RD-180 test firing, November 4, 1998, at the Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Engine Test Facility.
|Country of origin||Russia|
|Date||1999 - 2014|
|Propellant||LOX / RP-1|
|Thrust (vac.)||933,400 lbf (4.15 MN)|
|Thrust (SL)||860,568 lbf (3.83 MN)|
|Chamber pressure||3,868 psia (26.7 MPa, 266.8 bar)|
|Isp (vac.)||338 s (3.31 km/s)|
|Isp (SL)||311 s (3.05 km/s)|
|Burn time||270 Sec|
|Length||140 in (3.56 m)|
|Diameter||124 in (3.15 m)|
|Dry weight||12,081 lb (5,480 kg)|
The RD-180 (РД-180, Ракетный Двигатель-180, Rocket Engine-180) is a rocket engine designed and built in Russia. It features a dual-combustion chamber, dual-nozzle design and is fueled by a kerosene/LOX mixture. Currently RD-180 engines are used for the first-stage of the US Atlas V launch vehicle.
The roots of the RD-180 rocket engine extend back into the rocket engine development program of the Soviet Union in the 1960s, with the development of the staged combustion cycle and the NK-33 engine. When the N-1 rocket development program was shut down in 1974, all work on the project was ordered destroyed. A bureaucrat instead took the engines, worth millions of dollars each, and stored them in a warehouse. Word of the engines eventually spread to America. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, and over twenty years after the engines were built, disbelieving rocket engineers were led to the warehouse. Later, one of the engines was taken to America, and the precise specification of the engine was demonstrated on a test stand.
After successful performance in engine tests on a test stand, and high-level agreements between the US government and the Russian government, the engine design was slightly modified and the engines were imported to the US for use on the Lockheed Martin Atlas III, with first flight in 2000. The engine is also used on the United Launch Alliance Atlas V, the successor to the Atlas III.
2014 supply chain disruption
Doubts about the reliability of the supply chain for the RD-180 arose following the Ukraine crisis in March 2014. For over thirteen years since the engine was first used in the Atlas III launch vehicle in 2000, there was never any serious jeopardy to the engine supply, despite an uneven record of US-Russian relations since the Cold War. But worsening relations between the West and Russia after March have led to several blockages, including a short-lived judicial injunction from the US courts that were unclear on the scope of the US sanctions on importing the Russian engine.
On May 13, 2014, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin announced that "Russia will ban the United States from using Russian-made rocket engines for military launches"—a frequent payload of the ULA Atlas V launch vehicle which powers its first stage with a single RD-180 engines that is expended after each flight. In response, the US Air Force has asked the Aerospace Corporation to begin evaluating alternatives for powering the Atlas 5 booster stage with non-RD-180 engines. Early estimates are that it would require five or more years to replace the RD-180 on the Atlas V.
Even if the Russian government does not cut off the supply to ULA of imported RD-180 engines, the US Congress, with emerging support from the Air Force, has come around to a view that it would not be advantageous to the US government to start up a US production line to produce the RD-180. However, the US Congress is advocating for the initiation of a new US hydrocarbon rocket engine program, to field a new engine by 2022.
In June 2014, Aerojet Rocketdyne proposed that the US Federal government "fund an all-new, U.S.-sourced rocket propulsion system," the 2,200-kilonewton-class (500,000 lbf) thrust kerosene/LOX AR-1 rocket engine. as of June 2014[update] Aerojet's early projection was that the cost of the each engine would be under US$25 million per pair of engines—not including the up to US$1 billion estimated development cost to be funded by the US Government. Aerojet believed that the AR-1 could replace the RD-180 in the US Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle fleet, and that it would be more affordable.
On 21 August 2014, the U.S. Air Force released an official request for information (RFI) for a replacement for the Russian RD-180 rocket engine. The RFI seeks information on "booster propulsion and/or launch system materiel options that could deliver cost-effective, commercially-viable solutions for current and future National Security Space (NSS) launch requirements. Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) is considering an acquisition strategy to stimulate the commercial development of booster propulsion systems and/or launch systems for Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)-class spacelift applications." The day before, the United Launch Alliance had taken delivery of two RD-180s, the first since the Russian annexation of Crimea. It is not clear when the replacement of the RD-180 would start, and the RFI asked input for several options including similarity to the Russian engine, whether it would come in a new configuration, and the use of "alternative launch vehicles" for the EELV mission.
Design and specifications
The combustion chambers of the RD-180 share a single turbopump unit, much like in its predecessor, the four-chambered RD-170. The RD-180 is fueled by a RP-1/liquid oxygen mixture and uses an extremely efficient, high-pressure staged combustion cycle. The engine runs with an oxidizer to fuel ratio of 2.72 and employs an oxygen-rich preburner, unlike typical fuel-rich US designs. The thermodynamics of the cycle allow an oxygen-rich preburner to give a greater power-to-weight ratio, but with the drawback that high pressure, high temperature gaseous oxygen must be transported throughout the engine. The movements of the engine nozzles are controlled by four hydraulic actuators. The engine can be throttled from 40% to 100% of rated thrust.
