RCTV

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Not to be confused with RBTI or RCTI.
For the Philippine cable TV, see RCTV 36.
Radio Caracas Televisión Internacional
RCTV logo 2 000.png
Launched 15 November 1953 (as an over-the-air network)
16 July 2007 (as a cable/satellite-only network)
Owned by Radio Caracas Televisión RCTV, C.A.
(an Empresas 1BC company)
Audience share [1] (22 April 2008, [1])
Slogan Marca el paso (Sets the pace)
Country Venezuela
Language Spanish
Headquarters Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela
Formerly called Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) (15 November 1953–16 July 2007)
Website RCTV Site
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV
(Venezuela)
Channel 103
Cable
Net Uno Channels May Vary
Intercable 13
SuperCable Channels May Vary
Planet Cable Channels May Vary

Radio Caracas Televisión Internacional (RCTV Internacional) is a Venezuelan cable television network headquartered in the Caracas neighborhood of Quinta Crespo. It was sometimes referred to as the Canal de Bárcenas. Owned by Empresas 1BC, RCTV Internacional was inaugurated as Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) on 15 November 1953 by William H. Phelps, Jr.. Its radio counterpart was Radio Caracas Radio.[2]

On 27 May 2007, RCTV made headlines when the Government of Venezuela decided not to renew their radio broadcast license for what it said was the station's role in the 2002 coup which briefly overthrew Venezuela's democratically elected government.[3][4] The Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia or TSJ) upheld the decision by the National Telecommunications Commission (CONATEL) not to renew RCTV's broadcast license. RCTV continued to broadcast via satellite and cable as RCTV International.

In January 2010 RCTV was sanctioned with temporary closure for failing to respect Venezuelan media law. It rejected the Venezuelan media regulator's finding that it was a domestic media provider.

History[edit]

1953 to 1960[edit]

RCTV's logo from 1953 to 1979

Radio Caracas Televisión, C.A. was established on 18 August 1953 by the Corporación Radiofónica de Venezuela (more commonly known as Coraven, a subsidiary of the Grupo Phelps and RCA), whose mission was that of launching a television network.[2][5] In the month of September, Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) began test broadcasts on channel seven using the call sign YVKS-TV, and on 15 November, the network was officially inaugurated at 7:30 pm. RCTV was the third television network to begin operations in Venezuela after Televisora Nacional and Televisa, seen on channels five and four, respectively, and the second commercial network after Televisa.[2]

RCTV Headquarters in Caracas

On 8 October, during RCTV's testing phase, the inaugural game of the XIV World Cup of Baseball was broadcast. This game matched Cuba and Venezuela and took place at the recently opened stadium of the Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas.[2][6]

The official inauguration of RCTV took place at its studios located between the corners of Bárcenas and Río in Quinta Crespo, and had the presence of the Minister of Communications, Colonel Félix Román Moreno, the proprietors of the network, and a small group of special guests. In charge of the inauguration was William H. Phelps, Jr., the president of the company, and his wife, Kathy Phelps.[6]

The first program that was aired by the newly inaugurated network was the musical Fiesta, which hosted by Ramírez Cabrera and sponsored by Cerveza Caracas. Afterwards, RCTV aired a program titled El Farol, which was then followed by a program sponsored by Cigarrillos Alas that was directed by Peggy Walker which featured Alfredo Sadel (who had just returned from New York City in time for RCTV's inauguration).[2]

The first voice that identified the network was that of Héctor Myerston.[7]

The following day, RCTV began transmitting its regular programming on channel seven, presenting programs such as 'El Observador Creole', Cuento Musical Venezolano, Tontín y Tontona, the police adventures of Roy Martin, and the adventures of Kid Carson, to name a few. El Observador Creole was Venezuela's first regular newscast, presented by the Creole Petroleum Corporation (a subsidiary of Standard Oil of New Jersey). The face and voice of Francisco Amado Pernía animated the newcasts from Monday to Saturday and Sunday the newscast corresponded to Cristóbal Rodríquez Pantoja. El Observador Creole remained on the for almost twenty years, being replaced by El Observador Venezolano, and then El Observador.[2]

RCTV's first board of directors included José Marcano Coello, Peter Bottome, Armando Enrique Guía, Guillermo Tucker Arismendi, William H. Phelps, Jr., and Antonio Ortol.[2]

In 1954, Anecdotario appeared. This was the first cultural program that theatrically represented great works of literature. It was directed by Margarita Gelabert and César Henríquez.[6] Other cultural programs similar to Anecdotario included Kaleidoscopio, Teatro del Lunes, Gran Teatro, Ciclorama, Cuentos del Camino, and Candilejas.[8]

Later that year, RCTV debuted their first telenovela, Camay, which was on at 9:00 pm. As a result of Camay's popularity, RCTV began producing more telenovelas, which became an important part of the network's programming throughout the years. In the 1950s, telenovelas contained between 20 to 25 episodes, with each episode lasting 15 minutes (about three minuted were allocated to advertisements), and were televised live.[6]

