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Retinoblastoma binding protein 4
Protein RBBP4 PDB 2XU7.png
Rendering based on PDB 2XU7.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols RBBP4 ; NURF55; RBAP48; lin-53
External IDs OMIM602923 MGI1194912 HomoloGene21153 GeneCards: RBBP4 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5928 19646
Ensembl ENSG00000162521 ENSMUSG00000057236
UniProt Q09028 Q60972
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001135255 NM_009030
RefSeq (protein) NP_001128727 NP_033056
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
33.12 – 33.15 Mb
Chr 4:
129.31 – 129.34 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Histone-binding protein RBBP4 (also known as RbAp48, or NURF55) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP4 gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of WD-repeat proteins. It is present in protein complexes involved in histone acetylation and chromatin assembly. It is part of the Mi-2/NuRD complex complex that has been implicated in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression associated with histone deacetylation. This encoded protein is also part of corepressor complexes, which is an integral component of transcriptional silencing. It is found among several cellular proteins that bind directly to retinoblastoma protein to regulate cell proliferation. This protein also seems to be involved in transcriptional repression of E2F-responsive genes.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

A decrease of RbAp48 in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in the brain is suspected to be a main cause of memory loss in normal aging.[4] An age related decrease in RbAp48 is observed in the DG from human post-mortem tissue and also in mice. Furthermore a gene knockin of a dominant negative form of RbAp48 of causes memory deficits in young mice similar to that observed in older mice. Finally lentiviral gene transfer to increase the expression of RbAp48 in the brain reverses memory deficits in older mice.[4]

RBBP4 works at least in part through the PKA-CREB1-CPB pathway.[4] Hence one possible therapeutic approach to restore age-related memory loss is the use of PKA-CREB1-CPB pathway stimulating drugs. It has previously been shown that dopamine D1/D5 agonists such as 6-Br-APB and SKF-38,393 that are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and the cAMP phosphodieserase inhibitor rolipram reduce memory defects in aged mice.[5]


