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Intelligence services in the Royal Air Force are delivered by Officers of the Royal Air Force Intelligence Branch and Airmen from the Intelligence Analyst Trade and Intelligence Analyst (Voice) Trade. The specialisation has around 1200 personnel of all ranks posted to operational air stations and other establishments of the British Armed Forces, both in the United Kingdom and overseas.
- 1 Training
- 2 History
- 3 Staff roles and trades
- 4 Heads of RAF Intelligence
- 5 Notable current members of RAF Intelligence
- 6 Notable former members of RAF Intelligence
- 7 Notable members of RAF Intelligence in Fiction
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Entrants to the specialisation undertake common training at RAF College Cranwell for officers and RAF Halton for airmen. Following initial training, entrants are posted to the Defence Intelligence and Security Centre (DISC) Chicksands, in Shefford, Bedfordshire.
Air Intelligence Wing delivers the Joint Air Intelligence Course (JAIC) to officers and the Operational Air Intelligence Course (OpAIC) to airmen. These courses prepare the individual for posting to intelligence roles. After completion of the first posting, officers and airmen may choose to further specialise in Imagery, Signals Analysis or as a Human Intelligence operator. These specialist courses are delivered in the joint environment alongside intelligence specialists of the Royal Navy, British Army or Ministry of Defence civil servants.
The RAF Intelligence Branch dates back to 1939 following the outbreak of the Second World War, however personnel have been employed in intelligence duties since the formation of the RAF in 1918. At the time, officers of the General Duties (GD) Branch (mainly pilots on a ground tour or who for medical reasons could no longer fly) performed the duty of Squadron Intelligence Officer, or aircrew on ground tours in the Air Ministry Intelligence Department. By the late 1939 there was a dedicated Intelligence Branch (Administrative and Special Duties Branch (for Intelligence duties)). Additionally, in 1939, the Secret Intelligence Service established a dedicated Air Intelligence Section under the command of Group Captain F. W. Winterbotham (Chief of Air Intelligence, MI-6). During the Second World War, the Intelligence Branch became larger to encompass the Signals Intelligence staff at Bletchley Park and the Imagery Intelligence staff at RAF Medmenham.
At the outbreak of war, the Air Ministry recognised the requirement for formalised Intelligence training and established a number of courses to teach Volunteer Reserve Officers the art of Intelligence analysis. Much of this early training was very simplistic and did little more than introduce those to be employed in intelligence duties to the structure of the secretive organisation and where sources came from. The first series of courses were held at Hibbert Road in Harrow starting on 20 Nov 1939. These were short courses of 7 days duration, giving a broad picture of intelligence in Commands, Groups and Stations. After 5 of these courses had run, the training was moved to 14 Ryder Street, St James, London. September 1940 saw another move, back to Harrow to Fisher Road School, Wealdsden. Incorporated into the syllabus was the Advanced Intelligence Course, designed for Senior RAF Intelligence Officers from operational commands, and certain Naval and Army Intelligence Officers. The first of these courses started on 28 Oct 1940 and was 3 weeks in duration. This series continued without interruption and in 1942 developed into the RAF Intelligence School.
In September 1942, the training school moved to Caen Wood Towers (Caenwood Towers), Highgate (this building was later renamed Athlone House). By this time it was clear to the Air Staff that intelligence was a positive and vital element affecting Air Ministry policy, strategy and planning, so the RAF Intelligence School was officially constituted and given a proper home at Caen Wood Towers. The site was set up as Royal Air Force Station Highgate around grounds and outbuildings of the Caen Wood estate. This included accommodation, messing, equipment stores and a medical centre. Because of the sensitivity of intelligence and covert operations during the war, the site was not made fully public and it operated under the guise of an RAF convalescence hospital. A number of different courses were run lasting between 3 weeks and 5 days, teaching Air Intelligence, Escape and Evasion, and Basic Intelligence Analysis for direct entrants to intelligence work. The majority of the instruction was given by visiting specialists (from Air Ministry, MI-6, MI-9, Central Interpretation Unit Medmenham and Station "X" at Bletchley Park.)
The unit was soon awarded a badge (crest) as a proof of the high official regard for the value of the school. The badge consisted of a Sphinx, denoting wisdom, backed by a sun in splendour, depicting elucidation, with the motto Praemonitus Praemunitus which translates as "Forewarned is Forearmed".
In 1943, the Unit was transferred for administrative purposes to No. 28 Group RAF under RAF Technical Training Command. Additional courses were added for Security, Air Intelligence for RAF Bomber Command, a Far East Course and Air Intelligence for Senior Officers. During the period from November 1939 to September 1945, 7,086 Officers of the British Services (including dominion and Allied Forces attached to the RAF) attended over 372 courses. In late 1944, the school was hit twice by German V-1 flying bombs causing damage to the buildings and injuring a number of staff.
Following the end of the war, training continued at RAF Highgate until 1948 when the Air Ministry decided that the School should move to the Air Ministry building as they were de-requisitioning the property. Caen Wood Towers was handed over to the Ministry of Health and was part of the NHS estate until 2004 when it was sold to a private developer. The Branch was split up into Administrative and Special Duties Branch (Photography) and Administrative and Special Duties Branch (Signals), with no dedicated Air Intelligence specialisation.