Also in 1954, RCTV began airing El Show de las Doce with Víctor Saume. It was one of the first variety shows to air in Venezuela. Celebrities such as Pedro Infante, Libertad Lamarque, Nat King Cole, Lucho Gatica, Benny More, Adilia Castillo, Alfredo Sadel, Magdalena Sánchez, Héctor Cabrera, Néstor Zavarce, Héctor Monteverde, Héctor Murga, Lia Toussaint, Carlos Almenar Otero, Mario Suárez, Juan Vicente Torrealba, Aldemaro Romero, Lila Morillo, Mirla Castellanos and Cherry Navarro,guest starred.[8]

In December 1954, RCTV began broadcasting simultaneously on channels two and seven.[2]

In early 1955, RCTV began to transmit exclusively to Caracas, on channel two, from a new transmitting station located in the neighborhood of La Colina. In the month of July, RCTV began its regular service to the interior of the country. A repeater antenna was installed in Altamira, south of Lake Valencia, allowing RCTV to reach, by way of channel seven, Valencia, Maracay, and surrounding towns. Later, RCTV put into service their repeater antenna in Curimagua, Falcón State, so that their signal could reach the entire state and the Netherlands Antilles on channel 10. This station was one of the most modern stations in the moment of its installation.[2]

Also in 1955, the morning show that projected Renny Ottolina, arrived. Lo de Hoy came on at 7:30 a.m. and lasted until 9:00 a.m. It was an adaptation of NBC's Today Show, and as a result of the record audience that it obtained, the show was extended to two hours.[6] In 1958, Ottolina left Lo de Hoy, and went on to host his very own variety show, El Show de Renny.[2]

In March 1956, the operations of the repeater station of Isla de Toas commenced, by which, on channel two, RCTV's signal arrived in Zulia State. In September 1956, RCTV installed an antenna in Pariata, to serve what is now Vargas State.[2]

In 1957, RCTV expanded their coverage to the national level, offering an uninterrupted signal of high quality.[6]

In January 1957, RCTV improved their installations at Curimagua and were able to offer an uninterrupted and higher quality signal to the Falcon State and the Netherlands Antilles. The network also began service to the state of Lara by way of channel three, transmitting from Mount Manzano in Barquisimeto. On 31 October 1957, RCTV began its first service from Puerto La Cruz to cover the northeastern region of Venezuela on channel three.[2]

In 1958, after the fall of dictator Marcos Pérez Jiménez on 23 January of that year, RCTV began airing La Voz de la Revolución, the first political talk show to air in Venezuela.[8]

In 1959, Tito Martinez Del Box, a producer from Argentina, created the comedy series La Gran Cruzada del Buen Humor, later known as Radio Rochela. In 2001, Radio Rochela made the Guinness World Records for being on the air for over five decades uninterrupted (it was seen every Monday at 8:00 pm).[8]

By the end of the 1950s, there existed five television channels in Venezuela: Televisora Nacional, Televisa, Radio Caracas Televisión, Televisa del Zulia, and Ondas del Lago Televisión.[2]

1960 to 1970[edit]

By the 1960s, the American television network, NBC, had purchased a twenty percent stake in RCTV.[5] Although today, NBC no longer owns any part of RCTV, RCTV is affiliated with Telemundo, NBC's Spanish-language network.

In 1961, RCTV, with the help of their radio counterpart, began their first experiments with stereo sound during the broadcast of a variety show.[2]

On 17 September 1961, RCTV put into use their first videotape system, a technology which permitted the consolidation of recordings of sounds and images.[6]

Also in 1961, a major fire affected eighty percent of the operating facilities of the network. As a result of this event, RCTV went on the air with an emergency programming.[2]

Later in 1961, the network offered their first service to the city of Puerto Cabello from an antenna located at the naval base in that city.[2]

In 1962, RCTV began using the first selector of images that was fabricated entirely in the country, demonstrating a technological advancement for the network.[2]

Also in 1962, RCTV began its first service to the state of Táchira and the Norte de Santander Department in Colombia from an antenna located in the high barren plain of El Zumbador.[2]

On 24 August 1963, RCTV was given the exclusive rights to broadcast the inauguration of the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge over Lake Maracaibo.[2] On this day, RCTV realized their first transmission via microwave transmitters from the antennas in Curimagua and Maracaibo. The use of the electronic pointer was incorporated.[6]

On every 17 December between the years 1963 and 1969, RCTV presented, and reran by popular demand, a made-for-TV movie that re-created the death of Simón Bolívar. Written by Alfredo Cortina, starred by the Peruvian actor Luis Muñoz Lecaro (Simón Bolívar), directed by José Antonio Ferrara, and presented by Ruben Darío Villasmil, El Ocaso de un Sol made its mark by being one of the first creations by RCTV recorded on videotape.[2]