RBBP4 has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Qian YW, Wang YC, Hollingsworth RE Jr, Jones D, Ling N, Lee EY (September 1993). "A retinoblastoma-binding protein related to a negative regulator of Ras in yeast". Nature 364 (6438): 648–52. doi:10.1038/364648a0. PMID 8350924. 
  2. ^ Barak O, Lazzaro MA, Lane WS, Speicher DW, Picketts DJ, Shiekhattar R (November 2003). "Isolation of human NURF: a regulator of Engrailed gene expression". EMBO J 22 (22): 6089–100. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg582. PMC 275440. PMID 14609955. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: RBBP4 retinoblastoma-binding protein 4". 
  4. ^ a b c Pavlopoulos E, Jones S, Kosmidis S, Close M, Kim C, Kovalerchik O, Small SA, Kandel ER (August 2013). "Molecular Mechanism for Age-Related Memory Loss: The Histone-Binding Protein RbAp48". Sci Transl Med 5 (200): 200ra115. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006373. PMID 23986399. 
  5. ^ Bach ME, Barad M, Son H, Zhuo M, Lu YF, Shih R, Mansuy I, Hawkins RD, Kandel ER (April 1999). "Age-related defects in spatial memory are correlated with defects in the late phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation in vitro and are attenuated by drugs that enhance the cAMP signaling pathway". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (9): 5280–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.9.5280. PMC 21855. PMID 10220457. 
  6. ^ Yarden RI, Brody LC (1999). "BRCA1 interacts with components of the histone deacetylase complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (9): 4983–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.9.4983. PMC 21803. PMID 10220405. 
  7. ^ Zhang Q, Vo N, Goodman RH (2000). "Histone binding protein RbAp48 interacts with a complex of CREB binding protein and phosphorylated CREB". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (14): 4970–8. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.14.4970-4978.2000. PMC 85947. PMID 10866654. 
  8. ^ Feng Q, Cao R, Xia L, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Zhang Y (2002). "Identification and functional characterization of the p66/p68 components of the MeCP1 complex". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (2): 536–46. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.2.536-546.2002. PMC 139742. PMID 11756549. 
  9. ^ a b Zhang Y, Dufau ML (2003). "Dual mechanisms of regulation of transcription of luteinizing hormone receptor gene by nuclear orphan receptors and histone deacetylase complexes". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 85 (2-5): 401–14. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00230-9. PMID 12943729. 
  10. ^ a b Yao YL, Yang WM (2003). "The metastasis-associated proteins 1 and 2 form distinct protein complexes with histone deacetylase activity". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (43): 42560–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M302955200. PMID 12920132. 
  11. ^ a b c Nicolas E, Ait-Si-Ali S, Trouche D (2001). "The histone deacetylase HDAC3 targets RbAp48 to the retinoblastoma protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (15): 3131–6. doi:10.1093/nar/29.15.3131. PMC 55834. PMID 11470869. 
  12. ^ Grozinger CM, Hassig CA, Schreiber SL (1999). "Three proteins define a class of human histone deacetylases related to yeast Hda1p". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (9): 4868–73. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.9.4868. PMC 21783. PMID 10220385. 
  13. ^ You A, Tong JK, Grozinger CM, Schreiber SL (2001). "CoREST is an integral component of the CoREST- human histone deacetylase complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (4): 1454–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.4.1454. PMC 29278. PMID 11171972. 
  14. ^ a b Hassig CA, Fleischer TC, Billin AN, Schreiber SL, Ayer DE (1997). "Histone deacetylase activity is required for full transcriptional repression by mSin3A". Cell 89 (3): 341–7. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80214-7. PMID 9150133. 
  15. ^ Ng HH, Zhang Y, Hendrich B, Johnson CA, Turner BM, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Reinberg D, Bird A (1999). "MBD2 is a transcriptional repressor belonging to the MeCP1 histone deacetylase complex". Nat. Genet. 23 (1): 58–61. doi:10.1038/12659. PMID 10471499. 
  16. ^ a b c Zhang Y, Ng HH, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Bird A, Reinberg D (1999). "Analysis of the NuRD subunits reveals a histone deacetylase core complex and a connection with DNA methylation". Genes Dev. 13 (15): 1924–35. doi:10.1101/gad.13.15.1924. PMC 316920. PMID 10444591. 
  17. ^ a b Zhang Y, Dufau ML (2002). "Silencing of transcription of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene by histone deacetylase-mSin3A complex". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (36): 33431–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204417200. PMID 12091390. 
  18. ^ Hassig CA, Tong JK, Fleischer TC, Owa T, Grable PG, Ayer DE, Schreiber SL (1998). "A role for histone deacetylase activity in HDAC1-mediated transcriptional repression". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (7): 3519–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.7.3519. PMC 19868. PMID 9520398. 
  19. ^ Zhang Y, Iratni R, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Reinberg D (1997). "Histone deacetylases and SAP18, a novel polypeptide, are components of a human Sin3 complex". Cell 89 (3): 357–64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80216-0. PMID 9150135. 
  20. ^ Hakimi MA, Dong Y, Lane WS, Speicher DW, Shiekhattar R (2003). "A candidate X-linked mental retardation gene is a component of a new family of histone deacetylase-containing complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (9): 7234–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208992200. PMID 12493763. 
  21. ^ Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelling complex". Nature 395 (6705): 917–21. doi:10.1038/27699. PMID 9804427. 
  22. ^ Qian YW, Lee EY (1995). "Dual retinoblastoma-binding proteins with properties related to a negative regulator of ras in yeast". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (43): 25507–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.43.25507. PMID 7503932. 
  23. ^ Nicolas E, Morales V, Magnaghi-Jaulin L, Harel-Bellan A, Richard-Foy H, Trouche D (2000). "RbAp48 belongs to the histone deacetylase complex that associates with the retinoblastoma protein". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (13): 9797–804. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.13.9797. PMID 10734134. 
  24. ^ a b Zhang Y, Sun ZW, Iratni R, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Hampsey M, Reinberg D (1998). "SAP30, a novel protein conserved between human and yeast, is a component of a histone deacetylase complex". Mol. Cell 1 (7): 1021–31. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80102-1. PMID 9651585. 
  25. ^ Kuzmichev A, Zhang Y, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Reinberg D (2002). "Role of the Sin3-histone deacetylase complex in growth regulation by the candidate tumor suppressor p33(ING1)". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (3): 835–48. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.3.835-848.2002. PMC 133546. PMID 11784859. 

Further reading[edit]