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Ras homolog family member A

PDB rendering based on 1a2b.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols RHOA ; ARH12; ARHA; RHO12; RHOH12
External IDs OMIM165390 MGI1096342 HomoloGene68986 ChEMBL: 6052 GeneCards: RHOA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RHOA 200736 s at tn.png
PBB GE RHOA 200059 s at tn.png
PBB GE RHOA 200060 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 387 11848
Ensembl ENSG00000067560 ENSMUSG00000007815
UniProt P61586 Q9QUI0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001664 NM_016802
RefSeq (protein) NP_001655 NP_058082
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
49.4 – 49.45 Mb
Chr 9:
108.31 – 108.34 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) is a small GTPase protein known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in the formation of stress fibers. In humans, it is encoded by the gene RHOA.[1]

It acts upon two known effector proteins: ROCK1 (Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1) and DIAPH1 (diaphanous homolog 1 (Drosophila)).

RhoA is part of a larger family of related proteins known as the Ras superfamily; proteins involved in the regulation and timing of cell division.

RhoA Pathway[edit]

Molecules act on various receptors, such as NgR1, LINGO1, p75, TROY and other unknown receptors (e.g. by CSPGs), which stimulates RhoA. RhoA activates ROCK (RhoA kinase) which stimulates LIM kinase, which then stimulates cofilin, which effectively reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton of the cell.[1] In the case of neurons, activation of this pathway results in growth cone collapse, therefore inhibits the growth and repair of neural pathways and axons. Inhibition of this pathway by its various components usually results in some level of improved re-myelination.[2][3][4][5] After global ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen (at least at 3 ATA) appears to partially suppress expression of RhoA, in addition to Nogo protein (Reticulon 4), and a subunit of its receptor Ng-R.[6]


RHOA has been shown to interact with Phospholipase D1,[7][8] PLCG1,[9] ARHGAP5,[10] ARHGAP1,[11][12][13][14] TRPC1,[15] ITPR1,[15][16] DIAPH1,[16] GEFT,[17] ARHGEF3,[18] ARHGEF12,[19] ARHGDIA,[20][21][22][23][24] KCNA2,[25] RAP1GDS1,[26] DGKQ,[27] TRIO,[28] ROCK1,[29][30] ARHGEF11,[31] RICS,[32][33][33] PKN2,[34][35][36] Protein kinase N1,[16][35][37] CIT[16][38] and KTN1.[39][40][41]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]