In 1964, RCTV began using their new transmitters located in the mountains southeast of Puerto la Cruz and Barcelona to offer a higher quality signal by way of channel three to Isla Margarita, Cumaná, Barcelona, Puerto La Cruz, and surrounding areas in the states of Sucre and Anzoátegui. Later, RCTV inaugurated the transmitters on Pico Terepaima, to the south of Barquisimeto, to serve with quality the states of Lara, Yaracuy, and Portuguesa by way of channel three, and the one in Maracaibo, covering with better image and sound the state Zulia. In November, from Pico Zamuro, Trujillo, RCTV began transmitting its signal to the towns of Trujillo, Valera, Biscucuy, Boconó, Guanare, and their surrounding areas.[2]

In the 1960s, the number of episodes contained in each telenovela increased, with each one episode lasting between 30 to 60 minutes long, also telenovelas were no longer made live as a result of the arrival of the videotape. By 1964, telenovelas with sole sponsors disappeared with the release of La Novela del Hogar (which came on at 2:00 pm), La Novela de Pasión (which came on at 2:25 pm), and La Novela Romantica (which came on at 2:55 pm). La Tirana (1967, created by Manuel Muñoz Rico), was the first telenovela to be aired on Saturdays.

On 16 May 1965, RCTV placed into service their transmitters at the Mérida cable car. Thanks to this equipment, RCTV's signal covered the entire Andean region of Venezuela.[2]

By 1967, there were seven television networks on the air in Venezuela. They included Radio Caracas Televisión, Venevisión, Cadena Venezolana de Televisión (CVTV), Canal 11 Televisión, Televisora Nacional in Caracas, Teletrece in Valencia, and Canal 11 in Maracaibo. Because of the exaggerated number of channels, both for the audience and the national publicity market, this number, at the beginning of the 1970s, was reduced to four (two private and two official).[2]

In 1968, RCTV launched Sabado Espectacular, a variety show created and hosted by Amador Bendayan. The show later moved to Venevision, where it was renamed Sabado Sensacional and is currently known as Super Sabado Sensacional hosted by Leonardo Villalobos.

On 17 July 1969, RCTV brought to their viewers the first international broadcast: a news conference with the Apollo 11 American astronauts that were traveling to the moon the next day.[2] On 20 July, RCTV broadcast live and direct the arrival of these astronauts to the moon. Armando Enrique Guía, Hernán Pérez Belisario, and Gustavo Rada were in charge of the transmission which counted a satellital antenna, a channel of microwave transmitters and a submarine cable.[6]

1970 to 1980[edit]

RCTV's logo from 1979 to 1996

In 1970, RCTV began using the first chromatic signals during the broadcast of the World Cup in Mexico (the same World Cup where Venezuelans were able to see Pelé make his one thousandth goal).[6][9] Unfortunately, by pressure from the government, the network was obligated to use electronic filters.[6]

On 16 November 1971, Producciones Cinematográficas Paramaconi, C.A., a company affiliated with RCTV that specializes in cinematography, was established.[2]

On 30 August 1973, RCTV inaugurated a transmitting station in Punta de Mulatos, between La Guaira and Macuto, to offer a better signal in the region.[2]

On 23 June 1974, RCTV began service to Ciudad Bolívar on channel three, and in July to Puerto Ordaz, on channel two.[2]

In 1974, the miniseries Doña Bárbara began airing. In just 48 episodes of two hours, José Ignacio Cabrujas brought to television the classic novel authored by Rómulo Gallegos in 1929 and later creating into a trilogy with Canaima and Cantaclaro. Under the direction of the Argentine producer Juan Lamata and with César Bolívar in charge of photography, eighty percent of this production was filmed outdoors (mainly in the llanos of the Apure State). Although it was filmed in color, it was broadcast in black and white. This was the first Venezuelan miniseries projected in Europe and the first program dubbed into another language[6] as well as its first color production.

In the mid-1970s, RCTV created the 2 de Oro award as an incentive for the network's artists and talents. The most recent 2 de Oro was held on 15 April 2007. The 2 de Oro 2004 was held 7 November 2004, and the 2 de Oro 2003 was held on 7 November 2003 (there was no 2 de Oro awards in 2005 and 2006). Other (defunct) award shows that aired on RCTV were the Ronda and Meridiano.

In 1975, RCTV began selling broadcasting rights to some of its programs to television companies overseas, with some of them being translated and dubbed into more than 15 languages and transmitted in more than 40 countries.[2] The three hundred episode telenovela, La Usurpadora, was RCTV's first telenovela seen abroad.