Training at the RAF Intelligence School continued until 1969, teaching non-specialist Officers (GD and Administrators) the basics of Intelligence. The role of Squadron or Station Intelligence Officer was filled by members of the Administrative Branch as a sub-specialisation. On 2 August 1969, the RAF Intelligence School was officially closed and intelligence training was transferred to the School of Service Intelligence (SSI) at Ashford, Kent. In the 1950s the Photographic Interpretation (PI) Branch was formed for commissioned officers to be employed at the reconnaissance intelligence centres attached to aircraft units, and also to work at the Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre (JARIC) at RAF Brampton. By the start of the 1990s, the RAF could see the benefit of an independent Intelligence Branch, creating the GD (Intelligence) Branch. They required more information and warning on the potential enemies around the world in order to maintain the diminishing RAF's ability to react. In 1997, GD (INT) became the Operations Support (Intelligence) specialisation that is in existence today.
However, training for officers focused on imagery analysis with general intelligence being taught at Ashford on a three week course at the Defence Intelligence and Security School (DISS), the renamed SSI. The first professional Air Intelligence course (RAF Intelligence Course - RAFIC) was run in the Air Intelligence Wing of DISS in 2000, following the school's move to Chicksands in Bedfordshire. After the first two courses, the Royal Navy was invited to send officers to attend and the course was renamed the Joint Air Intelligence Course (JAIC). In 2005, DISS became part of the Defence College of Intelligence and the Air Intelligence Wing was renamed Horus Training Delivery Wing. Following a re-organisation in 2007, the structure was changed again and the Defence School of Intelligence (DSI) was set up with Air Intelligence Wing as a sub-organisation as the Phase 2 training unit (professional specialist training) for all RAF Intelligence Analyst Airmen, RAF Intelligence Officers, plus as a Phase 3 training unit (Continuation Specialist Training) for RAF Intelligence Analyst NCOs and Royal Navy and British Army Officers employed in air intelligence duties.
Staff roles and trades
Entrants to the branch are initially trained as general intelligence analysts and can later sub-specialise in one of a number of trades. Personnel in each sub-specialisation can be employed in a number of locations.
Airmen/Non-Commissioned Officer sub-specialisation
- General intelligence analyst
- Imagery analyst
- Signal intelligence operator
- Human intelligence operator
As with all RAF trades and sub-specialisations personnel can be employed in a range of locations within the trade or in the wider organisation. These can include:
- Defence Intelligence Staff
- Operational HQ Intelligence - PJHQ, JFACHQ, NATO, other service exchange
- Air Warfare Centre
- Station Intelligence Flight - Air Command flying stations
- Squadron Intelligence team - Flying squadrons
- Defence Human Intelligence Unit
- Instructional duties
Heads of RAF Intelligence
- Air Vice-Marshal Charles E.H. Medhurst: March 1941 – October 1942
- Air Vice-Marshal Francis F. Inglis: October 1942 – August 1945
- Air Vice-Marshal Sir Thomas W. Elmhirst: August 1945 – January 1947
- Air Vice-Marshal Lawrence F. Pendred: January 1947 – January 1950
- Air Vice-Marshal Neill C. Ogilvie-Forbes: January 1950 – May 1952
- Air Vice-Marshal Francis J. Fressages: May 1952 – September 1954
- Air Vice-Marshal William M.L. MacDonald: September 1954 – August 1958
- Air Vice-Marshal Sidney O. Bufton: August 1958 – September 1961
- Air Vice-Marshal Alick Foord-Kelcey: September 1961 – December 1964
- Air Vice-Marshal Harold J. Maguire: December 1964 – April 1965
Notable current members of RAF Intelligence
- Jackie Davies, bobsledder
- Ryan Wheal, UK Powerlifting Champion 
- Paul Farthing, star of the RAF TV advert 'Be Part of the Story' RAF Advert 2009
Notable former members of RAF Intelligence
- Pam Ayres, poet
- Michael Bentine, comedian and actor
- Air Commodore Archibald Boyle
- Ralph Reader, founder of the Scout and RAF Gang Shows
- Alex Coomber, British Olympic skeleton bobsleadder
- Cecil Gould, art historian
- Reginald Victor Jones, Scientist
- Christopher Lee, actor
- Wing Commander Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan, CBE, archaeologist
- Air Chief Marshal Sir Claude Pelly
- Air Vice-Marshal Alan Ritchie
- Tony Scannell, actor
- Air Chief Marshal Sir John Steel
- M.J. Stanley, last Officer Commanding of the RAF Intelligence School (1969)
- Dennis Wheatley author
Notable members of RAF Intelligence in Fiction
- "Skull" Selton, character in Derek Robinson's Piece of Cake
- Flt Lt Sandy MacDonald "RAF Intelligence", character in The Great Escape (film) played by Gordon Jackson (actor)
- Terence Alexander, played an RAF Intelligence Officer in the 1957 film The One That Got Away.
- Mackie, Colin (April 2011). "Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Intelligence)" (PDF). Senior Royal Air Force Appointments. www.gulabin.com. p. 13. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- RAF School of Intelligence papers 1942-48, National Archives
- Air Ministry, RAF Intelligence School papers 1945-55, National Archives
- Summary of lecture delivered at Intelligence Course at R.A.F. Caenwood Towers, Highgate, 1943 - National Archives
- Unit badge: R.A.F. Intelligence School, 1943, National Archives
- Extract from Shot Down and on the Run, by Graham Pitchfork, 2003