During the early 1990s General Dynamics Space Systems Division (later purchased by Lockheed Martin) acquired the rights to use the RD-180 in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and the Atlas program. As these programs were conceived to support United States government launches as well as commercial launches, it was also arranged for the RD-180 to be co-produced by Pratt & Whitney. However all production to date has taken place in Russia. The engine is currently sold by a joint venture between the Russian developer and producer of the engine NPO Energomash and Pratt & Whitney, called RD AMROSS.
The RD-180 was first deployed on the Atlas IIA-R vehicle, which was the Atlas IIA vehicle with the Russian (hence the R) engine replacing the previous main engine. This vehicle was later renamed the Atlas III. An additional development program was undertaken to certify the engine for use on the modular Common Core Booster primary stage of the Atlas V rocket.
RD-180 was proposed to be used[when?] with a new family of Rus-M Russian space launch vehicles, proposed by Roskosmos contractors, but the program was canceled by the Russian Space Agency in October 2011.
Jerry Grey, a consultant to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Universities Space Research Association and a former professor of aerospace engineering at Princeton University, suggested using the RD-180 for a prospective NASA heavy-lift launch vehicle. For those who might be concerned about too much reliance on Russia, he pointed out that RD Amross was "very close to producing a U.S.-built version of the RD-180, and with some infusion of NASA funding could be manufacturing that engine (and perhaps even a 1,700,000 lbf or 7.6 MN thrust equivalent of the RD-170) in a few years."
Despite the availability of necessary documentation and legal rights for producing RD-180 in the United States, NASA is considering development of an indigenous core stage engine that would be "capable of generating high levels of thrust approximately equal to or exceeding the performance of the Russian-built engine." NASA considered in 2010 to produce a fully operational engine by 2020 or sooner, depending оn partnership with the U.S. Defense Department.
- Comparison of orbital rocket engines
- Staged combustion cycle used in engine
- RD-191 derivative engine being developed for the Angara rocket
- RD-0124 used in the Soyuz-2.1b
- RD-107 used in the R-7 Semyorka missiles and Soyuz FG
- RD-58 upper stage RP-1/LOX engine used in the N-1 rocket, derivatives used in the Proton and Zenit rockets
- RD-8 used in the Zenit rocket
- The Engines That Came In From The Cold!. Channel Four Television Corporation. 2000. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Foust, Jeff (2014-05-12). "Replacing the RD-180". The Space Review. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- "Russia responds to US sanctions over Ukraine". ITV news. 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- Russia Bans Rocket Engine Sales to U.S. Military, Bloomberg News, accessed 2015-05-14.
- de Selding, Peter B. (2014-05-19). "Estimates on Time Needed to Replace RD-180 Vary Widely". Space News. Retrieved 2014-05-16.
- "Support Grows For New U.S. Rocket Engine". Aviation Week. 2014-05-26. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- Butler, Amy (2014-06-03). "Aerojet Rocketdyne Targets $25 Million Per Pair For AR-1 Engines". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2014-06-16. "Aerojet Rocketdyne is targeting a cost of $20–25 million for each pair of new AR-1 engines as the company continues to lobby the government to fund an all-new, U.S.-sourced rocket propulsion system ... The effort to build a new, 500,000-lb. thrust liquid oxygen/kerosene propulsion system would take about four years from contract award and cost roughly $800 million to $1 billion. Such an engine is eyed for United Launch Alliance’s (ULA) Atlas V rocket as well as Orbital’s Antares. ... [we] 'believe [the AR-1 will be] on a par – if not better – than the performance of the RD-180. We also believe it is going to be more affordable,'"
- Air Force issues RFI for new rocket engine to replace Russian-made model - AirForcetimes.com, 21 August 2014
- "Replacement for Soyuz rocket canned by Russia". Spaceflight Now. 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
- Laying a Foundation for Human Space Exploration, by Jerry Grey
- NASA Propulsion Plans Resonate with Some in Rocket Industry. spacenews.com
- Astronautix.com page on RD-180
- RD-180 page (in Russian) at NPO Energomash
- RD-180 specifications and design (in Russian)
- The Engines That Came In From The Cold!, Equinox, Channel Four Television Corporation, 2000. Documentary video on Russian rocket engine development of the NK-33 and its predecessors for the N1 rocket, the development of the staged combustion cycle, and the eventual 1990s resurgence that led to the RD-180 engine sold to the US launch provider Lockheed Martin for the Atlas III. (NK-33 story starts at 24:15–26:00 (program was shuttered in 1974); the 1990s resurgence and eventual sale of the remaining engines from storage starts at 27:25; first use as RD-180 on a US rocket launch in May 2000.)