Also in 1975, RCTV launched Alerta, a controversial program that took a look into various social situations in Venezuela. Shortly after Luis Herrera Campins assumed the presidency in 1979, Alerta was taken off the air as a result of a highly controversial report that was conducted on the children's mental hospital located in Catia La Mar.[2] Alerta, as well as Primer Plano and A Puerta Cerrada (the latter to a lesser extent), would make a come back, get cancelled, make another come back, and get cancelled again before making another comeback. The latest reincarnation of Alerta began airing on 27 October 2006 and is hosted by Alexandra Belandia.[10] Alerta was originally hosted by Eladio Larez, the future president of RCTV.[2]

On 31 March 1976, RCTV's transmissions were suspended for 72 hours by the first government of Carlos Andrés Pérez for issuing "false and tendacious news", in regard to the kidnapping of the American businessman William Niehous, then president of Owens-Illinois Venezuela. This was RCTV's first shut down by the government.[2][11]

In 1977, the "cultural telenovela" appeared with La Hija de Juana Crespo and then La Señora de Cárdenas, with both of them captivating their audience with stories that went from the wish of over coming economically and professionally, to infidelity and turbulent marriages.[6]

On 5 January 1978, there was another major fire at RCTV's studios. Fortunately, this fire was nowhere near as damaging as the fire of 1961.[2] It was the very same year that it began test color broadcasts for special events only.

On 15 November 1978, the Fundación Academia de Ciencias y Artes del Cine y Televisión (the Academic Foundation of Sciences and Arts of Film and Television) was founded by William H. Phelps.[6] This academy allowed RCTV to give the opportunity to prepare and train their artists and workers.[7]

The government of Luis Herrera Campins (1979), by decree, began permitting the use of color in television and the American color system, NTSC-M, was adopted. On 1 December 1979, RCTV began broadcasting in color. Unfortunately, this decree allowed only cultural productions to transmit under this format. Estefanía was RCTV's first production broadcast in color.[6] And weeks after the official transition to color, RCTV, together with Venevision, became the official broadcasters of that year's OTI Festival, held at the Theater Hall of the Military Academy of Venezuela, in full color.

1980 to 1990[edit]

RCTV's secondary logo from 1984 to 1987

In 1980, RCTV began airing the miniseries Gómez I and Gómez II. Although they were both a phenomenon, creator José Ignacio Cabrujas and RCTV were sued for 15 million bolívares (about 13 billion bolívares just before 2008, which converts to 13 million bolívares fuertes) because of its historical errors and "injuring the moral patrimony of the descendants and family of General Gómez".[2]

Also in 1980, RCTV was closed for a 36 hours by the government of Luis Herrera Campins for airing "sensationalist narrations", "risqué pictures", and "news stories lacking facts".[11]

Television networks in Venezuela, whom were already prepared for the change and had occasionally transmitted in this format, made the complete switch-over to color on June 1, 1980.[5]

In 1981, RCTV was closed for 24 hours (by the government of Luis Herrera Campins) for airing "a segment of pornographic film".[11]

According to an article published in the Caracas daily newspaper, El Nacional, dated 27 September 1981, RCTV was admonished by the national government for having announced prematurely the death of ex-president Rómulo Betancourt. The Minister of Communications, Vinicio Carrera, by instructions of President Luis Herrera Campins, was in charge of admonishing RCTV "very severely".

RCTV's international distributor logo from 2005 to present

In 1982, Coral International was created to sell and distribute RCTV's programs overseas. In 2005, Coral International changed its name to RCTV International to honor its parent company.

The government of Luis Herrera Campins, by way of decrees 849 (published in the Official Gazette number 32,116 dated 21 November 1980) and 996 (published in the Official Gazette number 32,192 dated 20 March 1981) prohibited, for reasons of public health, television and radio stations to advertise, directly or indirectly, the consumption of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and other tobacco products.[11]

In 1984, RCTV was admonished for ridiculing "in a humiliating way" President Luis Herrera Campins and his wife.[11]

It was in 1986 that the private television networks in Venezuela began using satellite dishes to "download" foreign television signals for their use.[5]

1986 was also the year of Cristal, a telenovela of 246 episodes which broke audience records both inside and outside of Venezuela. In Spain, Cristal was aired since 1988 to 1993 on seven different time periods. Later that year, RCTV launched another major production, called La Dama de Rosa, which in 1991 was seen by seven million people in Spain alone.[6] As a result, RCTV made a record US$12 million from the sales of their telenovelas overseas.[5]

Also in 1986, Expedición, the first ecological and conservationist series produced in Venezuela began airing, which converted RCTV into a pioneering network in this genre. This series was exported to other countries, particularly the United States, Spain, and Japan.[6] Expedición aired until 1998 and contained a total of 48 episodes.[2]

On 27 May 1987, RCTV's broadcast license was renewed for 20 years by the government of Jaime Lusinchi.[11]

On 13 August 1988, William H. Phelps, Jr., RCTV's founder and first president died at age 85. He had served as RCTV's president for 34 years, retiring from the network only a year before his death.[12]

In 1989, RCTV was closed for 24 hours by the second government of Carlos Andrés Pérez for airing advertisements for cigarettes.[13]

1990 to 2000[edit]

RCTV's logo from October 1996 to 16 April 2007

During the first years of the 1990s, RCTV developed a series of made-for-TV-movies. Some were based on real life events. Among the most highlighted were La Madamme (with Mimí Lazo), Cuerpos Clandestinos (with María Conchita Alonso), Volver a Ti (with Ruddy Rodríguez), and Buen Corazón (with Coraima Torres), among many others.[14]

In 1991, RCTV began using computer-generated imagery to present their logo.[15][16]

