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RD-107 Vostok.jpg
Country of origin USSR
Manufacturer NPO Energomash
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / Kerosene
Cycle Gas generator
Thrust (vac.) RD-107: 1,000 kilonewtons (220,000 lbf)
RD-107A: 1,020 kilonewtons (230,000 lbf)[1]
Thrust (SL) RD-107: 810 kilonewtons (180,000 lbf)
RD-107A: 839 kilonewtons (189,000 lbf)[1]
Isp (vac.) RD-107: 313 sec
RD-107A: 320.2 sec[1]
Isp (SL) RD-107: 256 sec
RD-107A: 263.3 sec[1]
Dry weight RD-107: 1,190 kilograms (2,620 lb)
RD-107A1,190 kilograms (2,620 lb)[1]
Used in
First stage boosters for R-7 family

The RD-107 is a type of rocket engine initially used to launch R-7 Semyorka missiles. RD-107 engines were later used on space launch vehicles based on the R-7. As of 2001, very similar RD-107A engines are used to launch the Soyuz FG, which is in active service.[2]


The RD-107 was designed under the direction of Valentin Glushko at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory-Experimental Design Bureau (OKB-456) between 1954 and 1957. It uses liquid oxygen and kerosene as propellants, with each engine comprising four combustion chambers which share a single set of turbopumps.


The RD-107 and RD-108 engines are produced at a plant in Samara, Russia, under the supervision of the Privolzhskiy branch of NPO Energomash.[1] The Privolzhsky branch was organized as a branch of OKB-456 in 1958, specifically for the manufacture of RD-107 and RD-108 engines. The branch was led by Y.D. Solovjev until 1960, then by R.I. Zelenev until 1975, then by A.F. Udalov until 1978, and is currently led by A.A. Ganin.[3]


Modifications to the RD-107 design have led to production of several distinct versions of the engine:

  • 8D74
  • 8D728 (RD-107MM)
  • 11D511 (RD-117)
  • 14D22 (RD-107A)

Similar modifications have led to several distinct versions of the RD-108:

  • 8D75
  • 8D727 (RD-108MM)
  • 11D512 (RD-118)
  • 14D21 (RD-108A)

Work on the 14D21 and 14D22 engines started in 1986, with a preliminary design completed in 1993. These engines incorporate a new injector head design to increase specific impulse. The first launch of a Progress cargo spacecraft using a launch vehicle equipped with these engines took place in May 2001. The first human spaceflight launch utilizing these engines took place in October 2002.[1]

Hypergolic vs. pyrotechnic ignition[edit]

Currently produced engines are ignited with a pyrotechnic ignition system. Energomash reports a new, hypergolic ignition system (on engines designated 14D21kHz and 14D22kHz) are ready for certification and flight tests.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "RD-107/108". NPO Energomash. Archived from the original on Apr 29, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Engines". NPO Energomash. 
  3. ^ "Memorable dates". NPO Energomash.