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Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator
Protein RALGDS PDB 1lfd.png
PDB rendering based on 1lfd.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM601619 MGI107485 HomoloGene4562 GeneCards: RALGDS Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RALGDS 209050 s at tn.png
PBB GE RALGDS 209051 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5900 19730
Ensembl ENSG00000160271 ENSMUSG00000026821
UniProt Q12967 Q03385
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001042368 NM_001145834
RefSeq (protein) NP_001035827 NP_001139306
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
135.97 – 136.04 Mb
Chr 2:
28.51 – 28.55 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RALGDS gene.[1][2]


RALGDS has been shown to interact with RRAS,[3] RAP2A,[4] RAP1A,[4][5] KRAS,[3][6] RAPGEF2,[3] MRAS,[7][8] HRAS,[1][3][5][6][9][10][11][12] Arrestin beta 2[13] and Arrestin beta 1.[13]


  1. ^ a b Hofer F, Fields S, Schneider C, Martin GS (December 1994). "Activated Ras interacts with the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 (23): 11089–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.23.11089. PMC 45172. PMID 7972015. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: RALGDS ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator". 
  3. ^ a b c d Spaargaren, M; Bischoff J R (December 1994). "Identification of the guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator for Ral as a putative effector molecule of R-ras, H-ras, K-ras, and Rap". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 91 (26): 12609–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.26.12609. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 45488. PMID 7809086. 
  4. ^ a b Nancy, V; Wolthuis R M, de Tand M F, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Bos J L, de Gunzburg J (March 1999). "Identification and characterization of potential effector molecules of the Ras-related GTPase Rap2". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (13): 8737–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.13.8737. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10085114. 
  5. ^ a b Boettner, B; Govek E E; Cross J; Van Aelst L (August 2000). "The junctional multidomain protein AF-6 is a binding partner of the Rap1A GTPase and associates with the actin cytoskeletal regulator profilin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (16): 9064–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.16.9064. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 16822. PMID 10922060. 
  6. ^ a b Li, W; Han M; Guan K L (April 2000). "The leucine-rich repeat protein SUR-8 enhances MAP kinase activation and forms a complex with Ras and Raf". Genes Dev. (UNITED STATES) 14 (8): 895–900. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC 316541. PMID 10783161. 
  7. ^ Kimmelman, A; Tolkacheva T; Lorenzi M V; Osada M; Chan A M (November 1997). "Identification and characterization of R-ras3: a novel member of the RAS gene family with a non-ubiquitous pattern of tissue distribution". Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (22): 2675–85. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201674. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9400994. 
  8. ^ Ehrhardt, G R; Leslie K B; Lee F; Wieler J S; Schrader J W (October 1999). "M-Ras, a widely expressed 29-kD homologue of p21 Ras: expression of a constitutively active mutant results in factor-independent growth of an interleukin-3-dependent cell line". Blood (UNITED STATES) 94 (7): 2433–44. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 10498616. 
  9. ^ Mitin, Natalia Y; Ramocki Melissa B; Zullo Alfred J; Der Channing J; Konieczny Stephen F; Taparowsky Elizabeth J (May 2004). "Identification and characterization of rain, a novel Ras-interacting protein with a unique subcellular localization". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (21): 22353–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M312867200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15031288. 
  10. ^ Miller, M J; Prigent S; Kupperman E; Rioux L; Park S H; Feramisco J R; White M A; Rutkowski J L; Meinkoth J L (February 1997). "RalGDS functions in Ras- and cAMP-mediated growth stimulation". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (9): 5600–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.9.5600. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9038168. 
  11. ^ Rodriguez-Viciana, P; Warne P H; Khwaja A; Marte B M; Pappin D; Das P; Waterfield M D; Ridley A; Downward J (May 1997). "Role of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase in cell transformation and control of the actin cytoskeleton by Ras". Cell (UNITED STATES) 89 (3): 457–67. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80226-3. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 9150145. 
  12. ^ Stang, S; Bottorff D; Stone J C (June 1997). "Interaction of activated Ras with Raf-1 alone may be sufficient for transformation of rat2 cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 17 (6): 3047–55. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 232157. PMID 9154803. 
  13. ^ a b Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Anborgh Pieter H; Babwah Andy V; Dale Lianne B; Dobransky Tomas; Benovic Jeffery L; Feldman Ross D; Verdi Joseph M; Rylett R Jane; Ferguson Stephen S G (August 2002). "Beta-arrestins regulate a Ral-GDS Ral effector pathway that mediates cytoskeletal reorganization". Nat. Cell Biol. (England) 4 (8): 547–55. doi:10.1038/ncb821. ISSN 1465-7392. PMID 12105416. 

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