On 1 August 1991, the Venezuelan government forced RCTV not to air a sketch in Radio Rochela, called "La Escuelita", due to its controversial nature. This decision was ratified by the Supreme Court.[13][17]

By 1992, RCTV had lost much of its audience to its main rival, Venevisión, but after the launch of Por Estas Calles, RCTV became by far the number one television station in Venezuela in terms of viewer ratings. This resulted in Venevisión to cancel its contract with Marte TV (Channel 12; now La Tele), and as a result Marte TV nearly entered bankruptcy.[2]

Also in 1992, Kassandra based on a gipsy love theme, was the first Venezuelan telenovela that arrived in the Japanese market. This production was translated in eighty languages and was placed into the Guinness Book of World Records for being the most sold telenovela.[6] The protagonists Coraima Torres and Osvaldo Rios were extremely successful in Italy, Russia, former Eastern Bloc nations, the republics of the former Yugoslavia, as well as the Middle East, south and east Asia.

In 1993, for the first time, RCTV combined cartoons with real actors in one of their productions. Created by Mariela Romero, the telenovela Dulce Ilusión was converted into a modern version of Cinderella.[6]

In 1994 and 1995, with the objective to obtain the best sharpness and resolution of colors, RCTV inaugurated the first studio that utilized video component technology. Also in 1996, RCTV switched from using an analog signal to using a digital signal.[6]

In 1997, RCTV was the first network in Latin America that automated their informative services (from the making of its contents until its airing), in which they adopted the format DVC Pro.[6]

In 1999, RCTV purchased the Digital Betacam System, which allowed the use of cinematographic techniques in the illumination of outdoor shots.[6]

On 15 November 1999, RCTV had been on the air for a total of 16,000 days.[5]

On 4 December 1999, the testing phase began for Vale TV (Valores Educativos Televisión), a non-profit private enterprise that united the Archbishopric of Caracas and the three leading private television networks in Venezuela, RCTV, Venevisión, and Televen.[2]

2000 onwards[edit]

RCTV's logo from 16 April 2007 to 16 July 2007

On 18 July 2005, the Centro Nacional de Noticias (National Center for News), was inaugurated. From here, RCTV broadcasts El Observador (all three daily emissions), La Entrevista, and other special programs of information and opinion. The president of Empresas 1BC and general director of RCTV, Marcel Granier, and the president of RCTV, Eladio Larez, were present at its inauguration. It is located in Quinta Crespo, a neighborhood in Caracas downtown where Radio Caracas Televisión's other studios can be found.[6][18][19][20][21]

On 17 June 2006, the Autonomous Service of Intellectual Property (SAPI), issued an administrative resolution in which it cancelled the use of the trademark "Radio Caracas Televisión", arguing that RCTV has not used this name for at least three consecutive years (they preferred to identify themselves as just RCTV) and thus should no longer have the right to it. This resolution came about when RCTV was being sued by the cable channel, Caracas TV, for having trademarked the name Caracas TV three months after Caracas TV went on the air (RCTV was also known as Radio Caracas TV, and claimed that there was too much of a similarity).[22][23] Caracas TV would later be relaunched as Canal de Noticias, a 24-hour cable news network.[24]

On 15 December 2006, Tu Tienda RCTV, a gift shop which sells various products containing the logo of RCTV, ¿Quién Quiere Ser Millonario? (the local version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?), and the telenovela Te Tengo en Salsa, opened in the Recordland at the Sambil Mall in Caracas.[25]

In 2006, RCTV was sued for broadcasting advertisements of phone services with images of a "high sexual content" during late night programming. The Supreme Court ordered the station to stop carrying such forms of publicity.[26]

2007 – end of terrestrial broadcast license[edit]

Further information: May 2007 RCTV protests
RCTV Internacional's logo from 16 July 2007 to present

RCTV has been accused[citation needed] of inciting the 2002 failed coup d'état that briefly overthrew Venezuela's government, which would have been a serious violation of that nation's broadcast laws. The Venezuelan government did not renew RCTV's broadcasting license which was up for renewal in May 2007 and the Venezuelan Supreme Court ordered their broadcast equipment to be temporarily seized and made available to the new government-owned TVes station,[27] which commenced transmissions the next day after RCTV was shut down. RCTV has denied any wrongdoing and argued that no trial had been conducted that linked the network to the coup attempt.

The week after the closure, RCTV started broadcasting its newscast to Latin America, first through Colombia's Caracol Televisión and since then to other countries around the world. On 7 June, RCTV started broadcasting its newscast El Observador on Globovisión.[28]

Background[edit]

Venezuelans rally in support of RCTV

On 9 April 2002, the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela—the country's largest trade-union federation—called for a two-day strike in support of the recently fired executives and managers of Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA)—Venezuela's state-owned oil company. Fedecámaras—the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce—joined the strike/lockout and called on its affiliated member businesses to shut 48 hours.

