|Rho GTPase activating protein 32|
|Symbols||; GC-GAP; GRIT; PX-RICS; RICS; p200RhoGAP; p250GAP|
|RNA expression pattern|
Rho GTPase-activating protein 32 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RICS gene. RICS has two known isoforms, RICS that are expressed primarily at neurite growth cones, and at the post synaptic membranes, and PX-RICS which is more widely expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and endosomes. The only known domain of the RICS is the RhoGAP domain, whilst PX-RICS has an additional Phox homology and SH3 domain.
The GAP activity of RICS is known to be regulated by two phosphorylation sites, one controlled by CaMKII, and the other by RPTPa. When CaMKII is activated by Ca2+ entry through NMDA receptors and inactivates RICS through phosphorylation, which in turn increases the active GTP-bound forms of Cdc42 and Rac1. This would thereby induce, for example, remodeling of dendritic spines. Because it has been shown in some experiments that Cdc42 does not affect spine morphology, whilst others have shown that Rac1 does (via the PAK1, LIMK, CFL1 pathway), the most likely pathway is via Rac1. That RACS also binds to β-catenin and N-cadherins, in vivo within the PSD (which it binds to through PSD-95, and weak binding to the NR2 subunits) suggests that there may be another pathway for it modifying spine structure as well. The RPTPa controlled phosphorylation site controls the specificity of the GAP activity, through a mechanism thought to involve movement of the c-terminal region of RICS. In the phosphorylated state, RICS can affect Rac, Rho and Cdc42, but after dephosphorylation by RPTPa it can only affect Rac. A further phosphorylation site, regulated by FYN controls the binding of RPTPa to RICS.
PX-RICS is the dominant isoform expressed during nervous system development. It is known to have much lower GAP activity than RICS. Although it is more generally expressed than RICS, it is still known to inhibit neuronal elongation. Furthering the idea that it is a synaptically relevant isoform is that it is known to bind NR2B and PSD95 in vivo.
PX-RICS is known to be involved in transport of certain synaptic proteins which lack ER export signals, from the endoplasmic reticulum, to the Golgi apparatus. This has been shown for the β-catenin and N-cadherin, the later of which lacks the ER export signal, and the former which binds the later within the ER as a necessary but not sufficient part of its export process. PX-RICS was found to be a necessary component for the export of this complex to the Golgi and then onwards to the cellular membrane. PX-RICS is thought to do this by first localizing to the ER membrane---this it does by binding to GABARAP which binds ER, and through its Phox homology domain, which has a high binding affinity for Pi4P, the predominant phosphoinositide in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PX-RICS is then thought to bind a heterodimer of the 14-3-3 proteins encoded by YWHAZ and YWHAQ genes. The site were this binding occurs is a RSKSDP site in PX-RICS c-terminal, which is phosphorylated by CAMKII to encourage the binding. It has also now been shown that membrane transport of FGFR4, a N-Cadherin binding protein, is affected by PX-RICS knockdown.
RICS (gene) has been shown to interact with:
- "Entrez Gene: RICS Rho GTPase-activating protein".
- Okabe T, Nakamura T, Nishimura YN, Kohu K, Ohwada S, Morishita Y, Akiyama T (March 2003). "RICS, a novel GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac1, is involved in the beta-catenin-N-cadherin and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9920–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208872200. PMID 12531901.
- Nakamura T, Komiya M, Sone K, Hirose E, Gotoh N, Morii H, Ohta Y, Mori N (December 2002). "Grit, a GTPase-activating protein for the Rho family, regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (24): 8721–34. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.24.8721-8734.2002. PMC 139861. PMID 12446789.
- Chagnon MJ, Wu CL, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Noda M, Blanchetot C, Tremblay ML (November 2010). "Receptor tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) regulates, p250GAP, a novel substrate that attenuates Rac signaling". Cell. Signal. 22 (11): 1626–33. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.06.001. PMID 20550964.
- Hayashi T, Okabe T, Nasu-Nishimura Y, Sakaue F, Ohwada S, Matsuura K, Akiyama T, Nakamura T (August 2007). "PX-RICS, a novel splicing variant of RICS, is a main isoform expressed during neural development". Genes Cells 12 (8): 929–39. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01101.x. PMID 17663722.
- Nakamura T, Hayashi T, Mimori-Kiyosue Y, Sakaue F, Matsuura K, Iemura S, Natsume T, Akiyama T (May 2010). "The PX-RICS-14-3-3zeta/theta complex couples N-cadherin-beta-catenin with dynein-dynactin to mediate its export from the endoplasmic reticulum". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (21): 16145–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.081315. PMC 2871483. PMID 20308060.
