part ran in solid consists throughout their careers.
For the first time, the car body was of an all-welded low-alloy high tensile (LAHT) steel construction. This gave the body great strength, as the body and underframe were welded together to form a single, durable and rigid car body which had strong structural integrity.
Retirement, Scrapping, Experiments and Preservation
The last run of the GE R10s and the non-overhauled WH R10s was November 10, 1988, ten days short of the 40th anniversary of their debut. The rebuilt R10s would start being withdrawn by March 1989. The R10s had a final farewell excursion run on October 29, 1989 with cars 3018-3203-3182-2974-3143-3045-3145-3216 on various IND-BMT Division routes, including the new IND 63rd Street Line. The R10s last in service run was on the C service on September 8, 1989. The R10s were replaced by the R68 and R68A fleets.
The bulk of the scrapping of the remaining R10s ended in June 1990. The last R10 car to be removed from the New York City Transit Authority (TA) property was 3081, which was the only surviving GE-equipped unit in existence. It was scrapped sometime in 1993.
- Car 3184 was preserved by the Railway Preservation Corp and was previously displayed at the New York Transit Museum. This car is currently in storage.
- Car 3189 had an experimental 3-passenger transverse fiberglass interior seating installed in 1969. The car was retired from revenue service in 1984, but was later repainted solid blue and used as a Road Car Inspector School Training Car at the TA's Pitkin Yard in Brooklyn. This car is part of the New York Transit Museum and is currently in storage
- Car 3192 had a new R42 type front installed on that car in early 1975 to be the prototype car for an overhaul complete rebuilding of the fleet to be done with modern interiors and air-conditioning. The unit was scrapped in 1980 inside Coney Island Yard and the rebuilding never took place.
- two-tone grey/orange (1948–circa 1967)
- tartar red (1962-1966)
- aqua blue/white with or without blue stripe (1965-1970)
- silver/blue (1970-1988)
- green body, silver roof and black front hood (1984-1989) [GOH Westinghouse units only]
- Sansone, Gene. Evolution of New York City subways: An illustrated history of New York City's transit cars, 1867–1997. New York Transit Museum Press, New York, 1997 ISBN 978-0-9637492-8-4