The opposition general strike was covered extensively by the privately owned news media. During this time, the government used its powers under article 192 of the telecommunications law to requisition all radio and TV stations to broadcast numerous speeches by President Chávez, other government officials, and other programming favorable to the government. To sidestep this requirement, the television channels began to broadcast their own news at the same time as the government addresses by splitting their screens.[29][30][31]

On 11 April 2002, after three days of demonstrations, anti-Chávez and pro-Chávez demonstrators clashed at the Miraflores Palace. The government ordered the suspension of broadcasting by the privately owned TV channels Televen, Venevisión, Globovisión and RCTV at around 4 p.m., shortly after they refused to carry a speech by President Chávez exclusively and used split screens to broadcast live pictures of the opposition demonstration being broken up at the same time as the president’s speech. Only the state-owned Venezolana de Televisión was allowed to continue broadcasting.[29][31][32]

After several shooting deaths, elements of the Armed Forces deposed President Hugo Chávez, whom they held responsible.[33][34] Commander of the Army, Lucas Rincón Romero, reported in a nationwide broadcast that Chávez had resigned his presidency,[33] a charge Chávez would later deny. Chávez was taken to a military base while Fedecámaras president Pedro Carmona was appointed as the transitional President of Venezuela.[33][35]

RCTV reported these actions as a victory for democracy and conducted friendly interviews with leaders of the movement.[citation needed] Footage from the Irish documentary The Revolution Will Not Be Televised appeared to show a coup leader thanking RCTV and Venevisión for their assistance, calling the media "[our] secret weapon".

Subsequently the new government rapidly unraveled, after Carmona issued a decree that established a transitional government, dissolving the National Assembly and the Supreme Court, and suspending several Chávez appointees. While his own coalition wavered, large sectors of the armed forces moved into the Chávez camp, linked up with a mass popular uprising from the barrios, and restored Chávez to office.[citation needed] RCTV declined to report any of these events, preferring to broadcast reruns of Looney Tunes and the film Pretty Woman .[citation needed] According to the Chicago Tribune, RCTV and other broadcasters supported the failed coup "by directing marchers and then failing to inform the public that the coup had failed".[36]

Chávez was restored to power on 14 April 2002. Over the following months, and again in the wake of the 2002 lock-out and general strike, he stepped up his criticism of the country's private media companies, accusing them of having supported the coup. On his weekly television program Aló Presidente and in other forums, he regularly referred to the leading private media owners as "coup plotters", "fascists", and "the four horsemen of the apocalypse".[37] He reminded them that their concessions operated at the pleasure of the state and that if they "went too far", their concessions could be canceled at any time.[38]

Some editorialists have agreed that the network cooperated with the coup attempt 11 April 2002.[39][40] RCTV encouraged pro-coup protests, celebrated when Chávez was temporarily removed from power, and broadcast false reports that Chávez had renounced his presidency.[40] In addition, when Chávez returned to power, RCTV did not report the news but rather broadcast entertainment programs such as the movie Pretty Woman. According to RCTV, their decision not to transmit the images of riots taking place all over Caracas was in order not to entice more deaths and destruction in Venezuela.[40][unreliable source?]

According to Andrew Puddephatt, the right to freedom of speech may have limitations when its exercise conflicts with the observance of other human or legal rights.[41] A documentary by John Pilger, The War on Democracy, shows documentary evidence of conflicts[example needed] of freedom of speech with other rights in recent times in Venezuela.

End of license[edit]

On 28 December 2006, President Chávez announced that the government would not renew RCTV's broadcast license which came up for renewal on 27 May 2007, thereby forcing the channel to cease broadcast operations on that day.[42] The government says that the non-renewal is caused by RCTV's alleged support for the unconstitutional 2002 coup attempt against Chávez's democratically elected government.

The Venezuelan Supreme Court of Justice (TSJ)[43] ruled on 17 April 2007 that it is within the CONATEL's power to decide on the issuing, renewal and revocation of broadcast licenses.[44] RCTV may continue broadcasting over cable or DTH systems (DirecTV Latin America) when its license expires, but the government will take over the equipment, studios and even the master control for their use in the new station it has created on 27 May 2007. On 24 May, the Supreme Court ordered RCTV to stop broadcasting as soon as its license expires and approved the government's takeover of its equipment, though it would review the station's appeal of the decision. Chávez announced plans to start broadcasting a public service channel, TVes, using this infrastructure which belonged to RCTV.[45]

The Supreme Court ruled that RCTV's broadcasting equipment "must be available" to TVes. The ruling also ordered the military to guard the equipment. This allows TVes to be available in the same locations where RCTV used to broadcast.[27]

The final program airing on RCTV Sunday was an all day/night retrospective tribute to the network, featuring current and ex workers, artists and staff of RCTV. Many workers and artists from other networks, including Venevision, had to use the last hours of RCTV to give their opinion since they were not allowed at their own companies.