- Nakamura T, Hayashi T, Nasu-Nishimura Y, Sakaue F, Morishita Y, Okabe T, Ohwada S, Matsuura K, Akiyama T (May 2008). "PX-RICS mediates ER-to-Golgi transport of the N-cadherin/beta-catenin complex". Genes Dev. 22 (9): 1244–56. doi:10.1101/gad.1632308. PMC 2335319. PMID 18451111.
- Zhao, Chunmei; Ma Hong, Bossy-Wetzel Ella, Lipton Stuart A, Zhang Zhuohua, Feng Gen-Sheng (Sep 2003). "GC-GAP, a Rho family GTPase-activating protein that interacts with signaling adapters Gab1 and Gab2". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (36): 34641–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304594200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12819203.
- Nakazawa, Takanobu; Watabe Ayako M; Tezuka Tohru; Yoshida Yutaka; Yokoyama Kazumasa; Umemori Hisashi; Inoue Akihiro; Okabe Shigeo; Manabe Toshiya; Yamamoto Tadashi (Jul 2003). "p250GAP, a novel brain-enriched GTPase-activating protein for Rho family GTPases, is involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signaling". Mol. Biol. Cell 14 (7): 2921–34. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-09-0623. PMC 165687. PMID 12857875.
- Moon, Sun Young; Zang Heesuk; Zheng Yi (Feb 2003). "Characterization of a brain-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, p200RhoGAP". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (6): 4151–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207789200. PMID 12454018.
- Taniguchi, Sachiko; Liu Hui; Nakazawa Takanobu; Yokoyama Kazumasa; Tezuka Tohru; Yamamoto Tadashi (Jun 2003). "p250GAP, a neural RhoGAP protein, is associated with and phosphorylated by Fyn". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306 (1): 151–5. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00923-9. PMID 12788081.
- Vo N, Klein ME, Varlamova O, Keller DM, Yamamoto T, Goodman RH, Impey S (November 2005). "A cAMP-response element binding protein-induced microRNA regulates neuronal morphogenesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (45): 16426–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508448102. PMC 1283476. PMID 16260724.
- Hayashi T, Okabe T, Nasu-Nishimura Y, et al. (2007). "PX-RICS, a novel splicing variant of RICS, is a main isoform expressed during neural development.". Genes Cells 12 (8): 929–39. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01101.x. PMID 17663722.
- Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, et al. (2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.". Cell 125 (4): 801–14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569.
- Benzinger A, Muster N, Koch HB, et al. (2005). "Targeted proteomic analysis of 14-3-3 sigma, a p53 effector commonly silenced in cancer.". Mol. Cell Proteomics 4 (6): 785–95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465.
- Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.
- Nakazawa T, Watabe AM, Tezuka T, et al. (2004). "p250GAP, a novel brain-enriched GTPase-activating protein for Rho family GTPases, is involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signaling.". Mol. Biol. Cell 14 (7): 2921–34. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-09-0623. PMC 165687. PMID 12857875.
- Zhao C, Ma H, Bossy-Wetzel E, et al. (2003). "GC-GAP, a Rho family GTPase-activating protein that interacts with signaling adapters Gab1 and Gab2.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (36): 34641–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304594200. PMID 12819203.
- Taniguchi S, Liu H, Nakazawa T, et al. (2003). "p250GAP, a neural RhoGAP protein, is associated with and phosphorylated by Fyn.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306 (1): 151–5. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00923-9. PMID 12788081.
- Okabe T, Nakamura T, Nishimura YN, et al. (2003). "RICS, a novel GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac1, is involved in the beta-catenin-N-cadherin and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9920–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208872200. PMID 12531901.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
- Gardiner EM, Pestonjamasp KN, Bohl BP, et al. (2003). "Spatial and temporal analysis of Rac activation during live neutrophil chemotaxis.". Curr. Biol. 12 (23): 2029–34. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01334-9. PMID 12477392.
- Moon SY, Zang H, Zheng Y (2003). "Characterization of a brain-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, p200RhoGAP.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (6): 4151–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207789200. PMID 12454018.
- Nakamura T, Komiya M, Sone K, et al. (2003). "Grit, a GTPase-activating protein for the Rho family, regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (24): 8721–34. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.24.8721-8734.2002. PMC 139861. PMID 12446789.
- Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of long cDNAs.". Genome Res. 12 (11): 1773–84. doi:10.1101/gr.406902. PMC 187542. PMID 12421765.
- Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, et al. (1999). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XI. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.". DNA Res. 5 (5): 277–86. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.5.277. PMID 9872452.