On Saturday, 26 May, RCTV shut down its live Internet stream in preparation for its forced close-down on Sunday, 27 May. At 12 Midnight on 28 May, RCTV ceased broadcasting and for the following 8 seconds the signal went dark. It was then replaced by TVes's ID which was on air for 20 minutes. At 12:20 am, TVes began programming for the first time. DirecTV Venezuela has replaced RCTV with TVes on 104.[46]

RCTV interpretation[edit]

RCTV argues that no trial has been conducted that links the network to the coup attempt.[47] Other stations—including Venevisión and Televen— were also accused of supporting the coup attempt, but their licenses were renewed. Those networks became less critical of Chávez, prompting opponents to say the action against RCTV was evidence that Chávez defined media outlets critical of his government as the enemy, according to the New York Times.[48] The government later said that RCTV VHF Channel 2 was more suitable for the planned new public TV channel due to better reception across the country than Venevision or Televen's frequencies.[49]

RCTV also argued that the channel's license would expire in 2022 rather than 2007. A 1987 decree during Jaime Lusinchi's presidential term gave RCTV a 20-year license, but the network claimed that the failure of the National Telecommunications Commission to issue an administrative authorization by 12 June 2002 automatically granted the channel a 20-year license renewal. The government rejected this interpretation, stating that the converting of licenses into administrative authorizations did not mean a license renewal, just a census of broadcasters.[47] The Supreme Court subsequently agreed.

Chávez says TVes will better reflect his socialist revolution, calling RCTV "a threat to the country".[50]

National reactions[edit]

Rallies took place, both in favor and against the government's decision. One rally against the decision took place in Caracas on 21 May 2007 with "thousands of protesters."[51] On 25 May, university students from the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, the Universidad Simón Bolívar and the Universidad Central de Venezuela protested against the government's intentions.[52][53] On June 2, 2007, tens of thousands of pro-government protesters took to the streets in support of Chavez's decision.[54]

Several opinion polls conducted by companies associated with the Venezuelan opposition showed that the public was strongly against the move. One poll, conducted in April 2007 by the Venezuelan company Datanálisis, found that 13% of the population agreed with the revocation of RCTV's license, while 70% rejected the government's decision.[55] A May poll conducted by a firm called Hinterlaces in 15 Venezuelan states with a 4.7% margin of error reported that 83% of the Venezuelan population reject the discontinuation of RCTV, with 74% saying that democracy is at stake.[56]

International reactions[edit]

Many individuals, international organizations and NGOs—including the OAS's Secretary General José Miguel Insulza[57] and its Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression,[58] the Inter American Press Association,[59] Human Rights Watch,[60] the Committee to Protect Journalists,[61] and the Human Rights Foundation[62]—have expressed concerns for freedom of the press.[63] United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice criticised the TV closure as "undemocratic" and went on to say "...disagreeing with your government is not unpatriotic and most certainly should not be a crime in any country, especially a democracy."[64] However, Secretary Insulza also stated that it was up to the Venezuelan courts to solve this dispute[65] and that he believed that this was an administrative decision.[66]

The International Press Institute stated that it is "a flagrant attempt to silence the station's critical voice and in violation of everyone's right 'to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers,' as outlined in Article 19 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights."[67] The Committee to Protect Journalists "concluded [Chávez's] government failed to conduct a fair and transparent review of RCTV's concession renewal. The report, based on a three-month investigation, found the government’s decision was a predetermined and politically motivated effort to silence critical coverage."[68] Reporters Without Borders (RWB) stated "The closure of RCTV [...] is a serious violation of freedom of expression and a major setback to democracy and pluralism. President Chávez has silenced Venezuela’s most popular TV station and the only national station to criticize him, and he has violated all legal norms by seizing RCTV’s broadcast equipment for the new public TV station that is replacing it."[69] But in a right of reply to Le Monde diplomatique, RWB president Robert Ménard then said that the NGO had also condemned RCTV for its support to the 2002 coup attempt.[70]

José Miguel Vivanco, Americas director for Human Rights Watch, called the RCTV case "clearly a case of censorship and the most grave step back in the region since Fujimori,"[71] referring to the manipulation of the media by Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori in the 1990s. "[Chávez] is misusing the state’s regulatory authority to punish a media outlet for its criticism of the government," Vivanco said.[72]

The United States Senate approved a motion promoted by Senators Richard Lugar and Christopher Dodd condemning the closing,[73] and Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, asserted that it was an attempt to silence the critics of the Government.[74] The U.S. State Department,[75] the European Union,[76] the senates of Chile[76][77] and Brazil,[78] and the legislatures of a number of other Latin American countries have also expressed concern over the incident.

European Commission President José Manuel Barroso qualified the measure as regrettable, adding that "freedom of expression and press freedom are substantial components of democracy.[citation needed] Costa Rican President Óscar Arias Sánchez stated that any media closing was a deathly strike against any democratic system.[79] Chilean President Michelle Bachelet said she regrets the decision and that "freedom of expression is the golden rule."[77] Along with her, Finnish President Tarja Halonen said she was watching the situation with concern.[80] The Spanish Partido Popular, the main opposition party, called the closing an "attack against freedom of expression".[81]

However, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) questioned whether, in the event a television station openly supported and collaborated with coup leaders, the station in question would not be subject to even more serious consequences in the United States or any other Western nation.[82] Others[quantify] also criticised the motives and presentation of the conflict offered by the mass corporate media, pointing to the alleged predominance of private corporate media in Venezuela, which according to Dan Jakopovich is often critical of Chavez and others on the left-wing.[83][unreliable source?] As well, several British politicians and journalists supported Chávez's decision to not renew RCTV's broadcasting license, due to their belief that the station had "used its access to the public airwaves to repeatedly call for the overthrow of the democratically elected government of President Hugo Chávez."[84]

After the Brazilian Senate passed a motion urging Chávez to reconsider the revocation of RCTV's license, Chávez "accused the Brazilian Congress of acting like a 'puppet' of the US", prompting Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to say “Chavez has to take care of Venezuela, I have to take care of Brazil and (US President George W.) Bush has to take care of the US”.[85][86] Later, Lula da Silva said the decision of not renewing the broadcast license was internal Venezuelan business, adding that the legal logic of each country should be respected.[87] Chávez said that presidents Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua and Evo Morales of Bolivia have phoned to show support to his decision and that Álvaro Uribe from Colombia said that his country would not involve itself in Venezuela's internal affairs.[88] He also said "I would not do that to anybody."[89] President Rafael Correa of Ecuador said that he would have canceled the broadcast license automatically (after the 2002 coup).[90]

With continued protests in 2010, the RCTV closure has been highlighted by human rights organization as an example of violations of freedom of the press, the absence of due process,[91][92][93] and the Chavez administrations "abuse its authority to compel broadcast of presidential speeches that promote the government's political agenda" and Chavez seeking "to intimidate and punish broadcasters who criticize his government".[94]

RCTV alternatives[edit]

Because of the end of RCTV, 1BC created a new channel called RCTV International. RCTV International was then taken out by cable operators in accordance to broadcasting laws. On February 22, 1BC announced the creation of RCTV Mundo (a channel made for international audiences with 70% of international content) and the continuation of RCTV International in Venezuela (aimed at national content). Both channels are available in Venezuela.

IACHR[edit]

In March 2009 the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) concluded two cases brought against Venezuela by the private Venezuelan TV stations Globovisión and RCTV. It concluded that the Venezuelan government had not violated the right to freedom of expression, equality before the law, or private property, but that the government had failed to do enough to prevent and punish acts of intimidation against journalists by third parties.[95]

2007 onwards – broadcasting via cable/satellite[edit]

RCTV lost its free-over the air broadcast licence, but it was not out of business. In an article in the 5 July 2007 edition of AM New York, the head of RCTV, Marcel Granier said that he was considering taking the network's programming to cable or satellite. This was accomplished in the Summer of 2007.

DirecTV Latin America and RCTV signed an agreement for the satellite service to transmit RCTV's programming to satellite subscribers in Venezuela and other parts of the world. The network will be broadcasting for DirectTV in the channel 103. Later came the deals with other national cable operators, Inter, formerly known as InterCable, and NetUno, both being the most important and known cable operators in Venezuela. The channel number varies by area of the country and the cable system. Broadcasting officially resumed on 16 July at 6:00 am (UTC−4).

In the wake of the loss of its terrestrial licence, RCTV announced plans to continue broadcasting its main news program 'El Observador' on popular internet video host YouTube during 2007.[96] YouTube viewership of 'El Observador' was initially significant but within a week of the end of RCTV's television transmission had fallen to less than 5,000 viewers a day.[97] El Observador no longer promotes the YouTube site and instead directs its viewers to watch its broadcasts through a different video hosting service. Viewership numbers are not available.

Following its move to cable, RCTV relaunched itself as RCTV International, in an attempt to escape the regulation of the Venezuelan media law. In mid-2009 the Venezuelan media regulator CONATEL declared that cable broadcasters would be subject to the new media law if 70% or more of their content and operations were domestic.[98] The decree went in force on December 22, 2009[99]- In January 2010 CONATEL concluded that RCTV met that criterion of broadcasting more than 70% domestic content in the past 90 days (being more than 90% domestic according to CONATEL), and reclassified it as a domestic media source, and therefore subject to the requirements to broadcast state announcements, known as cadenas. Along with several other cable providers, RCTV refused to do so and was sanctioned with temporary closure. According to the government, in order to resume broadcasting it will need to register as a domestic media provider. Other sanctioned channels include the American Network, America TV and TV Chile. TV Chile, an international channel of Chilean state television, had failed to respond to a January 14 deadline for clarifying the nature of its content.[100] Cable network providers have been encouraged by the Venezuelan government to remove those channels that are found to be in violation of existing media regulations.[101]

News and broadcasts[edit]

Main article: El Observador (RCTV)

El Observador was RCTV's main newscast. It was broadcast three times a day, except for Sundays, when it only came on during important events such as elections.

Some of RCTV's programs could be seen in other countries on various channels, including TV Venezuela, a premium subscription channel available on DirecTV.

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External links[edit]